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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
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Optics and Photonics

Essential Technologies for Our Nation

Committee on Harnessing Light: Capitalizing on Optical

Science Trends and Challenges for Future Research

National Materials and Manufacturing Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. ECCS-1041156 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation, and by the following awards: #N66001-10-1-4052 from DARPA-DSO; #N66001-11-1-4091 from DARPA-MTO; #60NANB10D266 from NIST; #W911NF-10-1-0488 from ARO; #DE-DT0002194,TO#16 from DOE-EERE; and #DE-SC0005899 from DOE-BES, as well as support from SPIE, OSA, and the NRC. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26377-1
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26377-8
Library of Congress Control Number: 2012954592

This report is available in limited quantities from:

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Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

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Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
×

COMMITTEE ON HARNESSING LIGHT: CAPITALIZING ON OPTICAL SCIENCE TRENDS AND CHALLENGES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

PAUL McMANAMON, Exciting Technology, LLC, Co-Chair

ALAN E. WILLNER, University of Southern California, Co-Chair

ROD C. ALFERNESS, NAE,1 Alcatel-Lucent (retired), University of California, Santa Barbara

THOMAS M. BAER, Stanford University

JOSEPH BUCK, Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc.

MILTON M.T. CHANG, Incubic Management, LLC

CONSTANCE CHANG-HASNAIN, University of California, Berkeley

CHARLES M. FALCO, University of Arizona

ERICA R.H. FUCHS, Carnegie Mellon University

WAGUIH S. ISHAK, Corning Incorporated

PREM KUMAR, Northwestern University

DAVID A.B. MILLER, NAS,2 NAE, Stanford University

DUNCAN T. MOORE, NAE, University of Rochester

DAVID C. MOWERY, University of California, Berkeley

N. DARIUS SANKEY, Intellectual Ventures

EDWARD WHITE, Edward White Consulting

Staff

DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director, National Materials and Manufacturing Board

ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Study Director

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Administrative Coordinator (until August 2012)

MARIA L. DAHLBERG, Program Associate (until August 2012)

ANN F. LARROW, Program Associate (effective August 2012)

LAURA TOTH, Senior Program Assistant (until February 2012)

PAUL BEATON, Program Officer, STEP3 (October through December 2011)

CAREY CHEN, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow, STEP (October through December 2011)


_________________

1 NAE, National Academy of Engineering.

2 NAS, National Academy of Sciences.

3 STEP, Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
×

NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD

ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates, Alexandria, Virginia, Chair

DENISE F. SWINK, Independent Consultant, Germantown, Maryland, Vice Chair

PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH, NAE,1 ALCOA (retired), Boca Raton, Florida

VALERIE M. BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC, Port Tobacco, Maryland

YET-MING CHIANG, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

PAUL CITRON, NAE, Medtronic, Inc. (retired), Minnetonka, Minnestota

GEORGE T. (RUSTY) GRAY II, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

CAROL A. HANDWERKER, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

THOMAS S. HARTWICK, Independent Consultant, Snohomish, Washington

SUNDARESAN JAYARAMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

DAVID W. JOHNSON, JR., NAE, Stevens Institute of Technology, Bedminster, New Jersey

THOMAS KING, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc., Arlington, Virginia

NABIL NASR, Golisano Institute for Sustainability, Rochester, New York

PAUL S. PEERCY, NAE, University of Wisconsin-Madison

ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Herndon, Virginia

VINCENT J. RUSSO, Aerospace Technologies Associates, LLC, Dayton, Ohio

KENNETH H. SANDHAGE, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aviation, Cincinnati, Ohio

HAYDN WADLEY, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

STEVEN WAX, Independent Consultant, Reston, Virginia

Staff

DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director

ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer

RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Administrative Coordinator (until August 2012)

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

MARIA L. DAHLBERG, Program Associate (until August 2012)

ANN F. LARROW, Program Associate (effective August 2012)

LAURA TOTH, Senior Program Assistant (until February 2012)


_________________

1 NAE, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
×

Preface

The National Research Council (NRC) undertook the writing of a study on optics and photonics in 1988 (Photonics: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Information Era)1 and then again in 1998 (Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century).2 Now, after 14 years of dramatic technical advances and economic impact, another study is needed to help guide the nation’s strategic thinking in this area. Since 1998 many other countries have developed their own strategic documents and organizations in the area of optics and photonics, and many have cited the U.S. NRC’s 1998 Harnessing Light study as instrumental in influencing their thinking. The present study, Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation, discusses impacts of the broad field of optics and photonics and makes recommendations for actions and research of strategic benefit to the United States.

To conduct the study, the NRC established the Committee on Harnessing Light: Capitalizing on Optical Science Trends and Challenges for Future Research, a diverse group of academic and corporate experts from across many disciplines critical to optical science and engineering, including materials science, communications, quantum optics, linear and nonlinear optical elements, semiconductor physics, device fabrication, biology, manufacturing, economic policy, and venture capital. The statement of task for this study (given in full in Appendix A) is as follows:

_________________

1 National Research Council. 1988. Photonics: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Information Era. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

2 National Research Council. 1998. Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
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1. Review updates in the state of the science that have taken place since publication of the National Research Council report Harnessing Light;

2. Identify the technological opportunities that have arisen from recent advances in and potential applications of optical science and engineering;

3. Assess the current state of optical science and engineering in the United States and abroad, including trends in private and public research, market needs, examples of translating progress in photonics innovation into competitiveness advantage (including activities by small businesses), workforce needs, manufacturing infrastructure, and the impact of photonics on the national economy;

4. Prioritize a set of research grand-challenge questions to fill identified technological gaps in pursuit of national needs and national competitiveness;

5. Recommend actions for the development and maintenance of global leadership in the photonics-driven industry—including both near-term and long-range goals, likely participants, and responsible agents of change.

It became apparent from the outset that various funding agencies and professional societies that deal with optics and photonics felt a keen need for the NRC to provide an authoritative vision of the field’s future. If the field is indeed a key enabling technology that will help drive significant economic growth, then such a study should attempt to make recommendations that can be used to help policy makers and decision makers capitalize on optics and photonics. It was in this spirit that the committee conducted this study.

Several factors, including the following, made the committee’s task a challenging one:

1. The field of optics and photonics is extremely broad in terms of the technical science and engineering topics that it encompasses.

2. The field impacts many different market segments, such as energy, medicine, defense, and communications, but as an enabling technology it is not always highlighted in available data about these areas.

3. The field has expanded greatly beyond the United States, such that many other countries have invested heavily in research and development and manufacturing.

Additionally, the area of optics and photonics is typically subsumed as an enabling technology under the heading of other disciplines (e.g., electrical engineering, physics). Therefore, it was challenging to gather data specific to optics and photonics in terms of workforce and economic impact. For example, optics enables common DVD players, but is the economic impact to be gauged by the

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
×

value of the whole DVD player or just the inexpensive yet high-performance laser that makes the whole system work properly? Similarly, how do we place a value on the fact that the society-transforming Internet could not have grown at such a fast pace, or achieved even close to its current level of performance, without low-loss optical fiber, which by itself is not particularly expensive? The committee grappled with many such questions.

In the course of the study, the committee observed that exciting progress has been made in the field and believes that the future holds much promise. A small anecdotal indication in the popular press of the breadth and depth of the field is that roughly 12 of the 50 best inventions of 2011 listed by Time magazine had optics as a key technological part of the invention.3

Our entire community owes its sincerest gratitude to the generous sponsors of the study, which include the Army Research Office, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Energy, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Research Council, the National Science Foundation, the Optical Society of America, and the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE). Each sponsor was critical to enabling the study to proceed with the necessary resources, and key champion(s) in each of these organizations stepped forward at a crucial time to help out. We also wish to thank the many individuals who helped the committee accomplish its task, including the workshop speakers and study reviewers, and we are extremely grateful to have worked with outstanding committee members.

It was with a deep sense of appreciation that the committee was able to rely on the dedication, professionalism, insight, and good cheer of the NRC staff, primarily Dennis Chamot, Maria Dahlberg, Erik Svedberg, Laura Toth, and Ricky Washington. As the manager of the study, Erik has been a superb and tireless partner, whose keen perspective was invaluable. The committee also extends its thanks to Stephen Merrill, executive director of the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, for engaging his staff during the latter part of this study, especially Paul Beaton, program officer, and Carey Chen, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow. In addition, the committee would like to thank Kathie Bailey-Mathae, director of the Board on International Scientific Organizations, for critically helping with the preliminary groundwork leading up to the start of the study.

We sincerely hope that readers of this study find some perspectives that will

_________________

3 Grossman, L., M. Thompson, J. Kluger, A. Park, B. Walsh, C. Suddath, E. Dodds, K. Webley, N. Rawlings, F. Sun, C. Brock-Abraham, and N. Carbone. 2011. Top 50 Inventions. Time. Available at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2099708,00.xhtml. Accessed October 16, 2012.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
×

help guide future actions, whether such readers are congressional staffers, funding agencies, corporate chief technology officers, or high school students.

Paul McManamon and Alan E. Willner, Co-Chairs
Committee on Harnessing Light: Capitalizing on
Optical Science Trends and Challenges for Future Research

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
×

Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

William B. Bridges (NAS/NAE), California Institute of Technology,
Elsa Garmire (NAE), California Institute of Technology,
James S. Harris (NAE), Stanford University,
Thomas S. Hartwick, Hughes Aircraft Company,
Eric G. Johnson, Clemson University,
Stephen M. Lane, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,
E. Phillip Muntz (NAE), University of Southern California, and
Thomas E. Romesser (NAE), Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Peter Banks (NAE), Red Planet Capital

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13491.
×

Partners. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

The committee also thanks those who were guest speakers at its meetings and who added to the committee members’ understanding of optics and photonics and related issues:

John Ambroseo, Coherent Inc.,
Eugene Arthurs, SPIE,
John Dexheimer, LightWave Advisors, Inc.,
Ed Dowski, Ascentia Imaging,
Julie Eng, Finisar,
Michael Gerhold, U.S. Army Research Office,
Larry Goldberg, National Science Foundation,
Matthew Goodman, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency,
Linda Horton, Department of Energy,
Kristina Johnson, Consultant,
Christian Jörgens, German Embassy,
Bikash Koley, Google,
Prem Kumar, CLEO,
Minh Le, Department of Energy,
Donn Lee, Facebook,
Robert Leheny, Institute for Defense Analyses,
Frederick J. Leonberger, Eovation Advisors, LLC,
Tingye Li, AT&T Consultant,
Aydogan Ozcan, University of California, Los Angeles,
Mario Paniccia, INTEL,
Kent Rochford, National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Joseph Schmitt, Cardiovascular Division, St. Jude Medical,
Jag Shah, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency,
Bruce J. Tromberg, University of California, Irvine,
Usha Varshney, National Science Foundation, and
Paul Wehrenberg, Consultant.

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Optics and photonics technologies are ubiquitous: they are responsible for the displays on smart phones and computing devices, optical fiber that carries the information in the internet, advanced precision manufacturing, enhanced defense capabilities, and a plethora of medical diagnostics tools. The opportunities arising from optics and photonics offer the potential for even greater societal impact in the next few decades, including solar power generation and new efficient lighting that could transform the nation's energy landscape and new optical capabilities that will be essential to support the continued exponential growth of the Internet.

As described in the National Research Council report Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for our Nation, it is critical for the United States to take advantage of these emerging optical technologies for creating new industries and generating job growth. The report assesses the current state of optical science and engineering in the United States and abroad--including market trends, workforce needs, and the impact of photonics on the national economy. It identifies the technological opportunities that have arisen from recent advances in, and applications of, optical science and engineering. The report also calls for improved management of U.S. public and private research and development resources, emphasizing the need for public policy that encourages adoption of a portfolio approach to investing in the wide and diverse opportunities now available within photonics.

Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for our Nation is a useful overview not only for policymakers, such as decision-makers at relevant Federal agencies on the current state of optics and photonics research and applications but also for individuals seeking a broad understanding of the fields of optics and photonics in many arenas.

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