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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13507.
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EXPOSURE SCIENCE

in the 21st Century

                                                                                   
A VISION AND A STRATEGY

Committee on Human and Environmental
Exposure Science in the 21st Century

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13507.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS      500 Fifth Street, NW     Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by Contract EP-C-09-003 between the National Academy of Sciences and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The project was also supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences through this contract. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26468-6
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26468-5
Library of Congress Control Number: 2012949228

Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/.

Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13507.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13507.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13507.
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COMMITTEE ON HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE SCIENCE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Members

KIRK R. SMITH (Chair), University of California, Berkeley, CA

PAUL J. LIOY (Vice Chair), University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ

TINA BAHADORI, American Chemistry Council, Washington, DC (resigned March 2012)

TIMOTHY BUCKLEY, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (resigned May 2012)

RICHARD T. DI GIULIO, Duke University, Durham, NC

J. PAUL GILMAN, Covanta Energy Corporation, Fairfield, NJ

MICHAEL JERRETT, University of California, Berkeley, CA

DEAN JONES, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (resigned June 2012)

PETROS KOUTRAKIS, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA

THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley, CA

JAMES T. ORIS, Miami University, Oxford, OH

AMANDA D. RODEWALD, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH

SUSAN L. SANTOS, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ

RICHARD SHARP, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH

GINA SOLOMON, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA

JUSTIN G. TEEGUARDEN, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA

DUNCAN C. THOMAS, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

THOMAS G. THUNDAT, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

SACOBY M. WILSON, University of Maryland, College Park, MD

Staff

EILEEN N. ABT, Project Director

KEEGAN SAWYER, Program Officer (through September 2011)

KERI SCHAFFER, Research Associate

NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center

RADIAH ROSE, Manager, Editorial Projects

ORIN LUKE, Senior Program Assistant (through June 2011)

TAMARA DAWSON, Program Associate

Sponsor

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13507.
×



BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Members

ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

PRAVEEN AMAR, Clean Air Task Force, Boston, MA

MICHAEL J. BRADLEY, M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, MA

JONATHAN Z. CANNON, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

GAIL CHARNLEY, HealthRisk Strategies, Washington, DC

FRANK W. DAVIS, University of California, Santa Barbara

RICHARD A. DENISON, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC

CHARLES T. DRISCOLL, JR., Syracuse University, New York

H. CHRISTOPHER FREY, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

RICHARD M. GOLD, Holland & Knight, LLP, Washington, DC

LYNN R. GOLDMAN, George Washington University, Washington, DC

LINDA E. GREER, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC

WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark

PHILIP K. HOPKE, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY

HOWARD HU, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

SAMUEL KACEW, University of Ottawa, Ontario

ROGER E. KASPERSON, Clark University, Worcester, MA

THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley

TERRY L. MEDLEY, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, DE

JANA MILFORD, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder

FRANK O’DONNELL, Clean Air Watch, Washington, DC

RICHARD L. POIROT, Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, Waterbury

KATHRYN G. SESSIONS, Health and Environmental Funders Network, Bethesda, MD

JOYCE S. TSUJI, Exponent Environmental Group, Bellevue, WA

Senior Staff

JAMES J. REISA, Director

DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar

RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Studies

ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis

SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology

EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center

RADIAH ROSE, Manager, Editorial Projects

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13507.
×



OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Science for Environmental Protection: The Road Ahead (2012)

A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials (2012)

Macondo Well—Deepwater Horizon Blowout: Lessons for Improving Offshore Drilling Safety (2012)

Feasibility of Using Mycoherbicides for Controlling Illicit Drug Crops (2011)

Improving Health in the United States: The Role of Health Impact Assessment (2011)

A Risk-Characterization Framework for Decision-Making at the Food and Drug Administration (2011)

Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Draft IRIS Assessment of Formaldehyde (2011)

Toxicity-Pathway-Based Risk Assessment: Preparing for Paradigm Change (2010)

The Use of Title 42 Authority at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2010)

Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Draft IRIS Assessment of Tetrachloroethylene (2010)

Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use (2009)

Contaminated Water Supplies at Camp Lejeune—Assessing Potential Health Effects (2009)

Review of the Federal Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research (2009)

Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment (2009)

Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Tasks Ahead (2008)

Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution (2008)

Respiratory Diseases Research at NIOSH (2008)

Evaluating Research Efficiency in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2008)

Hydrology, Ecology, and Fishes of the Klamath River Basin (2008)

Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2007)

Models in Environmental Regulatory Decision Making (2007)

Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007)

Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites: Assessing the Effectiveness (2007)

Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects (2007)

Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget (2007)

Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006)

New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006)

Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals (2006)

Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (2006)

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13507.
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards (2006)

State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions (2006)

Superfund and Mining Megasites—Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (2005)

Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005)

Air Quality Management in the United States (2004)

Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004)

Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004)

Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004)

Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003)

Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002)

Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002)

The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002)

Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001)

Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001)

Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001)

A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001)

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (twelve volumes, 2000-2012)

Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000)

Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000)

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000)

Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000)

Waste Incineration and Public Health (2000)

Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999)

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (four volumes, 1998-2004)

The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997)

Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996)

Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996)

Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995)

Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

Biologic Markers (five volumes, 1989-1995)

Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994)

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993)

Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992)

Science and the National Parks (1992)

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991)

Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991)

Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990)

Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press
(800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13507.
×

Preface

Over the last decade, advances in tools and technologies—sensor systems, analytic methods, molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformatics—have provided opportunities for improving the collection of exposure-science information leading to the potential for better human health and ecosystem protection. Recognizing the need for a prospective examination of exposure science, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences asked the National Research Council to perform an independent study to develop a long-range vision and a strategy for implementing the vision over the next 20 years.

In this report, the Committee on Human and Environmental Exposure Science in the 21st Century presents a conceptual framework for exposure science and a vision for advancing exposure science in the 21st century. The committee describes scientific and technologic advances needed to support the vision and concludes with a discussion of the elements needed to realize it, including research and tool development, transagency coordination, education, and engagement of a broader stakeholder community.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following for their review of this report: Philip Landrigan, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Jonathan Levy, Boston University School of Public Health; Rachel Morello-Frosch, University of California, Berkeley; Michael Newman, College of William & Mary; John Nuckols, JRN & Associates Environmental Health Sciences; Sean Philpott, Union Graduate College; Stephen Rappaport, University of California, Berkeley; Lawrence Reiter, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (retired); Joyce Tsuji, Exponent; Mark Utell, Univer-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13507.
×

sity of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry; Craig Williamson, Miam University; Edward Zellers, University of Michigan.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by the review coordinator, Joseph V. Rodricks, ENVIRON, and the review monitor, Michael F. Goodchild, University of California, Santa Barbara. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the committee and the institution.

The committee gratefully acknowledges the following for making presentations to the committee: Steven Bradbury, Helen Dawson, Sumit Gangwal, Elaine Cohen Hubal, Bryan Hubbell, Edward Ohanian, Lawrence Reiter (retired), Rita Schoeny, and Linda Sheldon, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Harry Cullings, Radiation Effects Research Foundation; Michael Dellarco, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Otto Hänninen and Matti Jantunen, Finland National Institute of Health and Welfare; Aubrey Miller, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Chris Portier, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and Craig Postlewaite, U.S. Department of Defense.

The committee is also grateful for the assistance of National Research Council staff in preparing this report. Staff members who contributed to the effort are Eileen Abt, project director; James Reisa, director, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Keegan Sawyer, program officer; Keri Schaffer, research associate; Norman Grossblatt, senior editor; Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, manager, Technical Information Center; Radiah Rose, manager, editorial projects; Orin Luke, senior program assistant; and Tamara Dawson, program associate.

We especially thank the members of the committee for their efforts throughout the development of this report.

  Kirk R. Smith, Chair
Paul J. Lioy, Vice Chair
Committee on Human and
Environmental Exposure
Science in the 21st Century
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13507.
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1-2  Illustrations Demonstrating How the Degradation of the Ecosystems Due to Human Activities Increases Exposures to Chemical and Biologic Stressors

3-1  Case Study of Exposure Assessment for the National Children’s Study

3-2  Case Study of the Hanford Environmental Dose-Reconstruction Project

3-3   An Environment-Wide Association Study

3-4  Value of Improved Exposure Estimates for Epidemiologic Studies

3-5  Case Study of Perchlorate in Drinking Water

3-6  Case Study of Chemicals in Breast Milk: Policy Action Based on Exposure Data

3-7  Health Impact Assessment of Mobile Sources in San Francisco

3-8  Exposure to Multiple Stressors in a Large Lake Ecosystem

3-9  Emergency Management After the Attack on the World Trade Center

5-1  Evaluating the Reliability of Aerosol Optical Depth Against Ground Observations

5-2  Evaluation of MODIS 1 km Product

5-3  Embedded Sensing of Traffic in Rome

5-4  Ubiquitous Sensing of Physical Activity and Location

5-5  Participatory Sensing

5-6  Potential Application of —omics and Exposure Data in Personalized Medicine

5-7  Global-Scale and Regional-Scale Models Used to Assess Human and Ecologic Exposure Potential in Terms of Long-Range Transport Potential and Persistence

6-1  Case Study of Exposure Justice and Community Engagement: ReGenesis in Spartanburg, SC

FIGURES

S-1  Conceptual framework showing the core elements of exposure science as related to humans and ecosystems

S-2  Selected scientific and technologic advances for measuring and monitoring considered in relation to the conceptual framework shown in Figure S-1

1-1  The classic environmental-health continuum

1-2  Core elements of exposure science

1-3  An illustration of how exposures can be measured or modeled at different levels of integration in space and time, from source to dose, and among different human, biologic, and geographic systems

1-4  Connections between ecosystem services and human-well being

3-1  General schema of exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology

3-2  Exposure to Multiple Stressors in Lake Tahoe

4-1  The four major demands for exposure science

5-1  Selected scientific and technologic advances considered in relation to the conceptual framework

5-2  Aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS data for the New England region

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From the use of personal products to our consumption of food, water, and air, people are exposed to a wide array of agents each day--many with the potential to affect health. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy investigates the contact of humans or other organisms with those agents (that is, chemical, physical, and biologic stressors) and their fate in living systems. The concept of exposure science has been instrumental in helping us understand how stressors affect human and ecosystem health, and in efforts to prevent or reduce contact with harmful stressors. In this way exposure science has played an integral role in many areas of environmental health, and can help meet growing needs in environmental regulation, urban and ecosystem planning, and disaster management.

Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy explains that there are increasing demands for exposure science information, for example to meet needs for data on the thousands of chemicals introduced into the market each year, and to better understand the health effects of prolonged low-level exposure to stressors. Recent advances in tools and technologies--including sensor systems, analytic methods, molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformatics--have provided the potential for more accurate and comprehensive exposure science data than ever before. This report also provides a roadmap to take advantage of the technologic innovations and strategic collaborations to move exposure science into the future.

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