EXPLORING HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL
COSTS OF FOOD
Leslie Pray, Laura Pillsbury, and Maria Oria, Rapporteurs
Food and Nutrition Board
Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources
INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE AND
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
This activity was supported by Contract/Grant No. 200-2011-38807, Task Order 4, between the National Academy of Sciences and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the activity.
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Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine) and NRC (National Research Council). 2012. Exploring health and environmental costs of food: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON EXPLORING THE TRUE COSTS OF FOOD: A WORKSHOP1
HELEN H. JENSEN (Chair), Professor, Department of Economics, Center for Agricultural & Rural Development, Iowa State University, Ames
BILLY COOK, Senior Vice President and Director, Agricultural Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK
JUSTIN D. DERNER, Rangeland Scientist, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, High Plains Grasslands Research Station, Cheyenne, WY
GREGORY A. KEOLEIAN, Professor and Director, Center for Sustainable Systems, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
CATHERINE L. KLING, Professor, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames
ROBERT S. LAWRENCE, Professor, Environmental Health Sciences, Health Policy, and International Health, and Director, Center for a Livable Future, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
AARON WERNHAM, Director, Health Impact Project, The Pew Charitable Trusts, Washington, DC
WALTER C. WILLETT, Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
IOM and NRC Staff
MARIA ORIA, Study Director
LAURA PILLSBRY, Program Officer
ALLISON BERGER, Senior Program Assistant
EMILY TOMAYKO, Mirzayan Science & Technology Policy Fellow
ANTON L. BANDY, Financial Officer
GERALDINE KENNEDO, Administrative Assistant
LINDA D. MEYERS, Director, Food and Nutrition Board
ROBIN SCHOEN, Director, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources
1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.
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This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the workshop summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary:
John Blanton, Agricultural Research Programs Manager, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK
James K. Hammitt, Professor of Economics and Decision Sciences, Center for Risk Analysis, Harvard University, Boston, MA
Molly Jahn, Professor, Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison
Shiriki K. Kumanyika, Professor of Epidemiology and Associate Dean for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia
Stephanie Mercier, Agricultural Policy Consultant, Alexandria, VA
Liz Wagstrom, Chief Veterinarian, National Pork Producers Council, Washington, DC
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by John W. Erdman, Jr., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this workshop summary rests entirely with the authors and the institution.