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Although signing cannot overcome physical limitations and geometric difficulties, signing at and along the terminal curbside can boost the efficiency and safety of the space. The terminal curbside and ground transportation areas can be some of the most diverse and complex areas at an airport. Airports need to examine identification, regulatory, and information signing as a whole and consider the philosophy that less signing may be more useful to patrons at the curb- side where so much activity is already taking place. This chapter describes signing suggestions for the curbside/ground transportation areas while maintaining an overall design cohesion across the entire airport. The signing discussed is all exte- rior directions, identification, and informational signs for public use at the following locations: â¢ Curbside (Departures and Arrivals) â¢ Ground Transportation Curbsides 5.1 Planning for Curbside Signing A comprehensive signing program for terminal curbside areas begins the moment a person approaches terminal and continues past the terminal area. The primary objective of the curb- side/ground transportation sign system is to direct the flow of vehicles and pedestrian traffic to and from the curbsides. To provide an overview of the elements to consider when planning curb- side and ground transportation signing, Figure 5.1 presents a checklist to consider when plan- ning curbside and ground transportation signing. 5.2 Considering Curbside Users in Design (Human Factors) There are two primary factors that impact curbside operations: â¢ The number and types of users, e.g., vehicle types, and â¢ The dwell times associated with each of these groups34. Figure 5.2 lists the typical users and associated vehicle types found along the terminal curbside. How the space along the curbside is used is highly dependent on the configuration of the ter- minal access roadways. Depending if arriving and departing activities are separated laterally or vertically, the amount of signing and placement of signs may be handled differently. Figure 5.3 provides an example of how public and ground transportation services are physically separated by islands for pedestrian safety and distinction of various activity areas. 77 C H A P T E R 5 Curbside and Ground Transportation
78 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Area Items Departures Drop-off- Check-In (Vehicular) Terminal identification Distinction of commercial lanes for public traffic and lanes for ground transportation traffic Identification of âdrop-offâ lanes and âthrough trafficâ lanes Airline identification No stopping/standing areas Re-circulating directions to parking, other terminals, and airport exit Traffic control Departures Drop- off/Check-In (Pedestrian) Terminal verification Airline identification Door number/identification Informational signs No smoking Security requirements Emergency call boxes/telephones Crosswalks Arrivals Pick-up (Vehicular) Terminal identification Distinction of commercial lanes for public traffic and lanes for ground transportation traffic Identification of âpick-upâ lanes and âthrough trafficâ lanes Accessible passenger loading zones Exit door/zone identification No stopping/standing areas Re-circulating directions to parking, other terminals, and airport exit Traffic control Arrivals Pick-up (Pedestrian) Terminal verification Door number/identification Distinction of lanes/zones for public pick-up and commercial lanes/zones for ground transportation Informational signs No smoking Security requirements Emergency call boxes/telephones Crosswalks Ground Transportation Distinction of lanes for public traffic and lanes for ground transportation traffic Identification of âpick-upâ lanes and âthrough trafficâ lanes Identification of zones for various vehicle types: â¢ Taxis â¢ Rental Car Shuttles â¢ Hotel Shuttles â¢ Limos/Towncars â¢ Parking Shuttles â¢ Other service vehicles Exit door/zone identification No stopping/standing areas Crosswalks sepyTelciheVspuorGresU Private Vehicle Operations Passenger cars, trucks, and SUVs Taxicab Operations Passenger cars and minivans Scheduled Services Buses and vans Non-scheduled Limo and Charter Bus Operations Buses, limousines, town cars Courtesy Vehicle Operations/Shuttles Buses and vans associated with hotels, parking facilities, rental cars, etc. Commercial Operations Armored vehicles, local delivery trucks Emergency/Enforcement Operations Police cars, ambulances, fire trucks Figure 5.1. Curbside signage checklist. Figure 5.2. Curbside users and associated vehicle types.
5.3 Signing Areas Airport terminals with a single-level curbside will typically assign designated ticketing and bag- gage claim areas along the curb for passenger drop-off and pick-up. In North America, the terms âdeparturesâ and âarrivalsâ are commonly used to differentiate the primary functions along the curbside. In some instances, the terms âPassenger Drop-Offâ and âPassenger Pick-Upâ are used to designate the different functions but this is more common terminology at smaller airports with a single-level terminal. It is best to use the more universal terms âArrivalsâ and âDepartures.â Terminology for other items is often influenced by operational decisions and physical factors. For example, areas used by courtesy vehicles operations may be combined into a category called âShuttlesâ; however, these may be broken out into âHotel Shuttles,â âRental Car Shuttles,â and âAirport Shuttlesâ at another airport. The term âShuttlesâ or âGround Transportationâ should be used to guide patrons to the general area of ground transportation vehicles, and then more specific functions can be called out (e.g., âHotel Shuttlesâ and âRental Car Shuttlesâ) once the person has arrived at the ground transportation area. 5.3.1 Departures 188.8.131.52 Terminal Identification At airports with larger facilities, how the terminals and access roads are designed plays a signifi- cant part as to what signing becomes necessary. For departures, identifying terminals and airlines are the most important bits of information. At airports with multiple terminals, the designation of the terminal is often placed on the building itself as in Figure 5.4. The terminal designation should also be repeated along the curbside to reassure drivers they are at the proper location. An example of this type of information reinforcement is shown in Figure 5.5. Regardless of the sit- uation, having appropriate roadway signing with re-enforcing curbside signing will help direct users to the appropriate areas. 184.108.40.206 Airline Identification For airports with multiple airlines across multiple terminals, signs on the airport access road- ways already provide information to help direct users to the right location for departures. As Curbside and Ground Transportation 79 Photo credit: Chris Cunningham. Figure 5.3. The use of raised islands and curbs separates vehicular and pedestrian activities on the arrivals curbside for efficiency and pedestrian safety (Richmond International Airport).
drivers approach the terminal curbside, additional signing should be provided to assist patrons to locate the air carrier of their choice. These signs are typically static and use the airlineâs name to designate their location. In some instances, the air carrierâs logo is also used to visually re- inforce the message but is secondary information and can be displayed only if the logo does not otherwise cause the airlineâs name to be truncated, have reduced letter height, or condensed let- ter spacing just to accommodate the logo. Figure 5.6 shows one installation where the airline identifier signs are placed in a highly visible manner for vehicles and pedestrians. The text of the signs is sufficiently sized to maximize legibility from a greater distance. The airline name as presented on roadway signing should be used on the airline identification sign. For example, if âContinental Airlinesâ is present on the roadway signs then the same should be placed on the airline identification sign. In some instances, the airline identification sign may be shortened to âContinentalâ if geometric and/or architectural considerations make necessary. It is not advised to abbreviate the airline name to âCont.,â âContâl.,â or some other variation. Code share airlines may be listed together if the ticketing desks inside the terminal are adjacent to one another; otherwise, list the airlines separately. It is best practice to define an airline nam- ing convention that will be used throughout the airport complex and be consistent with that pol- icy. Although airline identification at the curbside is mostly static, some airports and airlines are using different types of technology to provide this information. Changeable message signs by the entrances to the terminal are now beginning to be used to indicate what airlines are located where. Both changeable message signs and static signs may be larger than typical directional signs to allow increased text size for visibility from a greater distance. A minimum text height of 8â³ let- ter for airline names should be practiced. The minimum letter height permitted by the MUTCD 80 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 5.4. Terminal designation placed on the structure. Figure 5.5. Using terminal designations on other curbside signage to reinforce terminal identification.
is 6-inch tall text for post-mounted static signs in environments at or below 40 mph as shown in Table 2D-2 in the 2009 MUTCD8. For dynamic message signs, a 12-inch text height is specified in Section 2L.04 of the MUTCD8. Further details on the signs and design elements are provided in Section 6.5. Airline identity signs should be located near or above the doors or entrance into the buildings. The airline(s) listed above the entry should correspond with the location of the check-in coun- ters located nearest the door inside the building. The identification signs should be mounted per- pendicular to the terminal building and the roadway. The airline names should be placed on both sides of the sign for several reasons: â¢ A vehicle may pull up to the curb past the location of their airline and the disembarking passenger needs to be able to look back and identify their airline. â¢ Pedestrians may be walking to the terminal from a parking garage or the ground transportation drop-off areas that require them to approach the terminal from a direction that is opposite the direction of traffic. Curbside and Ground Transportation 81 Figure 5.6. Example of airline identifier signs with multiple carriers per sign (SeaTac International Airport).
220.127.116.11 Flight Information FIDs are not widely used along the curbside. For one reason, airports do not want unneces- sary congestion on the sidewalks caused by people standing around with their baggage looking for their flight on a monitor. FIDs are more commonly used where there is space and time for people to examine flight information such as terminals, parking facilities, rental car centers, and transit stations. In addition, the weather in some locales makes it problematic to operate and maintain certain technologies in an outdoor environment. 18.104.22.168 Curbside Check-In Curbside baggage check-in is a traditional service many airlines provide at various airports. These areas are staffed by airline employees and typically only handle passengers with larger or multiple pieces of luggage that cannot be carried onto the airplane. Curbside baggage check-in can be a simple counter as shown in Figure 5.7 or a larger, more permanent area with a greater amount of signing as shown in Figure 5.8. When baggage check-in is provided along the departures curbside, additional signing must be provided. This signing is typically regulatory and informational such as the following: â¢ Security advisories and instructions, â¢ Municipal/federal regulations, and â¢ Airline baggage policies. 82 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 5.7. Basic curbside baggage check-in. Figure 5.8. Permanent curbside baggage check-in at a larger airport.
5.3.2 Arrivals Signing within the terminal is critical to directing arriving passengers to the appropriate area. Along the roadway and curbside, the signing should be clear enough to facilitate the desired operations. At some airports, separating the âpublicâ traffic from âother ground transportationâ is accomplished by placing the activities on opposite sides of the terminals. Some airports have their curbsides laterally separated with island medians that serve as the separation between pub- lic passenger pick-up and other ground transportation activities. One consideration should be made in regards to terminology at airport arrivals. From the dis- embarking passengersâ perspective within the terminal, they are most likely being directed to âBaggage Claimâ and/or âGround Transportation.â From the driversâ perspective attempting to rendezvous with their party, they are commonly seeing signs indicating âArrivalsâ or âPassenger Pick-Up.â This apparent disconnect in terminology can cause confusion and frustration as both parties attempt to describe the same location using different names based on their perspective. Airports must be consistent with their terminology. To address this issue of conflicting wording, it is recommended that the doors on the arrivals be labeled in a logical sequence, being it as simple as âArrival Door 1â or more descriptive if the airport requires it such as âNorth Arrival Door 1.â For airports with multiple terminals or split curbsides, the designator should include a reference to the terminal plus the unique entrance. When a passenger is calling to coordinate with the driver picking them up, it is very easy to pro- vide a unique location to meet. Figure 5.9 and Figure 5.10 illustrate the use of naming exit doors for easy identification. 5.4 Ground Transportation Knowing where to locate and how much curbside space to allocate for each type of commer- cial vehicle usage depends on two factors: (1) the volume of vehicles for each use, and (2) the dwell times required for the associated activities. Since each airport is unique in these character- istics and even with direct airport operational experience, a specific curb allocation study should be conducted to determine commercial curbside allocations. By conducting such a curbside study, both operations and signing can be better planned and implemented in a cohesive man- ner that reduces confusion of patrons and improves efficiencies of the curbside. Curbside and Ground Transportation 83 Figure 5.9. View from curbside on the arrivals level of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport.
With that said, signing directing arriving passengers to the correct functions along the curb- side begins inside the terminal. A typical list of services includes: â¢ Car rental shuttle, â¢ Parking lot shuttle, â¢ Hotel shuttle, â¢ Public transportation, â¢ Transit options, and â¢ Taxi. If this list of services shares a common curbside, then the umbrella term of âground trans- portationâ can be used to guide arriving passengers to the curbside. However, there are many airports where these services do not share a common curbside. In these instances, the directional signs inside the terminal will need to break the information down as necessary to meet the spe- cific needs. Rental cars are a common example where passengers might go to the end of the ter- minal instead of the curbside. 5.4.1 Passengers Arriving/Departing at the Airport Departing passengers should be provided with information directing them from the transit stop or station to the correct terminal and airline. Information aids for departing passengers approaching the airport should include the following: â¢ Sign(s) on/near the curbside that are visible from inside the transit vehicle indicating the dis- embarking point for the airport, or for specific terminals/airlines if more than one transit stop is made at the airport. (The same information should be repeated via an audio message for reinforcement and for ADA compliance.) â¢ Sign(s) and maps that are inside the transit vehicle to identify stops and airline information if more than one transit stop is made at the airport. (The same information should be repeated via an audio message for reinforcement and for ADA compliance.) 84 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 5.10. View from inside the terminal going to the arrivals level of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport.
â¢ Directional signs to guide passengers from the transit stop to the correct terminal and airline check-in counter. Passengers who are deplaning should be provided with information for reaching and using public transportation services available at the airport. Information aids should progress from the general (âGround Transportationâ) to the more specific (âLight rail/city bus/hotel shuttlesâ) at successive decision points through the terminal. The following is a sample progression of infor- mation aids, beginning at the arrival gate: â¢ Sign(s) directing passengers from arrival gates and baggage claim areas toward Ground Trans- portation services. â¢ Information aids (wall-mounted signs, printed material, kiosks, or other format) to assist in planning the transit trip from the airport to the travelerâs final destination. These should be located at points in the terminal where passengers will make their decisions about ground transportation options. Passengers should be able to determine the following: â Destinations that can be reached from the airport using transit services. â Routes (if more than one serves the airport) that serve particular destinations. â Schedules/departure times. â Fares and purchasing options. â¢ Sign(s) directing passengers to specific Ground Transportation services (local bus or rail sys- tem, hotel shuttles, taxis). If the transit service requires fare media that must be purchased prior to arriving at the transit stop/station, directional signs should route passengers accordingly. â¢ Sign(s) directing passengers to the transit stop/station for the desired route, if there is more than one transit stop/station at the airport. â¢ Sign/display at transit stop/station indicating the route(s) served and departure times. â¢ Sign/display on transit vehicle identifying the route. 5.4.2 External Rail Systems vs. Internal Public transit services that connect with the airport should be treated as one category of Ground Transportation service. At airports that have an internal transit system (for instance, a bus or train connecting termi- nals), signs and other information aids must clearly distinguish the internal transportation sys- tem located on the landside from ground transportation services that leave the airport. Signs should list more than the brand names/logos of the airportâs internal transportation system and/or the local public transit system. Guide signs should specify whether, for instance, the âAir- port Connectorâ is an inter-terminal people mover versus a local bus or rail route that leaves the airport. More discussion of transit means internal to an airport can be found in Section 6.3.2. 5.4.3 Technology Interactive trip planning systems and real-time information about transit services are among the technologies that can enhance transit information services at airports. Interactive transit information kiosks can provide an alternative to static transit schedule information and may also be part of a fare purchase system. Kiosks may be linked via the Inter- net to the local transit information system, or may be a self-contained transit planning system. Real-time bus or train arrival information can supplement or replace static signs showing bus or train schedules. Real-time arrival information at transit stops has been shown to make riders feel more confident, particularly at night, and improve ridersâ overall perception of the quality of transit service provided55. If the transit stop is a long distance from the terminal and/or from other airport services, signs with real-time arrival information for the transit system should be provided in the terminal well ahead of the transit stop itself. Curbside and Ground Transportation 85
5.4.4 Accessibility Transit-related signs must conform to the same visibility/legibility requirements as other curb- side or in-terminal signs and displays. Where possible, information aids for wayfinding, transit trip planning, and real-time bus/train arrival should provide information both visually and aurally. Information kiosks or computer stations should conform to the Federal Governmentâs Section 508 standards for accessibility. 5.5 Sign Design Elements Although the MUTCD is a recognized standard and guide for roadway signing, airports can generally make their own decisions when it comes to signing along terminal curbsides. Some air- ports have developed their own sign standards for their respective facilities for consistency, con- tinuity, and identity. Boston Logan, DFW, Miami, Frankfurt, and Hong Kong international airports are a few examples where airport-specific signing design standards and guides are imple- mented35. These guidelines take into account specific location, architecture, codes, languages, demographics, etc., that apply to their airport but may not necessarily translate to other airports because of these exact considerations. Many of the same design elements used inside the termi- nal can be applied on the curbside area (refer to Section 6.5). As mentioned previously, regulatory signs are typically designed to most closely resemble the guidance within the MUTCD than are other sign types along the curbside. This may be attrib- uted to local code requirements, but mostly because reasonable and prudent people easily rec- ognize and quickly interpret their meaning. It is the placement and mounting of regulatory signs that are modified to meet the physical restrictions of a curbside area such as awnings, canopies, columns, and other structural and/or architectural elements. 5.5.1 Terminology Airports come in many sizes and various configurations. While one airport may have a single terminal on one level, another may have multiple terminals with two or three levels. These dif- ferences impact how airport managers designate where people access different functions. For smaller terminals on a single level, using the terminology of âTicketingâ or âPassenger Check-Inâ may be sufficient to distinguish from âBaggage Claimâ along the curbside. The terms âArrivalsâ and âDeparturesâ are more widely encountered at larger airports with a split curbside and are just as valid at smaller airports. At airports with larger facilities, how the terminals and access roads are designed plays a signif- icant part as to what signing becomes necessary. For departures, identifying terminals and airlines are the most important bits of information. In North America, the terms âarrivalsâ and âdepar- turesâ are commonly used to differentiate the primary functions along the curbside. In some instances, the terms âPassenger Drop-Offâ and âPassenger Pick-Upâ are used to designate the dif- ferent functions, but it is advised to use the more universal terms of âarrivalsâ and âdepartures.â Terminology for other items is often influenced by operational decisions and factors. For example, areas used by courtesy vehicles operations may be combined into a category called âShuttlesâ; however, these may be broken out into âHotel Shuttles,â âRental Car Shuttles,â and âAirport Shuttlesâ at another airport. The term âShuttlesâ or âGround Transportationâ should be used to guide patrons to the general area of ground transportation vehicles, and then more specific functions can be called out (e.g., âHotel Shuttlesâ and âRental Car Shuttlesâ) once the person has arrived at the ground transportation area. 86 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside
5.5.2 Symbology As commercial aviation has expanded the ability for people to travel virtually anywhere around the world, the need for airports to communicate with individuals from various nations, speaking different languages, has also grown. Symbols can overcome the need to reproduce direc- tions and information in multiple languages. Symbols should be used to reinforce and provide visual confirmation of sign messages. The 2001 Guide36 does provide, however, a visual inventory of the most widely accepted symbol stan- dards in current use. In addition, Section 6.5.2 contains symbol families currently in use at major airports. The 2001 Guide36 provides examples of acceptable symbols for various functions and desig- nations. The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) also compiled a reference of symbol signs that are considered internationally acceptable37. As airport users see a standard set of symbols deployed across airports, people begin to identify them through the repetition and eventually seek them out for assistance and guidance. 5.5.3 Typography While the argument continues about whether sans serifs are easier to read than serif fonts in text copy, sans serif typefaces, because their letter shapes are simpler, have been proven to be slightly more legible than their serifed cousins. Although the MUTCD can be a starting point for font and text size, the geometry and configuration of the curbside may require deviation from the MUTCD. On the departures level, the most important information patrons need to recognize is the ter- minal identification and the airline identifications. It is recommended that minimum text height of 8 inches be used if possible. This letter height may influence if a static sign must be used or if enough clearance is provided so that an internally illuminated sign box can be provided. See Sec- tion 6.5.3 for additional information. 5.5.4 Arrows The placement of arrows on sign faces should conform to a uniform standard. The following guidelines are suggested for the placement of arrows: General Arrow Placement: â¢ Arrows should never point into text. â¢ Left-facing arrows should be located toward the left side of signs. â¢ Right-facing arrows should be located toward the right side of signs. â¢ Forward-facing and/or downward-facing arrows are typically located close to the flow of traf- fic. Refer to the previous discussion regarding which direction arrows should face for vehicle traffic versus pedestrian traffic. General Text Alignment with Arrows: â¢ Left-facing arrows require left justified text. â¢ Right-facing arrows require right justified text. â¢ Forward-facing and/or downward-facing arrows require text to be justified closest to the flow of traffic (e.g., if forward traffic is hugging the right side of a corridor, the arrow should be on the right side of the face with the text justified right, and vice versa). See Section 6.5.4 for additional information on arrows. Curbside and Ground Transportation 87
5.5.5 Color In order to maintain a visually unified system of signs airport-wide, the application of color must be consistent on every element of all signing. Care should be taken, however, to avoid con- tradiction with standard colors for regulatory signs. Green stop signs and blue no parking signs are not immediately recognized. The MUTCD shall be referenced for colors on regulatory signs. In other situations, colors should be distinct enough to reinforce the idea of different items. For example, using âorangeâ to identify Terminal A and âpurpleâ to designate Terminal B is easily recognizable by a large portion of the population. The difference between âtealâ and âturquoiseâ may be indistinguishable. Reference Section 6.5.5 for additional information on color. 5.6 Sign Locations, Structures, Materials, and Safety 5.6.1 Sign Locations Because every terminal and associated curbside has a unique location, architecture, configu- ration, and geometry, it is difficult to prepare generic signing plans and recommendations. Viewer circulation patterns and natural lines of vision are the basis for determining the location of all signs. Signs shall be located to precede decision points to ensure sufficient time for people to react to each sign message. Signs for vehicular traffic should typically be placed perpendicular to the path of travel. Signs focused on pedestrian needs should typically be separated visually from the vehicular signs. Signs that are for the benefit of pedestrians can be suspended from canopies/awnings or mounted from the terminal building itself. The idea is to place pedestrian signing in the location where only pedestrians will be circulating. 22.214.171.124 Sign Frequency and Avoidance of Sign Clutter Directional signing should be located at decisions points and used as confirmational signs if appropriate. In some cases, the frequency in which a sign must be placed is dictated by local ordi- nance. Such signs may include âno parkingâ and âno loitering.â Identification signs should only be placed at or near the actual location of the place that is being referenced. The concept of âless may be moreâ is very true regarding signs along the curb- side. It can be a temptation to use signing to quickly address an issue (or complaint) without considering the impact to the overall signing scheme. Signing should be used primarily to direct traffic/pedestrians and identify items along the curbside. Signing prior to decision points is nec- essary and the identification of terminals and airlines is paramount. In addition, certain regula- tory signs are required by various laws and ordinances. Airport sign managers should layout the placement of signs to accommodate those functions first. The need for secondary signing can then be considered and added if it does not deteriorate the purpose of the primary messages. It is very tempting for airports to placeâor permit others to placeâadvertisement along curbsides as a way to generate revenue. It is highly recommended that signage not be placed on the curbside that does not relate to the function of the curbside. There is too much activity along the curbside where distractions to drivers and pedestrians should be kept to a minimum. Mar- keting and advertisement signage may be placed within the terminals, elevator lobbies, and other locations that are consistent with this guide book. 5.6.2 Illumination Options for Night-Time Visibility Because the ambient light levels along curbsides in most major airports can vary (from termi- nal buildings, roadways, and landscaping) it may be necessary to use external or internal illumi- 88 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside
nation to provide adequate nighttime visibility for curbside and ground transportation signs so that they compete equally. At smaller airports or on the outlying areas of larger airports, with lower ambient light levels, high quality retroreflective materials may provide adequate visibili- ties. Nighttime testing on-site will be required to make these determinations. The lower level(s) of curbsides that are split vertically are typically darker in both day and nighttime conditions. Therefore, to ensure adequate illumination of signing on lower level curb- sides requires special consideration during the planning and design phases. 126.96.36.199 Retroreflection Retroreflective sign sheeting materials return light from vehicle headlamps to the driverâs eyes. Retroreflection is achieved either through microscopic glass beads with a thin metallic backing or through microprisms in a thin polycarbonate film. These materials vary in the daytime color appearance and in their nighttime brightness and efficiency with which they reflect the vehicle headlamps. In some airports, the geometry of the curbside is such that considerable care must be taken by the designer in sign location and orientation to ensure that vehicle headlamps will adequately illuminate the sign along the necessary driving sections. The use of high quality retroreflective sheeting in place of external illumination may also help airports reduce electricity and maintenance costs and reach sustainability goals. If this material is used, the sign panels should be angled 5â8 degrees towards the driver. 188.8.131.52 External Illumination (Ambient Light) External illumination of signs along a terminal curbside may be achievable by the ambient lighting in and around the terminal. If additional lighting is needed for signing, it is recom- mended to use internally illuminated signs rather than externally illuminated signs in the curb- side environments. This is to reduce the amount of electrical infrastructure required to support external illumination and to eliminate head clearance issues if ceiling heights are already reduced. 184.108.40.206 Internal Illumination Internally illuminated signs can be designed to provide sign recognition and legibility dis- tances comparable to those of externally illuminated. Proper materials and design must be used for the specific viewing angles present for a specific sign location. Candidate sign materials should be viewed in daylight and dusk conditions to ensure that there is adequate contrast when the sign is not lit. With internally illuminated signs, it is important to understand that the size of the sign does not relate to the size of the text. Appropriate negative space around the text of the sign as well as the sign frame must be taken into consideration when sizing and ordering internally illuminated sign boxes. 5.6.3 Structures and Mounting The following list includes the types of general sign mounting frequently found along curbsides: â¢ Overhead Suspendedâtypically applicable to the lower level curbside conditions, these signs are suspended from the ceiling using a cable or break-away fastening system. â¢ Soffit Mountâsigns that are located on an architectural soffit or wall, and mounted with the back of the sign to the soffit or wall using a mechanical fastening system. â¢ Ceiling Mountâtypically applicable to the lower level curbside conditions, these signs are located flush to the ceiling and mounted with the top of the sign to the ceiling using a mechan- ical fastening system. Curbside and Ground Transportation 89
â¢ Flag Mountâsigns that are mounted perpendicular to the attachment surface, usually on a wall and/or column, and attached using a mechanical fastening system. â¢ Post Mountâsigns that are mounted directionally to a ground-mounted single or double post structure using a mechanical fastening system. â¢ Wall Mountâsigns that are mounted with the back of the sign to the wall using a mechani- cal fastening system. â¢ Freestandingâsigns that have their bases mounted directly to the ground/finished floor using a mechanical fastening system. See Appendix C for graphic illustrations with recommended clearances for various sign types and locations. 5.6.4 Safety Specific research to analyze pedestrian and vehicle interaction along terminal curbsides at air- ports has not been compiled, but research has been conducted to analyze and make safety rec- ommendations for pedestrians at locations with high volumes of vehicles and/or pedestrians at other locations38. Once an engineering study is completed, recommended treatments for safety improvements can be determined. These treatments fall into one of the four categories described in Figure 5.11. 5.7 Sign Maintenance One of the myths of wayfinding is that once a new wayfinding system is implemented the work is done. This is a false assumption. Airports are dynamic environments that are constantly chang- ing. In order to perpetuate the integrity of the wayfinding program, a systematic maintenance program must be implemented as an integral part of standard airport operations. A strategic maintenance program is the key to perpetuating a well-planned wayfinding program. Standard procedures should be in place to address the impact of changes to airport operations, including clear update policies and scheduled maintenance reviews (quarterly, semi-annually and annually). Clearly defined procedures will help address issues such as the following: â¢ Addition of a new terminal, â¢ Re-designation or re-configuring a terminal, â¢ Adding signs, â¢ Deleting signs, and â¢ Temporary signs. 90 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Treatment Category Description Crosswalk This category encompasses standard crosswalk markings and pedestrian crossing signs, as opposed to unmarked crossings. Enhanced This category includes those devices that enhance the visibility of the crossing location and pedestrians waiting to cross. Warning signs, markings, or beacons in this category are present or active at the crossing location at all times. Active Also called âactive when present,â this category includes those devices designed to display a warning only when pedestrians are present or crossing the street. Red This category includes those devices that display a circular red indication (signal or beacon) to motorists at the pedestrian location. Figure 5.11. Table of possible treatments to enhance pedestrian safety.
Developing a quality Sign Standards Manual will be one of the best tools in managing consis- tent planning, design, installation, application and maintenance of the sign system. As a minimum, the following represents a suggested sign maintenance procedure: â¢ Monthly visual inspections: check for burned out bulbs/lights, scratched sign cabinets, sign face damage, graffiti, structural damage, and non-standard signing due to signing updates. â¢ Quarterly sign cleaning: cleaning of exterior surfaces and support structures. Twice a year the interior of sign boxes/cabinets should be examined for build-up of dirt, dust, and other debris. â¢ Replacement parts such as extra bulbs, hardware, and mechanical fasteners should be on hand to provide quick fixes until complete repairs can be made if needed. â¢ Replacement and recycling/disposal procedures: determine how damaged or obsolete signs will be removed and where the unusable items will be discarded. Sign maintenance manual: a maintenance manual should be prepared for in-house infor- mation but can also be distributed to sign vendors to be aware of the airportâs expectations for new signs. 5.8 Accessibility Airports are among the most difficult wayfinding environments for people with disabilities due to the multiple layers of complexity. Airport sign managers and design firms advise that air- ports utilize the following approaches to ensure that the environment can remain at a high stan- dard of accessibility: â¢ Develop an accessibility plan and audit: During the wayfinding design and development process it is important to have a separate audit that just focuses on accessibility issues. â¢ Have clear ongoing accessibility guidelines: After a project is complete these guidelines will serve as both instruction and training for airport employees and guidance for system mainte- nance and replacement. â¢ Develop an in-house expertise: Large airports should have one person responsible for manag- ing accessibility issues while small and medium size airports should have specific departmental responsibilities for accessibility. â¢ Develop a resources list: This list of designers, code officials, organizations, and internal stake- holders can provide guidance on key issues and conflicts. 5.8.1 Accessibility Audit On an airport wayfinding project it is important to develop an audit of elements that must be fol- lowed to make the facility accessible. The audit consists of two parts: Strategy and Documentation. 220.127.116.11 Strategy All accessibility strategies should consist of the following parts. Managing Compliance International, National and State codes: â¢ Utilize the International Building Code for projects outside the United States. This will cor- respond with the current ADA. â¢ List the top ADA national standards being followed at the state level regarding font, place- ment, and color. â¢ List ADA issues specific to the state that may diverge from national standards. â¢ List the provisions in the Air Carriers Access Act. Curbside and Ground Transportation 91
Managing Legibility Develop a legibility plan consisting of the following elements: â¢ Font height based on distance in the facility. â¢ Color contrast and lighting contrast requirements. â¢ An approach to sign clutter. â¢ Symbol height based on distance and number of symbols being used. â¢ An approach for multiple languages. Managing the Experience Develop a narrative of the wayfinding experience: â¢ Write an accessibility narrative starting at the curb, and progressing to the gate describing the specific issues and recommendations for each area in the wayfinding process. â¢ Develop a series of recommendations based on the needs of people with sensory impairment and those with mobility impairment. Specify Methodologies and Technologies Materials specifications: â¢ Name the specific modular system (if one is used) and accessibility issues associated with that system. â¢ Specify materials, the material approach, vendors/manufacturers (if necessary), and paint or additional materials being applied. â¢ Directories and maps. â¢ Human assistance. â¢ Talking signs. â¢ Tactile floor surfaces. 18.104.22.168 Documentation All accessibility documents for tactile signs for people with visual impairment should consist of the following parts. Sign placement â¢ Distance of the sign from doors and entrances. â¢ Height of perpendicular wall signs and overhead signs from the floor. Sign dimensions â¢ Separation of fonts from Braille. â¢ Separation of font and Braille from the edge of the sign. â¢ Distance of the top and bottom of the font from floor. Fonts â¢ Style. â¢ Height. â¢ Kerning. Sign substrate and base material â¢ Specify Braille and distance of the Braille from the floor. â¢ Ensure all screws are flush if close to raised type. â¢ Show edging or rounding of materials. â¢ Show material and substrate thickness. Paint specification â¢ Specify foreground and background color of materials. â¢ Specify matte finishing. 92 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside