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13 Organizational governance of sustainability refers to the management, organization, and operation of sustainability issues at an airport. It is important to understand how an airport functions with regard to sustainability practices. To gather information on the characteristics of the orga- nizations that own or manage airports, the survey queried respondents on organizational governance from a sustain- ability perspective. roLes and responsiBiLiTies Management of sustainability practices can be the responsi- bility of one person or can be spread over a number of roles in an organization. The survey sought to obtain information on the role of the respondent, whether the responsibility for implementation of sustainability practices was shared or not, and how closely the responsible person(s) worked with man- agement on sustainability issues (see Table 6). U.s. airports Respondents from U.S. airports generally said that more than one person at their airport is responsible for sustain- ability practices. Four of the nine respondents (44%) from large hub airports said that one person is a dedicated man- ager of sustainability matters at their airport. Sustainability practices at small and non-hub airports were the responsi- bility of the airport manager or finance director. Medium and large airport respondents identified more specific roles, such as managers of environment, engineering, facilities, or safety. One respondent from a medium airport said that no one had overall responsibility for sustainability practices. Implementing sustainability practices in an airport orga- nization usually involves the introduction of new ideas, con- cepts, and approaches. As stated in the proceedings of a TRB conference on sustainability, â[T]ransportation planning agencies face cultural challenges that must be overcome to address unsustainable transportation impacts. Cultural issues must be accommodated to enable the incorporation of sustainability-friendly solutionsâ (Integrating Sustain- abilityâ¦ 2004). A primary challenge is achieving management commitment to implementing sustainability practices at an airport, and a CHAPTER FIVE orGanizaTionaL GoVernance oF sUsTainaBiLiTY key indicator of the potential for successful implementation is the relationship between the person(s) responsible for sus- tainability and key leaders in the organization. The follow- ing proportions of respondents from U.S. airports said that those with responsibility for sustainability practices at their airport reported to the CEO: Large: 56% (5 of 9 airports)â¢ Medium: 25% (1 of 4 airports)â¢ Small: 50% (1 of 2 airports)â¢ Non-hub: 0% (0 of 1 airport).â¢ non-U.s. airports Most respondents from airports in continental Europe and Canada said that one person was responsible for manag- ing sustainability practices at their airport. For example, AÃ©roports de Paris has a sustainable responsibility director who is specifically assigned to manage such initiatives. In Asia, the responsibility was more likely to be allocated to more than one person. Non-U.S. airport respondents identi- fied rolesâsuch as safety manager or community affairs managerâthat also carried responsibility for environmen- tal issues. The following proportions of respondents from non-U.S. airports said that those with responsibility for sustainability practices at their airport reported to the CEO: Continental Europe: 60% (3 of 5 airports)â¢ Asia: 0% (0 of 1 airport)â¢ United Kingdom: no response (0 of 1 airport)â¢ Canada: 100% (2 of 2 airports).â¢ TraininG Business and industry are ideal sites for ongoing sustain- ability training, so that all sectors of the workforce have the knowledge and skills necessary to make decisions and perform their work in a sustainable manner (âDecade of Educationâ¦â 2007). Airport operators oversee crucial com- ponents of the air transportation infrastructure and are key stakeholders in the transportation industry. A number of the respondents identified lack of understanding as a key barrier to implementation of sustainability practices.
14 on social (75%) and economic (50%) sustainability topics. Specific training topics include: Environmental management system training.â¢ Diversity training.â¢ Disadvantaged business enterprises training.â¢ non-U.s. airports Respondents from non-U.S. airports also consistently said that environmental training is offered at their airport. Train- ing on social sustainability topics was cited by respondents The survey asked respondents to provide information on the provision of training on environmental, social, and eco- nomic sustainability topics. Table 7 shows the proportion of survey respondents who identified environmental, economic, and social sustainability training at their airports. U.s. airports With the exception of the non-hub respondent, all U.S. respondents said that their airports provide training for staff on environmental sustainability topics. To a greater extent than large airports, medium airports also provide training TABLE 6 RESPONSIBILITY FOR SUSTAINABILITY PRACTICES IDENTIFIED BY U.S. AND NON-U.S. AIRPORT RESPONDENTS Airport Size Responsibility For Sustainability Practices 1 P er so n Description > 1 P er so n Description % R es po nd en ts U.S. Airports Non- Hub (1) 0% 100% Airports Manager + Assistant Airports Managerâ¢ Small Hub (2) 0% 50% Finance Manager + Capital Program Administrator + Business Services â¢ Manager Medium Hub (4) 0% 75% Manager Engineering & Construction + Senior Director Planning/â¢ Engineering + Director Facilities & Maintenance Director Aviation + GM Aviation Environment & Safety + Chief â¢ Environmental Officer ESH Supervisor + Environmental Coordinator + Associate General â¢ Counsel Large Hub (9) 44% Environmental â¢ Services Manager Deputy â¢ Executive Director Environmental â¢ Coordinator 56% Director Environmental Programs + Director Engineering + Director â¢ Planning Senior Director Maintenance + Senior Architectâ¢ Executive VP Operations + VP Environmental Affairs + VP Energy â¢ Transport Management Director Environmental Planning/Permits + Chief Environmental â¢ Management + Director Planning/Urban Design Deputy MD Aviation Facilities & Environment + Manager Aviation â¢ Environmental Programs Non-U.S. Airports Continental Europe (5) 60% Manager Safety â¢ & Environment Sustainable â¢ Responsibility Director 40% Head of Environmental Protection + Othersâ¢ Head of Environment + Head of Airport Business Developmentâ¢ Asia (1) 0% 100% Corporate Environmental Managerâ¢ Assistant Environmental Managerâ¢ United Kingdom (1) 100% No response provided 0% Canada (2) 100% VP Operationsâ¢ VP Community â¢ & Environmental Affairs 0%
15 Alliance to Save Energyâ¢ Department of Energy Clean Cities.â¢ non-U.s. airports Respondents from non-U.S. airports listed the following sustainability organizations: UK Sustainable Aviation Initiativeâ¢ Scotlandâs Climate Change Forum.â¢ pUBLic reporTinG Reporting on sustainability performance allows airport organizations to measure and therefore manage their per- formance. The benefits of public reporting include increased transparency and accountability, improved stakeholder relationships, and the ability to benchmark performance against peers. Annual reporting of financial performance is common for organizations, but public reporting on envi- ronmental, economic, and social sustainability performance demonstrates a commitment to accountability, transparency, and ongoing improvement. from three of the five continental European airports and the one UK airports. Economic sustainability training was cited by only three continental European airport respondents. sUsTainaBiLiTY orGanizaTions Survey respondents were asked to list sustainability organi- zations to which their airport belongs. U.s. airports The following organizations were listed by respondents from U.S. airports: California Climate Action Registryâ¢ Sustainable Silicon Valleyâ¢ Sierra Business Councilâ¢ Green Print Denverâ¢ ACIâNA Sustainability Subcommitteeâ¢ International Facility Management Associationâ¢ The Natural Stepâ¢ Oregon Environmental Councilâ¢ Columbia Slough Watershed Councilâ¢ ACI Task Force on Sustainabilityâ¢ ACIâNA Technical Committee, Environmental â¢ Committee, and Sustainability Working Group U.S. Green Building Councilâ¢ TRB Aviation Groupâ¢ TABLE 7 PROPORTION OF U.S. AND NON-U.S. AIRPORT RESPONDENTS IDENTIFYING SUSTAINABILITY TRAINING AT THEIR AIRPORTS Airport Size/ Region Sustainability Training E nv ir on m en ta l E co no m ic S oc ia l % R es po nd en ts U.S. Airports Non-Hub (1) 0% 0% 0% Small Hub (2) 50% 50% 0% Medium Hub (4) 75% 75% 50% Large Hub (9) 100% 56% 33% Non-U.S. Airports Continental Europe (5) 80% 60% 60% Asia (1) 100% 0% 0% United Kingdom (1) 100% 100% 0% Canada (2) 100% 0% 0% TABLE 8 PROPORTION OF U.S. AND NON-U.S. AIRPORT RESPONDENTS IDENTIFYING STAND ALONE SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING Airport Size/ Region As Part of Annual Report As Separate Report E nv ir on m en ta l E co no m ic S oc ia l E nv ir on m en ta l E co no m ic S oc ia l % R es po nd en ts U.S. Airports Non- Hub (1) 100% 100% 100% 0% 0% 0% Small Hub (2) 0% 0% 0% 50% 50% 50% Medium Hub (4) 25% 0% 75% 25% 0% 25% Large Hub (9) 56% 44% 56% 67% 44% 22% Non-U.S. Airports Continental Europe (5) 40% 40% 60% 60% 20% 40% Asia (1) 100% 100% 100% 0% 0% 0% United Kingdom (1) 0% 0% 0% 100% 100% 100% Canada (2) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
16 ments about airport performance, both per airport and over- all. Areas of differential impact are made more obvious through comparison, and the reasons for these differences can be investigated. Such differences can also be used as leverage points for regulators and other stakeholders who believe an airport should improve its environmental perfor- mance in terms of reducing absolute impact or in terms of environmental efficiency (Upham and Mills 2005). the vision of the global Reporting initiative is that comparable reporting on economic, environmental, and social performance by all organizations will become as routine as financial reporting. organizations can use the sustainability Reporting Frameworkâof which the global Reporting initiative sustainability Reporting guidelines are the cornerstoneâas the basis for disclosure about their sustainability performance. this gives stakeholders a universally applicable, comparable framework in which to understand disclosed information (Sustainability Reporting Guidelines 2007). The survey sought to identify airports that are using the Sustainability Reporting Framework, a standardized frame- work and set of indicators. Only four respondents said that their airport uses the framework to report sustainability performance, and all of them are outside the United States (three continental European and one Canadian). The survey asked respondents whether their airports report on environmental, social, and economic performance as part of an annual report or in a separate report for each triple-bottom-line issue, and whether they used a standard reporting framework and indicators. U.s. airports Respondents from large, medium, and non-hub U.S. airports said that their airports publicly report on environmental and social performance in the annual report (see Table 8). None of the respondents from medium airports said that economic sustainability performance is reported in their annual report. In addition, neither of the respondents from the two small airports said that environmental, economic, or social per- formance was included in the annual report. The respondent from one small hub airport said that the airport does not report sustainability performance publicly at all. Some respondents from large, medium, and small air- ports said that their airports produce separate reports across the triple bottom line. Respondents from six of the nine large airports cited a separate environmental report, and three also produce separate social and economic reports. One small hub airport reports on environmental, economic, and social performance in three separate reports. non-U.s. airports Respondents from non-U.S. airports in continental Europe, Asia, and Canada said that their airports report on environ- mental, economic, and social sustainability practices in the annual report. All the respondents from the UK and Canada said that their airports publish dedicated public reports on environmental, economic, and social performance. Most respondents from continental Europe said that separate envi- ronmental reporting is common. The Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) pub- lishes data from the triple-bottom-line areas in its annual report and provides more detailed information in a separate sustainability report, which uses the Global Reporting Ini- tiative Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (2005 Sustain- ability Report 2005). Table 9 outlines the issues addressed in this report. Global reporting initiative Comparison of airport sustainability performance using standardized benchmarking and reporting indicators would help both airport managers and stakeholders to make judg- TABLE 9 SUSTAINABILITY TOPICS ADDRESSED IN GREATER TORONTO AIRPORTS AUTHORITY 2005 SUSTAINABILITY REPORT Environmental Economic Social ISO14001 â¢ Environmental Management System Complianceâ¢ Energy Useâ¢ Water Useâ¢ Biodiversityâ¢ Emissions, â¢ Effluents and Waste 2005 Operating â¢ Activity Operating â¢ Results Risks and â¢ Uncertainties Airport â¢ Development Program and Capital Projects Pickering Airport â¢ Plan Employeesâ¢ Material Useâ¢ Ethicsâ¢ Public Donations â¢ Guidelines Political â¢ Contributions Privacyâ¢ Diversityâ¢ Training and â¢ Development Health and â¢ Safety Communityâ¢