National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Sustainability Practices (2008)

Chapter: CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices

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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER SIX Environmental Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13674.
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17 of environmental, economic, and social sustainability. Using the management performance scale (see Appendix B), respondents completed a self-assessment on how well their airport was managing environmental, social, and eco- nomic sustainability with regard to policies and programs, performance monitoring and reporting, and incentives and awareness. On the management performance scale, 1 represents little or no awareness of the issue and no policies or pro- grams in place, and 5 represents high awareness, account- ability and long-term planning, and incentives aligned with performance. Figure 5 shows the results of the self- assessments. U.s. airports Among respondents from U.S. airports, most of those from large airports rated their airport’s environmental perfor- mance as 4 or 5. The two small hub airports rated their per- formance as 1 or 3, whereas the four medium airports rated their performance as 2 or 5. The non-hub airport respondent rated its airport’s environmental performance as 3. Sev- eral of the large hub airports justified their high ratings by There is a compelling and urgent need to address the envi- ronmental effects of air transportation, especially as these effects will grow as the economy and the demand for air transportation grow. If these effects are not addressed, they could constrain air transportation growth in the 21st century (Waitz et al. 2004). Airports of the future will have to deal with the environmental concerns of the communities that surround them (Committee on Aviation and Environmental Protection 2007). This section of the report presents the survey findings on environmental sustainability practices in the areas of mea- surement and monitoring, water, energy, climate change, land use, materials, waste, noise, energy, and green building. Table 10 shows which U.S. and non-U.S. airport respondents identified current or planned environmental practices at their airports. For a detailed list of environmental sustainability practices reported by survey respondents, see Appendix D. enVironMenTaL sUsTainaBiLiTY seLF-assessMenT Survey respondents were asked to rate performance at their airports with respect to the triple-bottom-line issues CHAPTER SIX enVironMenTaL pracTices TABLE 10 SURVEY RESPONDENTS FROM U.S. AND NON-U.S. AIRPORTS WHO PROVIDED INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES AT THEIR AIRPORT Environmental Practice Non-U.S. Airport Respondents U.S. Airport Respondents Large Hub Medium Hub Small Hub Non-Hub En1. Measuring and Monitoring Q Q Q Q En2. Water Conservation Q Q Q Q En3. Water Quality Q Q Q Q En4. Climate Change Q Q Q Q Q En5. Air Quality Q Q Q En6. Land Use Q Q Q Q En7. Biodiversity Q Q Q En8. Materials Q Q Q En9. Waste Q Q Q Q En10. Noise and Aesthetics Q Q Q En11. Energy Q Q Q Q En12. Green Buildings Q Q Q

18 performance. Respondents were asked if their airport has implemented any of the following: EMS certified to ISO 14001.• EMS uncertified.• Registration with the EU eco-management and audit • scheme (EMAS). Other measurement or monitoring systems.• an environmental management system (EMs) outlines specific activities for the implementation of an organization’s environmental policy. the international organization for standardization (iso) produced the iso 14001 standard against which an organization’s EMs is assessed and certified internationally (iso 14001:2004 2007). the EPa supports and promotes the development and use of EMss to help organizations achieve their environmental obligations and broaden environmental performance goals. EPa does not specifically favor iso 14001 over other EMs models or approaches. the plan–do–check–act/ continual improvement approach used by iso 14001 and similar models has proven to be effective as applied to environmental management, but not all facilities have modeled their EMss on iso 14001 (“EPa’s Position on EMs” 2007). the European Union’s eco-management and audit scheme (EMas) acknowledges organizations that improve their environmental performance on an ongoing basis. EMas registered organizations are legally compliant, run an environmental management system, and report on their environmental performance in an independently verified environmental statement (“EMas: the Eco Management and audit scheme” 2007). describing specific policies, performance monitoring, and reporting practices: “First comprehensive environmental sustainability • report will be published in June 2007” (self-assessment = 5). “The airport has implemented a formal sustainability • performance improvement management system. This management system incorporates sustainable prac- tices, and monitoring, reporting and improvement into operations” (self-assessment = 4). “Compliance practices are very well developed; no • sustainability program policy, funding, or baseline developed yet” (self-assessment = 3). “Performance driven by EMS [environmental manage-• ment system]” (self-assessment = 4). non-U.s. airports The respondents from non-U.S. airports generally ranked their airport’s environmental performance at high lev- els: 3 for the UK; 3, 4, and 5 for continental Europe; 5 for Canada; and 4 for Asia. The respondent from Toronto International Airport commented, “We are the first airport registered to ISO 14001 in North America.” (ISO 14001 is the international standard for environmental management systems.) MeasUreMenT and MoniTorinG A systematic approach makes managing a business both easier and more effective. Management systems allow busi- nesses to define the best way to handle each key activity and create a common approach that all employees can use. A consistent approach reduces the number of mistakes and the cost of correcting problems. It also reduces the level of risk and ensures compliance with legislation (“Set Up a Health…” 2007). An environmental management system (EMS) is a busi- ness management practice that allows an organization to strategically address environmental matters. Several EMS frameworks exist; most are based on the International Orga- nization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 EMS standard. Globally, more than 130,000 organizations have certified their EMSs to the standard. Although an EMS does not relieve an airport operator of its environmental responsibili- ties under federal, state, and local law, it can reduce the costs and time for processing environmental analyses by provid- ing baseline data and a framework for checking and report- ing compliance with mitigation commitments (“Program Guidance Letter 06-07…” 2007). The synthesis survey sought to identify airports that have implemented a system to measure and monitor environmental Rating 1 2 3 4 5 % R es p on d en ts U.S. Airports Non-Hub (1) 100% Small Hub (2) 50% 50% Medium Hub (4) 75% 25% Large Hub (9) 11% 11% 56% 22% Non-U.S. Airports Continental Europe (5) 20% 20% 60% Asia (1) 100% United Kingdom (1) 100% Canada (2) 100% FigURE 5 Environmental sustainability self-assessment by respondents representing U.s. and non-U.s. airports.

19 that move beyond environmental performance and also address social and economic performance. The respondents from one large U.S. airport said that its EMS is compliant with and audited by the EPA. A Canadian airport respondent said that its EMS is integrated with its health and safety management system. Interestingly, all airports that have an ISO 14001 certified EMS also publicly report sustainability performance against the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. WaTer Water conservation Only 1% of the earth’s water is available for human use, and even though both the population and the demand on freshwater resources are increasing, supply remains con- stant. Managing water is a growing concern in the United States as communities across the country face water sup- ply and water infrastructure challenges (“Why We Need Watersense” 2007). a new facility reprocesses highly concentrated wastewater from de-icing operations by means of distillation. the resulting solution (approximately 65% propylene glycol) is reprocessed at a recycling facility operated by Clariant at Munich airport and turned into a de-icing agent. the distillate is disposed of through the spray irrigation system (see Figure 6). FigURE 6 treatment of wastewater from de-icing operations at Zurich airport. Operation of airports—from cargo to passenger terminals to airline movements—requires the use of water. Ensuring efficient use can minimize waste and conserve this precious resource. Even seemingly small efforts help—at Los Angeles International Airport, maintenance staff phone numbers are Table 11 shows the feedback from survey respondents on measuring and monitoring systems at their airports. Respon- dents from 16 U.S. airports and 9 non-U.S. airports identi- fied some kind of EMS in place at their airport; however, only 2 respondents from large U.S. airports in the study have an EMS that is certified to ISO 14001. Alternatively, all five respondents from continental European airports and one from Canadian airports have an EMS that is certified to the standard. Only one of the continental European airports reported using the EMAS. Respondents from a large U.S. airport and an airport in continental Europe described best practice management plans or comprehensive sustainability management systems TABLE 11 PROPORTION OF RESPONDENTS FROM U.S. AND NON-U.S. AIRPORTS IDENTIFYING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OR MEASURING SYSTEMS AT THEIR AIRPORT Airport Size/ Region Systems in Place to Measure and Monitor Environmental Performance E M S ( IS O 14 00 1) E M S ( un ce rt ifi ed ) E M A S R eg is tr at io n O th er Description % R es po nd en ts U.S. Airports Non- Hub (1) 0% 100% 0% 0% Small Hub (2) 0% 50% 0% 50% Storm water • Pollution Prevention Plan Medium Hub (4) 0% 100% 0% 0% Large Hub (9) 22% 44% 0% 22% Best Practice • Management Plans Permit • Tracking System Non-U.S. Airports Conti- nental Europe (5) 100% 0% 20% 20% Sustainability • Management System Asia (1) 0% 100% 0% 0% United Kingdom (1) 0% 100% 0% 0% Canada (2) 50% 100% 0% 0%

20 Reducing impermeable surfaces (runways, taxiing • lanes, buildings, etc.). Spill traps/management, oil separator pumping sta-• tions, fuel delivery systems. Dyke system and flood storage capacity.• (TRB ACRP is also publishing Project 02-02, “Planning Guidelines and Best Management Practices for Aircraft and Airfield De-icing Stormwater Management Systems.” For more information, go to www.trb.org.) The principal law governing pollution of U.S. surface waters is the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act). Originally enacted in 1948, it was totally revised in 1972 by amendments that spelled out ambitious programs for water quality improvement. These programs have been expanded and are still being implemented by industries and municipalities. The Clean Water Act has two major parts: (1) provisions that authorize federal financial assistance for municipal sewage treatment plant construction, and (2) reg- ulatory requirements that apply to industrial and municipal dischargers (Copeland 2002). Several airport respondents identified water quality prac- tices at their airports that are direct responses to the Clean Water Act, such as water-efficient equipment and facilities, and enhancing the management of stormwater runoff in response to National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Sys- tem permitting requirements. air QUaLiTY More than a quarter of all commercial airports operating in the United States are located in air quality nonattainment areas. As federal controls become increasingly stringent for industrial sources, airports are emerging as a major source of pollution—they are responsible for up to 10% of total emis- sions in some urban areas. To receive regulatory approval, an airport located in a nonattainment area must show that its growth will conform with air quality plans for the region and that, at a minimum, enforceable programs will be established to offset increases in pollution (Alternative Fuel… 2001). the Clean air act was passed in 1970. Under the act, EPa sets limits on certain air pollutants and on pollutants from certain sources, as well as limits on pollution levels anywhere in the United states. states must develop state implementation Plans (siPs) that outline how they will control air pollution under the Clean air act. a siP is a collection of regulations, programs, and policies a state will use to clean up polluted areas. the states must involve the public and industries through hearings and opportunities to comment on the development of the state plan (“Plain English guide to the Clean air act” 2007). prominently posted in restrooms, so people can report leaky faucets or other water problems. The survey respondents said that the following practices to enhance water conservation and efficient use of water are in place at their airports: Low flow/automatic fixtures and toilets, and waterless • urinals. Monitoring to track water consumption and water con-• servation audits. Capturing and partially infiltrating rainwater.• Use of gray/storm/recycled water for irrigation and • recycled water for car washes. Computer-controlled, “smart” irrigation systems.• Green roofs and limited landscaping that features xeri-• scape and drought-tolerant species. Water-efficient central heating and cooling systems.• Water Quality The 21st century water environment holds many complex and challenging problems, such as polluted runoff, suburban growth, drinking water security, groundwater/surface water interactions, invasive species, microbes in drinking water, and atmospheric deposition. These problems require a mod- ern approach to environmental protection—an approach grounded in sound science, innovative solutions, and broad public involvement (Mehan 2007). De-icing involves the removal of frost, snow, or ice from aircraft surfaces or from paved areas, including runways, taxiways, and gate areas. De-icing can be performed mechanically or by applying chemical agents (Aviation and Environment… 2000, p. 18). Activities of airport operators have the potential to influ- ence local water quality. Transportation and storage of fuels, de-icing of aircraft and surfaces, and indirect pollution can lower the quality of watersheds and water bodies near an airport. Survey respondents listed the following practices to enhance water conservation and the efficient use of water at their airports: Onsite stormwater collection, treatment, and man-• agement (swales, bioretention, vaults, wetlands), and requiring a stormwater pollution prevention plan for all new construction. Onsite wastewater treatment plants. • De-icing spots/pads, collection and treatment of de-• icing fluids.

21 Use of compressed natural gas (CNG), electricity, • propane, solar power, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel fuels. Provision of a public CNG fueling station and electric • vehicle charging stations. aéroports de Paris uses energy management as a key indicator in strategic decision making. all revenue generated by savings in Co2 emissions are used for energy management. For accounting year 2005, 10,000 tonnes of Co2 were sold under prior virtuous practices. passenger access Intraterminal train, automated people movers.• Comprehensive public transportation network, invest-• ment in light rapid transit to airport, subsidized public transport. Flyaway program providing parking and reduced rate • bus service from remote locations to the airport (reduced emissions by more than 1,000 tonnes last year). aircraft on the Ground Installation of stationary aircraft energy supply sys-• tems; ground power units at all gates. Airport constructed a taxiway to reduce taxi distances • from terminal to runway. Airport conducted the first aircraft towing trial in • North America with Virgin Atlantic, Boeing, and FAA—an aircraft was towed from the gate closer to the runway, reducing engine running time on the taxiway. Survey respondents listed the following practices to address air quality issues at their airports: Air quality monitoring and metering.• Particle filters on airport vehicles.• Air quality management plan (tied to 20-year master • plan) and air quality enhancement program. Partnering with research institutions and resource • agencies to address air quality issues. Planning for development that complies with the SIP • and the Clean Air Act. Active dust control, permitting, and conformity analy-• sis programs. Stationary source reductions.• Transport Demand Management (strategies or policies • to reduce or redistribute automobile travel demand). Several survey respondents from both U.S. and non- U.S. airports identified research efforts and partnerships with universities or aviation research bodies on air quality issues: Participation in ACRP’s Hazardous Air Pollutants • study and sustainability survey. Support for the International Civil Aviation • Organization’s development of new guidance govern- ing the calculation of emission sources at airports. cLiMaTe chanGe At the global level, climate change is likely to drive impor- tant changes in the aviation industry over the next 10 to 20 years (Upham et al. 2003). Growth in global air trans- port is forecast to triple aviation carbon dioxide emissions between 1990 and 2050, and total radiative forcing (global warming) effects are forecast to increase fourfold over the same period (“Aviation and the Global Atmosphere” 1999). Airport operators are realizing how construction, oper- ation, maintenance, and other activities at airport facili- ties can contribute to the industry’s overall climate change impacts. Airports can play a role in reducing their impact on climate change by addressing emissions in ground transportation, energy use in buildings, and associated indirect emissions. Survey respondents listed the following practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and minimize their air- port’s contribution to climate change: Ground Vehicles Clean/alternative fuel vehicle program using liquefied • natural gas (LNG). Boston–Logon international airport’s voluntary 15-year air Quality initiative (aQi) strives to maintain nox emissions at or below 1999 levels (see Figure 7). FigURE 7 air quality practices at Logan international airport (Massachusetts).

22 list of incompatible land uses that encroach on airspace and approach areas is long; it includes noise-sensitive and high- density land uses such as residential areas and parks/open spaces. Conflicts between airports and their urban environ- ments escalate as the demand for developable land increases (Oregon Department of Aviation 2003). A significant problem facing airports is incompatible land uses. Noise-sensitive land uses such as parks and open space and residential areas near airports are considered incom- patible. Managing and treating contaminated land is also a prevalent issue for many airport operators. Placing land uses that attract wildlife hazardous to aviation (e.g., deer, large waterfowl, and flocking bird species) are other major concerns. Survey respondents listed the following practices related to land use at their airports. contaminated Land Hazardous materials management plan and team.• Measurement campaign to evaluate soil pollution, • survey of contaminated sites, groundwater monitor- ing program. Decontamination of polluted zones, soil and ground-• water cleanup. Some respondents cited regulations and relationships with government to manage this issue: Clean Land Act controlled by the Netherlands • Environment Department. Development of a Prospective Purchaser Agreement • with the EPA for certain contaminated land acquisitions. Polluted airport sites illustrated in a “cadastre of pol-• luted sites at aerodromes,” published by the Swiss Federal Office of Civil Aviation and available to the general public. aircraft must have a power source at the gate to maintain electronic systems and pneumatic pressure for air conditioning. aircraft formerly met this need with portable ground power units, or by running an onboard auxiliary power unit (aPU)—a small turbine engine inside the fuselage. a B-737 aPU burns 34 gallons of jet fuel/hour, emits exhaust on the airport ramp, and is noisy. a typical land-takeoff cycle of 15–26 min burns 12–17 gallons of jet fuel if the aPU is used the entire time. if 100 aircraft/day eliminated use of the aPU, there would be an nox reduction of 10 tonnes/year (Rowe 2005). aircraft in the air Use of continuous descent approach program.• Air emissions charge—the most highly polluting air-• craft incur the highest charge. Buildings Conversion of heating systems from oil to gas. • Tracking and reduction of airport energy consumption.• Monitor and Manage emissions Company-wide quota unit set up to control and manage • CO2 emissions. Greenhouse gas inventory reported online through • California Climate Action Registry. research and partnerships Support International Civil Aviation Organization • and Eurocontrol (European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation) method of monitoring global emissions. Participate in the city’s Zero Emissions 2020 Plan, • which commits the city to developing a clean air plan for public transit. Active participation of airport staff in local, regional, • state, and national climate change research and programs. the green apron Policy at hong Kong airport involves replacing the existing 43-vehicle fleet with alternative- fuel or low-emission vehicles over the next five years, and providing fixed ground power and preconditioned air supply at each frontal gate so aircraft can shut down their aPUs while they are parked at the gate (see Figure 8). Land Use One of the greatest concerns facing airports today is incom- patible land use. With the pressure to convert open space for development and the proliferation of telecommunica- tion structures, the demand on the national airspace and the ground area around airports continues to increase. The FigURE 8 airport practice in relation to reducing emissions.

23 ity of experimental results to a natural setting. It is also very difficult to generalize behavioral responses across species because of the multiple variables of each noise event: vol- ume, frequency, rate of onset, season, time of day, year, and so on (AMEC 2005). Survey respondents listed the following practices relating to biodiversity at their airports: nonlethal Bird Techniques Noise systems to scare birds (fixed on cars or on the • ground). Crackers to scare birds.• Habitat management and landscaping that is not attrac-• tive to birds. Monitoring and movement of birds away from • aircraft. Managing unsealed areas of the airport as extensive • grassy meadows to prevent collisions between aircraft and birds. tallahassee airport in Florida has implemented a number of biodiversity practices including onsite conservation area for gopher tortoise (species of concern); remediation of area of bent golden aster (endangered) during construction; establishment of tree bank, and use of native species in area where residences were demolished for noise mitigation; bird control plan uses habitat modification and harassment as primary means of reducing threat to aircraft. habitat protection or enhancement Eighty percent of airport area is for operations and • 20% for nature conservation zones, woodlands, and bodies of water; annual plan implemented by airport’s greenery maintenance service. Dolphin sanctuary/marine park to protect endangered • dolphin species; membership to Marine Mammals Conservation Committee. Protected and enhanced foreshore habitat during dike • repairs. Wildlife hazard management plan.• Wetland mitigation program.• Vegetation management/habitat protection. • 300-acre dunes preservation area—largest remaining • coastal dunes fragment in Southern California, home of endangered El Segundo blue butterfly; two land- scape technicians remove noxious/invasive species and reestablish native species; biologist annually monitors endangered species. Contract with U.S. Department of Agriculture.• Partnership with the local conservation group to fund • the restoration of 21 acres of grassland habitat. Financial support to Nature Conservancy to manage • local nature reserve. the U.s. army Corps of Engineers worked with Redding (California) Municipal airport staff to remove World War ii–era underground storage tanks. an aggressive land acquisition program seeks to prevent residential encroachment and preserve wetlands and green space (see Figure 9). FigURE 9 Redding Municipal airport land use practices. Land Use planning Survey responses related to land use planning were limited to the following: Plans to partner with the community on an airport-• centered eco-industrial zone. Incorporating green space as much as possible in future • developments. (Noise-compatible land uses are discussed in the “Noise Pollution and Aesthetics” section of this chapter.) BiodiVersiTY Two key issues related to wildlife have an impact on airports: the conflict between wildlife preservation and aircraft safety, and the effects of noise on migration and nesting patterns. Aircraft collisions with wildlife (commonly referred to as “wildlife strikes”) cost the civil aviation industry in the United States at least $500 million a year in direct damages and associated costs, and more than half a million hours of aircraft down time. However, it is not the economic cost of wildlife strikes but the cost in human lives that requires the industry to manage this problem (Cleary and Dolbeer 2005). The effect of noise on wildlife is poorly understood for a number of reasons including the difficulty of separating visual and aural components of an event, and the applicabil-

24 Forest Stewardship Council certified cherrywood • paneling. hazardous or Toxic products Use of lower biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) de-• icing materials. (TRB ACRP has also published Project 02-01 “Alternative Aircraft and Airfield De-icing and Anti-Icing Formulations with Reduced Aquatic Toxicity and Biological Oxygen Demand.” For more information, go to www.trb.org.) Work safety service tracks harmful chemicals and • enters records into a database when the chemical prod- ucts work group encounters a new product. Use of nontoxic pest-control products.• Use of antifreeze with high recycled content (glycol).• WasTe ManaGeMenT Waste management at airports is becoming increasingly important with the enormous increases in passenger num- bers; it is a key responsibility of the facilities manager (Pitt and Smith 2003). Airports are notoriously poor environ- mental performers, and the growth in the industry is leading to increasing levels of waste production. Environmentally sound waste management must go beyond the mere safe dis- posal or recovery of wastes and address the root cause of the problem by attempting to change unsustainable patterns of production and consumption (United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development 2001). Portland airport recycles foreign periodicals from international flights to educational institutions that teach foreign languages (see Figure 11). FigURE 11 Waste management at Portland airport. Managing the waste streams from airport operations pro- vides a variety of challenges, including separating and recy- Support local greenbelt trust and outreach program—• staff involved in habitat improvement. Nature conservation areas created and financially sup-• ported as ecological compensation measures. MaTeriaLs Construction and demolition waste constitutes about 40% of the total solid waste stream in the United States. Extraction, processing, and transportation, as well as the air and water pollutants created during production, can destroy natural hab- itats and deplete natural resources (Green Building… 2005). Reuse and recycling of materials can significantly reduce consumption of virgin materials, as well as the amount of waste sent to landfill. Ensuring that materials have little or no environmental impact and do not harm human health is para- mount for achieving sustainable outcomes at an airport. Vancouver international airport’s building and con- struction processes use materials such as strawboard and paints that are low in volatile organic compounds, reuse building materials onsite, and have a high reuse rate of concrete and asphalt (see Figure 10). FigURE 10 Vancouver airport sustainable materials use. Survey respondents listed the following practices related to materials use at their airports: Free-trade coffee purchased for offices.• Compostable food serviceware.• Soy-based ink.• Carpeting with high recycled content.• Restroom paper products with high recycled content.• construction Materials Use of strawboard instead of gyprock.• Reuse of building materials onsite; very high reuse of • concrete and asphalt during construction projects.

25 recycling and Waste Management Adequate space provided for the collection, storage, • and disposal of recyclable materials. Waste containers around the airport for passengers and • tenants—transferred to onsite dumpsters and compac- tors, then transported to an offsite processing facility. Thirty different waste types recycled at the airport.• Airport offices recycle paper.• composting Respondents from both U.S. and non-U.S. airports identified a number of composting initiatives at their airports: Food waste composting to organic soil conditioner for • airport landscaping. Compost coffee grounds from an airline for use in air-• port landscaping. Food service operations participate in the food scraps • composting program. Respondents did not supply details of the composting operations. The U.S.DOT recommends the following: Composting operations that accept only yard waste (e.g., leaves, lawn clippings, and branches) generally do not attract hazardous wildlife. Sewage sludge, woodchips, and similar materials are not municipal solid wastes and may be used as compost bulking agents. The compost must never include food or other municipal solid waste. Com- posting operations should not be located on airport property (“Advisory Circular…” 2004). noise poLLUTion and aesTheTics Today’s aircraft are typically 75% quieter than jets in the 1960s; however, action is needed to prevent deterioration in the noise climate as air traffic growth overtakes the rate of technological advance (UK Department for Transport 2003). the Fly Quiet Program at san Francisco international airport takes a participatory approach to complying with noise abatement procedures by grading airline performance, making scores available to the public, and presenting awards to high achievers (see Figure 12). FigURE 12 san Francisco international airport noise management activities. cling waste at terminals, tenant requirements, and meeting/ adhering to city or county ordinances. In addition, interna- tional airports are required to meet government disease con- trol regulations for recycling and disposing of international waste. Survey respondents listed the following practices related to waste management at their airports. Tenant/airline Waste Management Implementing pilot programs for food/trash waste sep-• aration at concessionaires. Separating solid waste types at the point of generation.• Recycling waste and scrap materials from airport, air-• line, cargo, and construction activities. Planning to participate in a pilot program with other • airports to target in-flight operation paper waste. Airport-wide recycling of cardboard, wood pallets, • scrap metal, batteries, and used oil. Besides the waste taken off airplanes, airport waste is generated in offices, shops, restaurants, restrooms, and flight kitchens; from cargo operations, maintenance areas, and hangars; and from landscaping, construction, and demolition. Each of these areas creates distinct waste streams, making it complicated to establish an airport-wide recycling program (atkin et al. 2006). Waste disposal Logistics and Management Waste disposal contractor chosen to encourage the recov-• ery of separated waste materials as much as possible. Each tenant chooses the number of waste types to sepa- rate at the source—cost reflects the degree of separation, which provides a financial incentive for good practices. Waste disposal logistics (landside and airside) revised • in 2007 to meet EU regulations modified in response to the Schengen Agreement (which seeks to abolish physical borders among European countries). Waste disposal services optimized through the use • of new providers (shorter journeys to and from the airport) and more efficient means of transport (vehicles with trailers to reduce the number of trips required). Feasibility study concerning separate disposal of • onboard waste (e.g., newspapers/paper from aircraft cabins and onboard catering recyclables). Waste Minimization Implementing waste minimization program for paper, • cardboard, aluminum cans, plastic bottles, plastic sheets, fluorescent tubes, lube oil, food waste for com- posting, and CDs. Reducing number of copier machines by 12% airport-• wide. Reproducing engineering/architectural contracts and • bid documents on CDs and submitting work orders electronically. Reducing paper towel use in restrooms.•

26 Land use decisions that conflict with aviation activity and airport facilities can result in undue constraints on an airport. to enable this sector of the economy to expand, to provide a wide variety of job opportunities for local citizens, and to meet the needs of the traveling public, it is vitally important that airports operate in an environment that maximizes the compatibility of the airport with off-airport development (Program Guidance Letter 06-07 2007, pp. 1-3–1-4). the Faa has prepared a guide to help all involved to work together to protect this valuable resource and to promote land use compatibility around airports. “Land Use Compatibility and airports: a guide for Effective Land Use Planning” is available on the Faa website (www.faa.gov). research and partnerships Working with FAA Air Traffic Control to suggest • changes to approach and departure procedures to reduce noise impact on neighboring residents. Working with Boeing, FAA, and United Airlines on • Oceanic Tailored Arrivals to reduce noise from flights arriving from the Pacific Rim. Working with community group, FAA, and airlines to • address noise issues. Study to implement continuous decent approach • procedure. Several respondents identified practices required by regulations: Local regulations limit neighborhood construction • and air traffic. Altered takeoff patterns imposed by authorities.• enerGY Energy efficiency is not a new concept among airport operators and designers. Kaszewski and Sheate (2004) cite several airports that have adopted green construction; for example, Stansted (UK), Barajas-Madrid (Spain), and Chep Lap Kok (Hong Kong) airports have all maximized the use of natural lighting in their terminal buildings. These build- ings also incorporate very high standards of insulation and high heat-recovery air-conditioning systems. The activities and facilities operating at airports are very energy-intensive environments. The use of electricity, requirements for heating and cooling, and specific energy requirements for aircraft operations and maintenance keep energy demand at high levels. The synthesis survey sought to identify airport practices that reduce energy through effi- ciency of design and operation and use of low- or zero-car- bon energy sources. Survey respondents listed the following practices related to energy use or efficiency at their airports. Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 150 prescribes the procedures, standards, and methodology governing the development, submission, and review of airport noise expo- sure maps and airport noise compatibility programs, includ- ing the process for evaluating and approving or disapproving those programs. It also identifies land uses that are normally compatible with various levels of exposure to noise by indi- viduals (“Electonic Code…” 2007). Survey respondents listed the following practices related to noise pollution or aesthetics at their airports: aircraft in the air Separate pricing for low-sound-classified planes.• Chapter 2 aircraft that produce more noise were • phased out. Only the quietest aircraft are authorized to fly at • night. Arrivals and departures occur over the ocean and not • over residential areas. VHF omni range radio beacon guides aircraft on a • noise abatement route. the Faa has developed a toolkit for land use planning around airports. “airport noise Compatibility Planning toolkit” is available on the Faa website (www.faa. gov). the toolkit helps local governments and planners develop noise-compatible land use plans for airports and their environs. aircraft on the Ground Limitations on taxiing and engine testing; engine • run-up pad to attenuate noise from engine testing. Preferential runway use policy—limits departures to • runways in the interior of the airport. Ground run-up enclosure contains noise from mainte-• nance testing. surrounding neighborhoods Housing scheme for noise insulation; airport soundproof-• ing program; residential noise mitigation program. Noise walls constructed.• Enhancement program—parkways and greenbelts • along the airport perimeter as an attractive buffer between the airport and the community. Noise mitigation program for residential areas, schools, • and other sensitive public buildings. Monitoring Permanent noise monitoring system to monitor noise • levels in communities around the airport (29 stations). Airport Noise Abatement Office maintains a database • of all complaints from nearby communities about air- port noise nuisance. Noise mitigation program with full-time staff and • extensive noise monitoring system.

27 Management Preliminary energy audit.• Regulations related to insulation, energy efficiency, • and CO2 emissions are becoming stronger—working group formed to examine possibilities. Energy reduction team identifies opportunities to • improve energy efficiency. Agreement with Department of Water and Power for • 15% green power in all facilities. (TRB ACRP is in the process of publishing Project 11-02/ Task 1, “Model for Improving Energy Use in U.S. Airport Facilities.” This model will provide guidance for facility managers on improving energy use through improved ener- gy-related operations and maintenance procedures; commis- sioning/optimizing major energy-consuming systems; and installation of the latest cost-effective energy conservation measures. For more information, go to www.trb.org.) Green BUiLdinG Green buildings are designed, constructed, and operated to boost environmental, economic, health, and productiv- ity performance. Many of the benefits of green building technologies and practices for occupants, owners, the envi- ronment, and society at large are quantifiable and well doc- umented. These benefits include measurable reduction of waste, decreased water use, energy savings, reduced operat- ing and maintenance costs, and improved indoor air quality. Less tangible benefits are improvements in occupant health, employee morale, productivity, recruitment, and retention, and an improved public image for the organization that builds green (U.S. Green Building Council 2003). When queried on priorities for sustainability in the next five years, survey respondents selected energy efficiency and green building as the top two priorities for their air- ports. They cited the following practices related to green building: Established in 1996 in France, the high Quality Environmental (hQE) association involves French businesses, industries, experts, and project managers in developingg the environmental quality of buildings in the residential and tertiary sectors. the hQE approach requires the environment to be taken into consideration at every stage of the development and life of a building (planning, design, construction, demolition, etc.). Many parameters are integrated, including the management of energy, water, and waste; air quality and the quality of the spaces; and reducing the noise and visual pollution typical of building sites. the hQE approach is a wide-ranging cross-disciplinary approach to the living environment (“high Environmental Quality…” 2007). Motivated by the West Coast energy crisis of 2000–2001, the seattle–tacoma international airport invested $7 million over five years to reduce electricity consumption by $1.7 million/year. initiatives included light retrofitting, improving hVaC efficiency and escalator efficiency, and using improved architectural standards for new buildings (“improving Building Efficiency…” 2004, p. 3) (see Figure 13). FigURE 13 Port of seattle energy practices. interiors Automatic lights/system based on ambient lighting and • occupancy; use of a light intensity meter; changing incan- descent bulbs to fluorescent; uncoupling strip lights, using efficient ballasts; computer-operated lighting systems. Automatic engine and heating, ventilation, and air • conditioning (HVAC) control, hot air curtains, airflow return, carbon monoxide monitors to reduce unneces- sary HVAC, upgraded air-handling units with variable speed drives and soft-start controls; changing the heat- ing source from fuel oil to natural gas and using excess heat for cooling. Energy Star energy-efficient equipment.• Grouping flights in a certain part of the concourse dur-• ing nonpeak hours allows the airport to shut off air conditioning and lighting in unused areas. Escalator sleep mode.• Solar hot water panels reduce natural gas consumption, • as boilers are not required in the summer. 20kW capacity solar photovoltaic panel array on roof • of airport building. as a result of the modification of the VLaREM ii regulation (Flemish regulation on environmental permits), the Brussels airport Company is obliged to develop periodic energy plans. an exhaustive energy audit carried out in 2005–2006 has resulted in three energy plans. the energy-saving measures laid out in these plans will be carried out in 2007–2008 (“Energy Planning” 2007).

28 Sustainable building policy requires all construction to • achieve the highest practical LEED certification. Sustainable design guidelines used for all design and • construction projects. Use of natural light.• LEED for all new buildings.• Green Building practices Grid-connected solar photovoltaic panels.• Forest Stewardship Council certified wood.• Ground landscaping composed of native plants and • trees grown in local nurseries specifically for the airport. Green building concepts incorporated into designs and • remodels, although the airport does not necessarily seek certification. at toronto Pearson international airport, the new Fire and Emergency services training institute (FEsti) at the airport is certified to a LEED silver level. certification and policies Airport joined the HQE (High Quality Environmental) • Association in 2005; 14 target areas earmarked for action, broken down into eco-building, eco-management, comfort, and health. Building certified to Silver level of LEED (Leadership • in Energy and Environmental Design)—the U.S. green building rating system. Policy to assess feasibility of LEED for all new build-• ings and major renovations. Developing green building policy to guide future reno-• vations and development. City’s green building ordinance specifies that con-• struction projects larger than 15,000 square feet should achieve a minimum LEED rating of Silver. Terminal building design is 30% more efficient than • required under federal law—high-performance glaz- ing, enhanced daylight, energy-efficient fixtures, efficient entryways, efficient ventilation, outside air economizer, energy management and control system, variable-flow chilled and hot water systems.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 10: Airport Sustainability Practices explores airport sustainability practices across environmental, economic, and social issues.

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