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Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation (2008)

Chapter: Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Public Transportation Market Share by Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13918.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

This chapter presents an airport-by-airport summary of air traveler ground access mode share by public transportation services. The modes included in this summary are rail, bus, and shared- ride vans; modes excluded from this summary are hotel and rental car vans, limousines, and charter buses. In Part 1, the public transportation mode share data for 27 U.S. airports are presented, along with a discussion of trends and patterns for each of the modes. In Part 2, the public transportation mode shares for 19 European/Asian airports are presented with a brief description of the salient characteristics of the services provided. Certain information is provided for the European and Asian airports, such as their baggage-handling strategies and the relation- ship of ground services to national services, which is not provided for the U.S. airports because of a lack of relevance. The available mode choice (i.e., market share) data for originating airline passengers at large U.S. airports are discussed below. (Unless otherwise noted in the following sections, “passen- gers” refers to originating airline passengers.) Part 1: Best Practices at U.S. Airports This section presents brief, factual overviews of the 27 U.S. airports covered in this report in terms of the characteristics of the airport itself, the nature of its configuration relative to ground transportation services, and the role played by rail and bus services. Finally, observations are presented about the market characteristics of the airport ground access services when they are relevant to the emphasis areas of this report. The factors that contribute to the success of the ground access systems are examined in five categories: • The airport: Each U.S. airport is summarized in terms of its location, its traffic in terms of annual enplanements in 2005, and the number of those enplanements representing originat- ing passengers. Automobile travel times to downtown are presented, along with a reasonable approximation of the taxi fares, which will vary by the actual destination of the trip. • Connections at the airport: The discussion of this category examines the nature of the airport configuration and design, which influence the ability of both bus and rail services to serve the airport efficiently. • Rail: Rail services to the U.S. airports are described when they exist. • Bus: Bus services that are specific to the airport market (i.e., “airporters”) and more traditional public transportation services by bus are summarized. In the case of Boston, bus rapid tran- sit is discussed as a separate mode. • Shared-ride vans: Shared-ride vans are included in the analysis, but services such as limou- sines and “black cars” designed to transport single parties are excluded whenever the original data will allow. 68 C H A P T E R 4 Public Transportation Market Share by Airport

The public transportation mode shares for all 27 U.S. airports are shown combined and by share to rail and bus/van services in Table 4-1. Tier 1 Figure 4-1 presents the first tier of U.S. airports—the 13 U.S. airports with a public transportation mode market share of more than 11%—ranked in order according to their performance. Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 69 Market Share Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 1 San Francisco 23% 7% 16% 2 New York JFK 19% 8% 11% 3 Boston 18% 6% 12% 4 Reagan National 17% 13% 4% 5 Oakland 15% 9% 6% 6 New Orleans 15% 0% 15% 7 Newark 14% 5% 9% 8 Atlanta 14% 10% 4% 9 Denver 14% 0% 14% 10 Los Angeles 13% 0% 13% 11 Baltimore/Washington 12% 3% 9% 12 Chicago O'Hare 12% 5% 7% 13 Las Vegas 12% 0% 12% 14 Orlando 11% 0% 11% 15 Seattle 11% 0% 11% 16 Portland 10% 6% 4% 17 Chicago Midway 9% 5.5% 4% 18 Phoenix 9% 0% 9% 19 San Diego 9% 0% 9% 20 Indianapolis 9% 0% 9% 21 Washington Dulles 8% 1% 7% 22 New York LaGuardia 8% 1% 7% 23 Philadelphia 7% 3% 4% 24 Tampa 7% 0% 7% 25 Dallas/Fort Worth 6% 0% 6% 26 St. Louis 6% 3% 3% 27 Cleveland 6% 2% 4% Table 4-1. Public transportation mode shares to U.S. airports. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Sa n F ran cis co JF K Bo sto n Re ag an Oa kla nd Ne w O rle an s Ne wa rk Atl an ta De nv er Lo s A ng ele s BW I O'H are La s V eg as Rail Bus/Van Figure 4-1. Market shares to rail and bus in the first tier U.S. airports.

San Francisco (23% Market Share) The Airport. San Francisco International Airport is located about 14 miles from Union Square in downtown San Francisco, with a driving time of 18 minutes possible with no traffic. The airport served nearly 33 MAP in 2005; of these, nearly 9 million were originating passengers. San Francisco International Airport remains one of the strongest markets in the United States for publicly available modes of transportation. Connections at the Airport. The airport has two major terminal buildings: a traditional horseshoe configuration to the east and a new international terminal to the west. The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) station is located within the structure of the international terminal, but requires a transfer to the automated people mover for most connections to the original airport terminals. Rail. In June 2003, the long-planned extension of the BART system into San Francisco was opened. Airport managers report a 7% market share for the new BART service in 2006. Bus. San Francisco International Airport also has a strong tradition of regional bus operations with direct service to the airport, designed for airport users. In the North Bay, three companies operate service; in the East Bay, one company operates service; and there are two operators to the South. The long-operated dedicated bus to downtown, which made or con- nected to a hotel loop, was abandoned after the opening of the direct BART service to the airport. Together, buses directly serving the airport capture about 5% of the ground trans- portation market. The Marin Airporter express bus service was developed by private entrepreneurs, who have successfully operated the service between Marin County (located across the Golden Gate Bridge, north of San Francisco) and San Francisco International Airport. Consistent with other suc- cessful long-distance bus routes, the Marin Airporter operates from the airport every half hour from 4:30 a.m. to midnight. Shared-Ride Van. Shared-ride vans continue to dominate the public transportation mar- ket to San Francisco International Airport, capturing about 11% of the market in 2006. San Francisco International Airport advertises two distinct kinds of van services. For “door- to-door vans,” the members of the public can walk up to the service operator at the airport and purchase a ride without reservation. In the return direction, some form of reservation is required. For “pre-arranged” vans, reservations are required for all services, to or from the airport. Over time, the airport management has analyzed a variety of methods to limit the number of shuttle operators carving up the same geographic market. At the present time, however, multiple operators go after the same shared-ride market, which degrades the services. For example, to the city of San Francisco, the San Francisco International Airport website lists 11 service providers offering services to the same area. To the East Bay, three companies pro- vide service, with two companies providing service to the south, to Santa Clara and San Mateo counties. Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 1 San Francisco International Airport 23% 7% 16% SOURCE: Surveys (12) 70 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

New York JFK (19% Market Share) The Airport. John F. Kennedy International Airport is located about 16 miles from the center of Midtown Manhattan. The airport served about 42 MAP in 2005; of these, some 11.6 million were originating passengers. In theory, driving time between Manhattan and JFK can be as short as 25 minutes, with several hours experienced in the worst cases of congestion. Taxi fares are about $45. Connections at the Airport. JFK has long been known as a difficult airport to serve with pub- lic transportation services, as its terminal structure in highly decentralized. To deal with this geographic challenge, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey examined a wide variety of solutions for public transportation access, including a proposed master plan that called for all pub- lic transportation facilities to be located in the center of the airport, with people mover shuttles from the central check-in terminal (only for public transportation travelers) to each of the cur- rently existing air terminals. After that plan was rejected, the Port Authority developed the AirTrain concept, which opened in 2003. According to the most recently available data, the airport ground access system serving JFK has experienced a major increase in its public transportation mode share. The overall public mode share of 19% is a major increase over the 7% reported in 1997. The automated AirTrain system operates three services over one right-of-way. One line trav- els on a counter-clockwise loop from Jamaica Station through the airport, stopping at five stations serving the nine terminals, and back to Jamaica Station. A second line travels through the counter-clockwise loop of airline terminals from Howard Beach Station and back. The sys- tem operates a continuous loop with the ability to travel in either direction within the terminal area only, which is used for intra-airport connections. The multibillion dollar project, coupled with a parallel increase in van usage, has resulted in a significant increase in public transporta- tion use since the publication of the two TCRP airport access studies. Rail. The traveler has the option of two separate rail systems for the continuing journey to Manhattan or other regional destinations. The greatest number of rail connections exists at Jamaica Station, which serves the Long Island Railroad and several subway lines. Although it varies significantly by hour of the day, the Long Island Railroad has many non-stop or one-stop trains directly to Midtown Manhattan, terminating in Penn Station. However, the strongest rid- ership is via Howard Beach Station, which is served only by the A-line, which enters Manhattan near the site of the former World Trade Center. Bus. Dedicated airport-only bus service is offered to a Midtown terminal near Grand Central Station, at which point connections are offered to major hotels and the Port Authority bus terminal. Shared-Ride Van. More than a dozen firms are operating shared-ride services from JFK, in addition to the airport bus service to Manhattan. Boston (18% Market Share) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 3 General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport 18% 6% 12% SOURCE: Massachusetts Port Authority Surveys (14) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 2 John F. Kennedy International Airport 19% 8% 11% SOURCE: Ground Access Surveys (13) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 71

The Airport. Boston’s Logan International Airport is located about 3 to 4 miles from the center of the business district, with highly dependable automobile travel times now established with the new Ted Williams Tunnel. The trip takes less than 15 minutes, depending on the traf- fic near the downtown destination. The airport served about 27 MAP in 2005; of these, some 10.4 million were originating passengers. Connections at the Airport. The airport has four major air terminal buildings, which are now connected by moving sidewalk facilities through the central parking garage structures. All buses and ground transportation services pick up and drop off at all four of the terminals. Although the recently relocated Blue Line rail station is only about 1 mile from the farthest ter- minals, an indirect ramping system makes the connecting ride longer than it was before the reconstruction of the roadway system. An additional water shuttle system serves the downtown and has traditionally captured less than 1% mode share for airline passengers. Rail. The rapid transit station at Boston’s airport attracts more than 4,000 travelers daily, approximately one-third of whom are air travelers. In 2005, the airport’s rapid transit station attracted 6% of airline passengers to the system operated by the MBTA. That rail ridership has declined since the inauguration of the Silver Line Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) to South Station. Bus. The tripling of market share by scheduled services is the result of many years of public agency participation, considerable operator investment, and public subsidy. Of the nearly 2 million travelers per year who use scheduled services to the airport, the majority of them use the Logan Express bus service, which offers non-stop airport connections to three regional terminals located on or beyond Route 128. Over a 25-year period, policy makers in Massachusetts have been trying—with a remarkable level of success—to decrease the use of private transportation and to increase the use of public transit modes to Logan airport. In 1970, 84% of airline passengers arrived at the airport in either a private or rented car; by 1996, that percentage had decreased to 48%. In 1970, fewer than 2% of airline passengers arrived at the airport by scheduled bus. In 1996, 12% arrived by scheduled services, and 10% was recorded in 2006. Five bus companies provide standard coach services directly to the airport, in addition to the Logan Express, which serves Braintree, Framingham, and Woburn with new services to Peabody. Bus Rapid Transit. Since the data was collected, the MBTA has inaugurated a major bus rapid transit project that has dual-propulsion vehicles capable of operating on electric power within the new downtown bus tunnel and on other sources outside of the bus tunnel. The new bus tunnel serves the rapidly developing Seaport area of the city with connections to the new Ted Williams Tunnel (Interstate 90), a stop for a major new convention center, and direct service to the South Station Transportation Center. Travelers going to South Station and the Red Line are encouraged to take the new BRT ser- vice; travelers going to Government Center, the Orange Line, or the Green Line are encouraged to take the airport bus (free) to the newly relocated Blue Line rapid transit center. Since the open- ing of the BRT service to South Station, boardings at the Blue Line station (both air travelers and others) have fallen considerably, suggesting a roughly 50-50 split between the two services. Shared-Ride Van. For some reason, shared-ride van services have not become as success- ful in Boston as they have in other airports. A major carrier went bankrupt after a series of operating problems, and no single operator dominates the market. The researchers estimate that less than 3% of the Logan ground access market chooses high-occupancy vans, as distinct 72 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

from single-occupancy limousines. The airport website lists about 12 companies that provide shared-ride services to and from the airport. Reagan Washington National (17% Market Share) The Airport. Reagan Washington National Airport is located less than 4 miles from the White House in downtown Washington, D.C., and is accessible with a 10-minute drive under perfect traffic conditions. While traffic conditions do vary, the trip is reliable by the standards of many U.S. airports. The airport served almost 18 MAP in 2005; of these, some 7 million were originating passengers. Connections at the Airport. Reagan Washington National Airport has been rebuilt to be primarily centered around the previously existing Metrorail station. Quite literally, the airport was reconfigured to be closer to the rail station, rather than the other way around. With the 1997 opening of the new integrated air–rail terminal at Reagan Washington National, the airport has one of the shortest walking distances of any air–rail facility. Served by two rapid transit lines from one station, the Metrorail service offers excellent downtown distribution. The market for ser- vices from Reagan Washington National is focused on downtown Washington, D.C., and the close-in suburbs, most of which are directly served by the MetroRail network. Rail. Reagan Washington National has the highest rail mode share in the United States at 13%. The rail service is provided by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA). Provided by WMATA, the rail service to Reagan Washington National Airport has the highest rail mode share in the United States at 13%. Construction of the Metrorail station at the airport in the 1970s led to one of the largest increases in public transportation share ever recorded, from 2.5% (bus) before the new service to 16% (rail and bus) after the opening of the new station. Shared-Ride Van. Reagan Washington National operates as a franchised facility and all shared-ride services are provided by Super Shuttle, Inc. Thus, there are no traditional bus ser- vices serving the airport. Oakland (15% Market Share) The Airport. Oakland International Airport is located about 18 miles from downtown San Francisco, which is about a 30-minute drive assuming no traffic problems. It is about 9 miles from downtown Oakland; driving time is less than 20 minutes. The airport served more than 14 MAP in 2005; of these, some 6.3 million were originating passengers. Connections at the Airport. Oakland International Airport has an unusually high mode share to rail for an airport not directly served by rail. The Coliseum Station of BART is about Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 5 Oakland International Airport 15% 9% 6% SOURCE: Surveys (12) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 4 Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport 17% 13% 4% SOURCE: 2005 Washington-Baltimore Regional Air Passenger Survey (15) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 73

3 miles from the airline passenger terminal area of the airport and is served by a dedicated bus line, called “AirBART.” The fare for the AirBART bus is $3. Plans for an automated people mover from the rail station to the airport have been under development for some time. Rail. Oakland airport managers have calculated that the bus connection to the BART sys- tem attracts about 9% of the ground transportation market. The airport managers report that, in 2006, bus ridership gained almost 6% over the previous year. From Coliseum Station, BART trains serve an extensive network on the East Bay area of the San Francisco peninsula itself with service between 4 a.m. and midnight. For many hours of the day, the BART connection to down- town San Francisco is actually faster than the taxi alternative. Service from Coliseum Station to the Union Square area takes about 21 minutes, at a rail fare of less than $3.50. Bus. Given the very high utilization of AirBART, scheduled bus services to Oakland airport play a smaller role than in many U.S. airports. In a 2002 survey, scheduled buses attracted about 3% of the market. Shared-Ride Van. In that same survey, shared-ride vans attracted about 3% of the market, which is lower than other recent experiences in the Bay Area. The airport website lists more than 100 service providers under the category “limo” but only two under the category “scheduled vans and buses.” New Orleans (15% Market Share) The Airport. Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport is located about 15 miles from downtown New Orleans, which is about a 25-minute drive under conditions of no con- gestion. The airport served about 7.8 MAP in 2005, of which about 3.5 million were originating passengers. Note that passenger volumes in 2005 were about 20% lower than in 2004. Similar volumes were down 36% in 2006, again compared against 2004. Connections at the Airport. The New Orleans airport is smaller than many in this sample and operates out of a single, compact terminal. Within this terminal, the proximity of the bag- gage pick-up area to the franchised van departure area is nearly optimal, from the point of view of maximizing public mode use. The Shuttle Express departure locations are closer than private automobile pick-up areas, and ticket sales are located on the immediate path between baggage carousels and the curb serving the vans. Bus/Van. According to the TCRP reports, New Orleans had one of the highest mode shares to bus of any U.S. airport, with a reported 15% of airline passengers using the direct, dedicated hotel loop services to downtown and New Orleans East. From the airport, vehicles are dispatched with varying levels of directness. The highly successful scheduled van system does not require a reservation from the airport, but does require that reservations be made 24 hours in advance of the trip to the airport. No new ground access data are available; however, shifts in mode share are to be expected over the post-Katrina period, as the relative portion of air travelers going downtown to the convention- oriented hotels might have decreased. Nevertheless, the New Orleans example—where a series of small buses run a fixed route and schedule service from the airport, which varies by time Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 6 Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport 15% 0% 15% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) 74 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

of day—may remain as one of the highest public mode shares recorded in the United States from any single mode. Newark (14% Market Share) The Airport. Newark Liberty International Airport is located about 18 miles from Midtown Manhattan. The drive can be made in about 30 minutes, but the travel time varies vastly accord- ing to local congestion on route. The airport served about 34 MAP in 2005; of these, some 10.4 million were originating passengers. Connections at the Airport. Newark airport is a comparatively centralized airport, with only three major terminal departure areas. The Newark AirTrain connects these three termi- nals with a rental car area, a transfer point for hotel courtesy vehicles, and the Newark Liberty International Airport Rail Station, which is served by New Jersey Transit and Amtrak. The air- port rail station is the only direct connection between an airport people mover and the national rail system. Rail. At Newark Liberty International Airport Rail Station, New Jersey Transit offers frequent service both toward Manhattan and in the opposite direction toward Trenton, New Jersey, and Philadelphia. Amtrak offers less frequent service, with many regional trains stopping, but with no connection to the high-speed Acela service. Bus. A wide variety of bus services are offered at the passenger terminal area. A major express bus service serves midtown, and a separate line serves Lower Manhattan. About 5% of Newark’s non-connecting airline passengers choose this bus service. Another 2% use the local bus systems. Shared-Ride Van. Around 10 companies provide services beyond the major express bus services to Manhattan, with direct services in all directions. Atlanta (14% Market Share) The Airport. The Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport is located about 10 miles from downtown Atlanta (Peachtree Center), which is a less than 20-minute drive under good traf- fic conditions. This airport is the largest in the United States, and one of the largest in the world, with nearly 86 MAP served in 2005; of these, about 13.7 million are originating passengers. Connections at the Airport. The Atlanta airport has recently opened a new ground trans- portation center that is located in the arrivals lobby, next to the Hertz rental car desks. This common location provides information, and allows immediate reservations, for all kinds of publicly available ground services, including both shared and single-party limousines. Because Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 8 Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta Airport 14% 10% 4% SOURCE: Atlanta Airport (17) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Va n 7 New ark Liberty International Airport 14% 5% 9% SOURCE: Surveys (13) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 75

of the highly centralized landside configuration of the airport, all buses, vans, and hotel shut- tles leave from a single fixed-slot loading point: they are each assigned a parking place and, thus, do not circle around the airport, as is common at most U.S. airports. The reconstruction and improvement of this transfer area is continuing in 2007. Rail. The Atlanta airport was constructed with a rapid transit station for MARTA in the arrival area of the airport’s landside terminal. The entrance to the rail station is closer to baggage claim than are the taxi, limousine, and bus services at the airport. The Atlanta transfer point is part of a highly centralized baggage pickup area, with an escalator connection to the transit station above. In a 1997 airport survey, about 8% of originating airline passengers arrived at the airport on the MARTA rapid transit service. At present about 10% of airline passengers choose rail. MARTA’s market share is consistent with the high quality of connections that the system offers. The connections seem to be valued by travelers more than cost savings: in 1990, 54% of those surveyed said they chose MARTA for reasons of convenience; 24% said they chose MARTA because of cost savings. About 6% of those surveyed reported that they chose MARTA because they had no other options. Importantly, the survey showed that MARTA was capturing the busi- ness traveler, with 82% of the weekday airline passengers on the train traveling for business or convention purposes. Only 16% of airline passengers on the train were taking a personal or vaca- tion trip. About 27% of airline passengers leaving the airport were going to CBD stations; 32% would walk from the train to their destination, while 28% are picked up. Of airline passengers who used rail, 9% carried three or more pieces of baggage (18). Had the rail service not been available, 46% would have accessed the airport by car, and 36% would have accessed the airport by taxi or limousine. Bus. A system of shuttles within the metropolitan area operates every 15 minutes, while a system of shuttles to destinations outside of the metropolitan area departs every 30 minutes. A wide variety of privately owned companies provide the shuttle services, in addition to compa- nies providing only limousine services. Denver (14% Market Share) The Airport. Denver International Airport is located about 27 miles from the center of Denver. The airport served about 43.4 MAP in 2005; of these, some 9.8 million were originating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 31 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 1.4 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. The new Denver International Airport has a unique multilevel landside terminal structure, in which the baggage claim level (Terminal Level 5) is used by a wide variety of ground access services. Passengers being picked up by private automobile must take their bags to a different level to find the automobile pick-up area. There are two public mode transfer spaces: one on the east side of the concourse and one on the west side. The immediate curb is for public passenger drop-off; Island 1 is for limousines; Island 2 is for Mountain Carriers, shuttles to mountain resorts; Island 3 is for hotel shuttles; and Island 4 is for rental car shuttles. All public transportation services and scheduled bus services are located on Island 5, located farthest from the terminal area. Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 9 Denver International Airport 14% 0% 14% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) 76 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

Bus. In Denver, the Regional Transportation District (RTD) has adopted an aggressive program of providing bus service to Denver airport. This service currently captures a 3.5% mar- ket share of airline passengers. The Denver RTD SkyRide Service is unique because it provides direct service to several major activity centers, not just to the CBD. The transit agency currently operates five routes providing transit access to the new airport. The SkyRide Service is operated to serve the work schedule of airport employees, with early-morning and late-night service. Toward the airport, service is operated from 3:20 a.m. to various hours ranging from 8:20 p.m. to midnight, depending on the route. From the airport, the service leaves generally between 6 a.m. and 1 a.m. The full fare for a one-way ticket is $8. The service attracts about 3,900 trav- elers per day. Los Angeles (13% Market Share) The Airport. Los Angeles International Airport is located about 19 miles from the center of Los Angeles. The airport served about 61.5 MAP in 2005; of these, some 16.4 million were orig- inating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 22 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 2.1 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. Four public transportation agencies serve the airport. Los Angeles International Airport is designed as a series of terminals on a loop road around a central parking garage facility. All public transportation services must collect or distribute their passen- gers on this loop road. Rail. A free shuttle connects to the Aviation Metro Rail Station. The mode share to the adja- cent rail service is less than 1⁄2 of 1%. Bus. To Los Angeles International Airport, LAWA operates an express bus route, called the Van Nuys FlyAway. In 1998, the Van Nuys FlyAway attracted 717,900 airline passengers. The Van Nuys terminal is about 21 miles from the airport, and service takes about 1 hour. Service is similar in scope to the Logan Express service in Boston, with 30-minute headways all day, except in the morning peak period, when headways are 15 minutes. The Los Angeles service offers 1-hour headways after 1:30 a.m. The service operates more than 2,000 spaces at the Van Nuys terminal location. LAWA attempted a second operation, considerably closer to the airport, in West Los Ange- les. After a 3-year trial, the facility was closed because of low ridership. Airport staff has suggested that the facility was too close to the airport to attract private-automobile users to the service. Since March 2006, the Los Angeles airport has been operating a new FlyAway service between the airport and the Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. This service operates every half hour between 5 a.m. and 1 a.m., and every hour during the late night. At Union Station, the traveler can connect to regional transit services, downtown shuttle buses, and intercity Amtrak services. Both the original Van Nuys FlyAway location and the new Union Station location now offer baggage check-in services provided by Baggage Airline Guest Services, Inc. The charge is $5 per Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 10 Los Angeles International Airport 13% 0% 13% SOURCE: MarketSense (19) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 77

person (two bags), and bags must be checked in 3 hours before scheduled flight time. About six major airlines are currently cooperating in the program. Shared-Ride Van. Use of shared-ride vans at the airport increased from about 2% in 1987 to 5% in 1993 (16). As part of a commitment to improve customer service and respond to regional efforts to comply with air quality standards, LAWA has limited the number of shared- ride van concession agreements. This program has significantly reduced the number of shared- ride companies allowed to pick up on-demand passengers at the airport and is expected to increase the occupancies in the shared-ride vans. At present, shared-ride services are provided by Prime Time Shuttle and Super Shuttle. Baltimore/Washington (12% Market Share) The Airport. The Baltimore/Washington airport is located about 11 miles from downtown Baltimore and 32 miles from the center of Washington, D.C. The airport served about 20.2 MAP in 2005; of these, some 7.6 million were originating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 42 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.9 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. Baltimore/Washington airport has a wide variety of con- necting services. For those traveling north to Baltimore, the light rail services connect directly to the international terminal. For those traveling south to the Washington, D.C. area, a shut- tle bus operates from the airport to the Greenbelt station on the Green Line. A shuttle bus con- nects the airport terminal area with the BWI Rail Station, served by MARC and Amtrak. The airport runs a taxi service of owner-operators from the airport, but all taxis are allowed to carry passengers to the airport. Only two shuttle van operators are allowed on the controlled inner curb area; others operate more informally from an outer curb area near the parking garage. The combined rental car facility is several miles from the airport, with a single multiuser bus operation connecting with the airport. Individual rental companies are not allowed to serve the inner curb area. Rail. The combination of Amtrak and MARC services are currently capturing about 2% of the market, with somewhat less than 1% attracted to the Metro shuttle bus to Greenbelt. The market share of airline passengers attracted to the light rail is well under 1%. Bus/Van. Much of the marketing strategy at Baltimore/Washington airport is directed toward capturing metropolitan Washington air travelers. Looking only at that market, the con- sumers’ response to new ground transportation services has been encouraging. Ridership on the new Washington, D.C., door-to-door van services increased 125% in 1996 over 1995 ridership, and ridership in 1997 was about 80% above 1996 levels. Door-to-door van service to Prince George’s and Montgomery Counties increased 38% in 1996, and early 1997 volumes were about 36% ahead of 1996 rates. The combination of bus and limousine attracts about 10% of the market share; thus, the mar- ket share for shared-ride services is somewhat less than 9% (excluding single-party limousines Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 11 Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport 12% 3% MARC 2% Metro 1% 9% SOURCE: 2005 Washington-Baltimore Regional Air Passenger Survey (15) 78 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

from the calculation). One traditional public transportation bus is operated to Columbia, Maryland. Chicago O’Hare (12% Market Share) The Airport. O’Hare International Airport is located about 18.5 miles from the center of Chicago. The airport served about 76.5 MAP in 2005; of these, some 14.9 million were originat- ing passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 23 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 1.8 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. O’Hare airport is served directly by the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) Blue Line, with a terminal located within the central parking garage, about 1000 feet from Terminals 1, 2, and 3. To access Terminal 5, the international terminal, an automated people mover must be used. In addition, a free shuttle bus connects the terminals with the Metra commuter rail system. A consolidated bus/shuttle center is located immediately above the rail station, on the first level. The major bus/van system to downtown, the Airport Express, operates from curb locations near each of the major terminal baggage collection areas. Rail. The train station at O’Hare airport has the highest use rates of any U.S. on-airport tran- sit station, with more than 7,000 transit boardings per day. Of these boardings, surveys show that fewer than 20% are air travelers, with most of the others working at the airport. Although rail service has somewhat longer travel times than taxi service in off-peak hours, rail benefits from greater travel-time reliability during peak hours. According to the most recent data, between 4% and 5% of O’Hare ground access air travelers choose the CTA train service, while 5% choose airport van and less than 3% choose other forms of buses. In the most recent survey efforts, a logical catchment area was defined, including a cen- tral Chicago area, with both a northern and a southern market area. For the prime market area for existing services (and for an express concept now under examination), 12% of travelers take the existing Blue Line train, with an additional 15% taking buses and van services. Bus. Continental Airport Express operates both the downtown hotel shuttle loops and door- to-door service throughout the region. Suburban bus service is operated by PACE to downtown Evanston, Illinois. Six private bus/van companies run direct service to locations in Wisconsin, Indiana, and Iowa and several destinations in Illinois. According to earlier CTA surveys, about 5% of airline passengers used the CTA rail services to or from the airport. There is little variation in rail ridership by air travel purpose: business travel- ers choose rail at about the same rate as non-business travelers. Rail was slightly more attractive to travelers going to the airport than from the airport. CTA analysts note that almost two-thirds of those arriving at the airport had local origins outside of the CTA service area; within the tran- sit agency’s service area, airline passenger rail market share was estimated at 15% (21). In a 1990 survey, CTA services were found to be used more to the airport (5.8%) than from the airport (4.9%). The service is more often used by residents than non-residents, with 21% of departing residents choosing rail. Although about 60% of airline passengers are non-residents, fewer than 20% of airline passengers who use the train are non-residents. Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 12 O’Hare International Airport 12% 5% 7% SOURCE: Chicago Origin-Destination Survey Report (20) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 79

Las Vegas (12% Market Share) The Airport. McCarran International Airport is located about 9.4 miles from the center of Las Vegas. The airport served about 44.0 MAP in 2005; of these, some 16.3 million were origi- nating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 12 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 2.0 MAP per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. Terminal One has an unusual configuration, with several drop- off points for the airline departure function, but only one terminal for arrivals and baggage claim for all domestic flights. All shared-ride shuttle services depart from the “west side” curb of the main arrivals hall. Private automobiles pick up travelers on the first floor of the parking garage above the arrivals hall. The airport is unique in that six Las Vegas hotels provide hotel check-in and room key pick-up within the airport arrivals hall. Bus. The Las Vegas airport is now served by six separate shuttle companies with service between the airport and the Strip hotels. With the six companies all serving the same area, the vans compete directly with taxis for service to the hotel area. Four additional companies pro- vide regional service beyond Las Vegas. Traditional public transportation buses also serve the airport. Tier 2 Figure 4-2 presents, in order of performance, the second tier of 14 U.S. airports that have pub- lic mode market shares between 5% and 11%. Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 13 McCarran International Airport 12% 0% 12% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) 80 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% Or lan do Se att le Po rtla nd Mi dw ay Ph oe nix Sa n D ieg o Ind ian ap olis Du lles La Gu ar dia Ph ilad elp hia Ta m pa DF W St. Lo uis Cle vel an d Rail Bus/Van Figure 4-2. Market share to rail and bus in the second tier of U.S. airports.

Orlando (11% Market Share) The Airport. Orlando International Airport is located about 13 miles from the center of Orlando. The airport served about 34.1 MAP in 2005; of these, some 13.8 million were origi- nating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 18 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 1.5 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. Orlando International Airport has a highly centralized config- uration, with all landside services in one central structure and air-side services (gates) connected only by automated people movers. Local buses operate from only one departure point (A-side), while shuttle vans depart from both sides of the terminal. Bus/Van. Traditional public transportation bus services are operated by Lynx to downtown Orlando, International Drive, and the city of Apopka. Shuttle vans are provided only by one company. At $17 per trip, the vans provide a cost-effective alternative to taxis for parties of one traveling to hotels on International Drive. A taxi costs about $34, which makes it competitive for any party of two or more. About seven van operators provide regional service to areas outside of the metropolitan area. In operation at Orlando International Airport is one of the world’s few through-baggage check-out services; the Swiss Railways operates one, and another such service is planned for Kuala Lumpur later in 2007. In this system, travelers with reservations at a Disney Hotel are sent baggage tags by mail with the hotel vouchers. These tags are placed by the traveler on the bags (in addition to the airline tags); then the bags are separated at the airport and sent directly to the individual hotel room. A reverse service is sometimes offered at the resort hotel, but not for all flights. Seattle (11% Market Share) The Airport. Seattle–Tacoma International Airport is located about 14 miles from the cen- ter of Seattle. The airport served about 29.3 MAP in 2005; of these, some 9.9 million were origi- nating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 17 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 1.1 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. The Seattle airport has a traditional horseshoe layout, cen- tered around a large parking structure. Within that parking structure, managed areas have been created for taxis, vans, and courtesy vehicles. An “island” serves as the location for courtesy vehicles and vans, while an inner drive (deeper into the garage structure) serves taxis and the Shuttle Express services. A ground information center is also located in the garage structure. Separate from the garage complex, a departure area is located for charter buses (to cruises, for Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 15 Seattle-Tacoma International Airport 11% 0% 11% SOURCE: SEATAC Airport Surveys (22) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 14 Orlando International Airport 11% 0% 11% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 81

example) at the southernmost end of the air terminal complex. Airporter buses also depart from this point. Public transportation buses use the arrivals level roadway at a point south of the terminal area. Bus/Van. Traditional public transportation bus services are offered by both King County Metro and Sound Transit. Included in these services are unique dual-powered buses that oper- ate on gas in the express bus lane on Interstate 5 and then convert to electric propulsion in the downtown bus tunnel. This tunnel will become a shared tunnel serving both buses and light rail upon completion of construction. The Gray Line runs an airporter service to a downtown hotel loop. Ten other companies offer bus and van services around the region. Together, all the sched- uled services attract about 4% mode share. All shared-ride van service to the airport is provided by Shuttle Express, which attracts more than 6% of market share. Portland (10% Market Share) The Airport. Portland International Airport is located about 12 miles from the center of Portland. The airport served about 13.9 MAP in 2005; of these, some 5.4 million were originat- ing passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 16 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.5 million travelers who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. The Portland airport has a centralized configuration, with all baggage claim in one location. Across from the baggage claim area, a ground transportation center has been built within the central garage structure. In various island locations, rental cars, shuttle vans, and courtesy vehicles all depart from a relatively small area. The light rail station has been built on the same level as baggage claim, which makes for a very convenient connec- tion for travelers with baggage. Rail. Light rail service has been inaugurated to downtown, with good regional connections to other transit centers. The train trip takes about 35 minutes to downtown, which is competi- tive with automobile times during peak periods, and costs $2. At present, rail attracts more than 5% of market share. There are six longer distance shuttle operators. Sixteen companies are listed as providing door-to- door shared-ride services. Buses and vans capture more than 4% of airline passenger market share. Chicago Midway (9% Market Share) The Airport. Chicago’s Midway International Airport is located about 11.8 miles from the center of Chicago. The airport served about 17.7 MAP in 2005; of these, some 5.9 million were originating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 19 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.5 million travel- ers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 17 Midway International Airport 9% 5.5% 4% SOURCE: Chicago Origin-Destination Survey Report (20) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 16 Portland International Airport 10% 6% 4% SOURCE: Terminal Access Study (23) 82 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

Connections at the Airport. In an unusual terminal expansion, the landside terminal functions of Midway airport were moved closer to the existing Orange Line station, which is connected to the terminal by a series of walkways through the new parking garage. Rail. CTA provides the rail service, and the airport is the terminus of the service’s Orange Line. Nearly 6% of air travelers choose the rail system at Midway airport. Similar to many higher market share services, transit at Midway serves specific market segments well. Specifically, more than 20% of air travelers from the Loop choose the Orange Line service. Bus. Continental Airport Express operates both the downtown hotel shuttle loop and door- to-door services throughout the region. There are five bus and van companies offering regional ground access services to Midway, with connections to Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana, and several locations in Illinois. One bus company provides several connections in the Chicago Metro area, including O’Hare International Airport. About 4% of air travelers use buses and airport vans to get to the airport. Phoenix (9% Market Share) The Airport. Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport is located about 7 miles from the center of Phoenix. The airport served about 41.2 MAP in 2005; of these, some 11.5 million were originating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 11 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 1.0 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. Phoenix has a dominant terminal (Terminal 4 with seven concourses) and two smaller terminals (Terminal 2 with two concourses and Terminal 3 with one concourse). (Terminal 1 does not exist.) Terminals 3 and 4 are characterized by a somewhat unusual clockwise-loop roadway (vehicles drive on the left rather than the right). This clockwise- loop roadway allows the landside terminal buildings to be located in the middle of the loops and serve concourses on both sides of the loop. Thus, in total, the buses have three pick-up areas to serve 10 separate airside concourses. Bus/Van. There are two traditional transit bus services serving the airport. All shared-ride shuttle services throughout the region are operated by one company, Super Shuttle. Services depart every 15 minutes until 9 p.m., after which headways become longer. More than a dozen companies are authorized to serve other cities and towns within the state. San Diego (9% Market Share) The Airport. San Diego International Airport is located about 3 miles from the center of San Diego. The airport served about 17.4 MAP in 2005; of these, some 7.8 million were Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 19 San Diego International Airport 9% 0% 9% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 18 Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport 9% 0% 9% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 83

originating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 5 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.7 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. San Diego airport has two general-purpose terminals, which have a one-level curb serving both arrivals and departures. Each terminal has a ground trans- portation plaza for taxis, buses, and vans. In each case, passengers are offered a “skybridge” to access the check-in areas. Bus/Van. A specialized public transportation service has been created between the airport and the primary convention/hotel area of downtown San Diego, with service every 12 minutes. Many buses are elaborately painted with airport themes, and baggage space is provided. The fare is more than $2. The van services are presented in a novel way: a Transportation Coordinator places the trav- eler with the first available shuttle, unless the traveler specifies a particular shuttle company. This service may be a small step toward joint or centralized dispatching over several companies. Ten companies are listed as service providers on the airport’s website. Overall, all bus/van services together attract about 9% of the ground access market. Indianapolis (9% Market Share) The Airport. Indianapolis International Airport is located about 15.1 miles from the center of Indianapolis. The airport served about 8.5 MAP in 2005; of these, some 3.6 million were orig- inating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 28 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.3 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. Indianapolis International Airport was one of the first U.S. airports to construct a separate ground transportation center, located on the first floor of its main parking garage. From this point, all buses, limousines, and courtesy vehicles depart. Bus/Limousine. Traditional transit bus service is offered to downtown. Three operators provide shuttle van service from Indianapolis International Airport, with one service going to Champaign/Urbana, Illinois; one to Indiana University; and one to Purdue University. The absence of a shared-ride van service to downtown is interesting. However, the airport website describes seven limousine operators as “shared-ride service.” This difference in definitions may have resulted in a “shared-ride” mode share being reported that is not consistent with other market shares reported in this chapter. Washington Dulles (8% Market Share) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 21 Washington Dulles International Airport 8% 1% 7% SOURCE: 2005 Washington-Baltimore Regional Air Passenger Survey (15) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 20 Indianapolis International Airport 9% 0% 9% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) 84 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

The Airport. Washington Dulles International Airport is located about 33 miles from the center of Washington, D.C. The airport served about 26.8 MAP in 2005; of these, some 6.5 mil- lion were originating passengers. The average driving time to DC was calculated by MWCOG at 51 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.5 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. Dulles airport is one of the most highly centralized airport con- figurations in the United States, with all landside functions occurring in one structure. The curb system at the arrivals level allows for a single point of departure for public mode services. Rail. Travelers from Dulles airport can access the Washington MetroRail system via a sched- uled bus service between Dulles and West Falls Church station. The service operates every half hour, for a fare of $9, and takes about 30 minutes. Line time to downtown is then under 25 min- utes. This service attracts somewhat less than 1% of the ground access market. Bus/Van. All shared-ride services from Dulles airport are provided under a franchise agree- ment with Super Shuttle, Inc. The use of traditional coach bus services has evolved considerably over the past decade. For years, the Washington Flyer coach served a fixed route between Dulles and a terminal area at or near the Capital Hilton, near K Street in Washington, D.C. Now the larger coach service is offered only to the Falls Church station of the Metrorail system. The shared-ride van system at Dulles captures a market share of about 7% of airline passengers. As noted in TCRP Report 62, the market share for the Dulles express bus service had been decreasing for two decades, from 15% in 1978 to 9% in 1982, 5% in 1994, and 4% in 1997. During this time, the market area served by Dulles airport shifted from primarily downtown Washington to Northern Virginia, influenced by the increasing airline service available at the airport. New York LaGuardia (8% Market Share) The Airport. LaGuardia Airport is located about 9 miles from the center of Manhattan. The airport served about 26.7 MAP in 2005; of these, some 11.3 million were originating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 17 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.9 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. LaGuardia has traditionally been a difficult airport for ground transportation services because of its four decentralized terminals. With two stops in the central terminal area, and one each at the US Airways and Delta terminals, bus service must also pro- vide access to the Marine Air Terminal, currently the location of the Delta Shuttle, located some distance from the central terminal area. In some years, the bus service from Grand Central Station operated a separate bus for the Marine Air Terminal, but currently all buses must serve all five stops in the LaGuardia facility. Rail. Local bus service is available to several New York City subway stations, including Jackson Heights and Astoria Boulevard stations. These two rail transfer points are actually closer to LaGuardia than Coliseum Station is to Oakland airport; nevertheless, rail service has accounted for less than 1% of the LaGuardia access market. Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 22 LaGuardia Airport 8% 1% 7% SOURCE: Metropolitan Transportation Authority New York (11) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 85

Bus/Van. Bus service designed for and dedicated to airline passengers has been a major public transit mode at the three New York City area airports. At LaGuardia, privately owned buses captured 7% of the market in 1992 and 5% of the market in 1997 (24). New York Air- port Service Express Company offers scheduled service, with full-size coaches, to its Grand Central station facility and connecting services to hotels and the Port Authority Bus Terminal. At present, two companies offer shared-ride van services to New York City, and about five more provide services to the distant suburbs and adjacent states. At present, the combination of scheduled airport bus service and shared-ride services together account for about 7% of the market. Philadelphia (7% Market Share) The Airport. Philadelphia International Airport is located about 9 miles from the center of Philadelphia. The airport served about 31.5 MAP in 2005; of these, some 9.1 million were orig- inating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 14 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.6 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. At Philadelphia International Airport, ground transportation services depart from a series of arrival terminals, where baggage claim occurs immediately adjacent to rail departure points. Although the train is required to stop in five places, the overall walking distances between baggage carousels and train boardings are quite short. Rail. Philadelphia International Airport’s layout was designed for good connections to the commuter rail platforms, with baggage pick-up areas adjacent to the three rail stops. Walking distances from each of the baggage claim areas to the adjacent platform of the commuter rail are among the shortest in the world. The 30-minute travel time to a series of distribution stations in downtown Philadelphia can be competitive during congested-roadway periods but not during off-peak conditions. The rail line goes to the center of downtown, serving the Market Street East complex. In 1986, about 4.5% of originating passengers chose the commuter rail service, a market share that has decreased to about 2%. At the time of the 1986 survey, rail captured about 16% of the air traveler market from the center of the city (26). The 30-minute headway of the service is problematic: the traveler can spend more time waiting for the vehicle than on board the vehicle. As a result, Philadelphia’s rail service attracts only about 2% of airline passengers. Although the airport commuter rail station attracts about 2,600 travelers a day, only 14% of them are estimated to be airline passengers. Because of a reported growth in rail ridership on the line, the researchers have estimated the rail mode share at about 3%. The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) reports an increase in rail ridership on the line, for all trip purposes, of about 66% between 1990 and 2005. Bus/Van. A wide variety of shared-ride services are offered from the airport, with connec- tions southward to Delaware and north to New Jersey. Based on the last available data, bus and vans together gained about a 4% market share. Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 23 Philadelphia International Airport 7% 3% 4% SOURCE: Philadelphia International Airport Ground Access Survey (25) 86 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

Tampa (7% Market Share) The Airport. Tampa International Airport is located about 6 miles from the center of Tampa. The airport served about 19.0 MAP in 2005; of these, some 8.1 million were originating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 12 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.6 million travelers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. Like the nearby Orlando airport, Tampa airport operates with one consolidated landside air terminal. However, the design of the terminal calls for publicly available transportation services to depart from four separate “Commercial Ground Trans- portation Quadrants.” Bus/Van. Shared-ride van service to Hillsborough County is provided by Bay Shuttle, while service to Pinellas, Pasco, and Hernando Counties is provided by Super Shuttle. In the most recent survey data available, they attract about 6% of the air traveler market. Traditional public transit buses are provided to Tampa and to Sarasota; the Tampa service stops at one curb loca- tion, while the Sarasota bus stops at two of the four quadrants. Dallas/Fort Worth (6% Market Share) The Airport. Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is located about 21 miles from the center of Dallas. The airport served about 59.2 MAP in 2005; of these, some 10.7 million were originating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 24 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.6 million travel- ers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. Dallas/Fort Worth airport is one of the most decentralized air- ports in the world, which is a challenge to the designer of shared ground transportation services. Currently there are five terminals, each with two clearly definable baggage claim locations. The airport roadway system connecting these terminals is itself a series of loops, and the task of assem- bling a shared-ride group of passengers for an outbound vehicle trip can take a considerable amount of time. Rail. The Centre Point/DFW station has been built on the new Trinity Railway Express that operates between Dallas to the east and Fort Worth to the west of the airport. The station is located about 6.5 miles from the center of the airport. Service is operated Monday through Saturday, but not on Sundays. From the rail station, airline passengers are expected to take a shuttle bus, with service every 15 minutes and an 11-minute travel time, to the airport’s Remote South Parking Lot. There the airport runs three shuttle buses: one to Terminals A and C, one to Terminals B and E, and one to Terminal D. Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 25 Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport 6% 0% 6% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 24 Tampa International Airport 7% 0% 7% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 87

Bus. Transit services are provided from two transfer points at two remote lots. An airporter service links the airport with a downtown hotel loop. A variety of shuttle van companies serve the airport. St. Louis (6% Market Share) The Airport. Lambert–St. Louis International Airport is located about 16 miles from the center of St. Louis. The airport served about 14.7 MAP in 2005; of these, some 4.8 million were originating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 21 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.3 million travel- ers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. The St. Louis light rail has been integrated into the interior spaces of the airport’s Main Terminal; the traveler does not need to leave the terminal to access the rail system. A second station has been built to serve the East Terminal currently used by Southwest Airlines. Rail. The light rail at St. Louis airport attracts about 3% of airline passengers, as determined from calculations, not surveys. About 2,400 transit riders board at the airport station daily, but no market survey has been undertaken concerning the split between airline passengers and employees. Both airport and transit officials, however, suggest that about one-third of the riders are airline passengers, with most of the rest airport employees. These airport and transit officials have reported that nearby park-and-ride facilities have been filling up with airport employees anxious to avoid an airport parking charge recently established for most airport employees. Bus/Van. Service to a downtown hotel loop is provided by Gem Shuttle/Trans Express Transportation. Two bus companies provide traditional coach service to the airport, and three companies provide additional van services. Cleveland (6% Market Share) The Airport. Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is located about 15 miles from the center of Cleveland. The airport served about 11.5 MAP in 2005; of these, some 3.8 million were originating passengers. Under conditions of no highway congestion, the driving time from the airport to downtown is 20 minutes. The airport currently attracts about 0.2 million travel- ers per year who use public, high-occupancy modes to the airport. Connections at the Airport. Rail service at Cleveland airport benefits from a well-designed passenger connection to the terminal, with short walking distances from baggage claim. Rail. With a 30-minute ride to downtown (the Tower City Center), the “Rapid” offers travel times that are directly comparable to taxi times. With 15-minute headways for most of the day, Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 27 Cleveland Hopkins International Airport 6% 2% 4% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 26 Lambert-St. Louis International Airport 6% 3% 3% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) 88 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

the service is one of the most frequent of rail services at airports located this distance from the CBD. The major difference between the two modes is price—$1.75 for rail versus more than $20 for taxis (which capture about 5% mode share)—reinforcing the concept that most air travelers perceive convenience to be more important than cost. Ridership has declined sharply over time, for reasons that have more to do with the percep- tion of the service than the actual times and costs relative to competing modes. A 1970 airport access survey reported a rail market share of 19%, with the downtown’s largest destination zone showing a 33% market share. However, average airport station volumes (all trip purposes) decreased 36% between 1970 and 1975. In 1988, the rail market share was estimated to be 2.8%. Bus/Van. Public transportation bus services are offered to Elyria and Oberlin, Ohio, by Lorain County Transit. No van service to the Cleveland area is documented by the airport, although any state-licensed limousine company is authorized to provide pre-arranged trips to and from the airport. Other Airports of Interest Airports serving Minneapolis–St. Paul and Milwaukee have begun to offer new public mode services since the publication of TCRP Report 62 and TCRP Report 83, but no survey-based data were found to support any quantitative summaries of market share for this chapter. Officials in Minnesota reported that no new airport-based survey has been conducted since the opening of the light rail service to downtown Minneapolis and the Mall of America. Their estimate was that the service was attracting less than 5% of the ground access market. Similarly, no survey-based data have been found for the ridership on the new rail station at Milwaukee’s General Mitchell International Airport on the new Amtrak Hiawatha Line. Unofficial reports suggest that airline passengers who take the train to that station, and connect to the terminal by the shuttle bus, would comprise less than 1% of the total airline passenger vol- umes at General Mitchell International Airport. Part 2: Best Practices at European and Asian Airports This section presents brief, factual overviews of 19 of the most successful airport ground access systems in Europe and Asia case studies. For each of these systems shown in Figure 4-3, the com- bination of rail and bus services attracts more than 20% of airline passenger market share. Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 89 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Os lo Ho ng Ko ng Na rita Sh an gh ai Zu ric h Vie nn a Sta nst ed Pa ris CD G Am ste rda m Co pe nh ag en Mu nic h He ath row Sto ckh olm Fra nk fur t Ga twi ck Ge ne va Bru sse ls Pa ris Or ly Dü sse ldo rf Rail Bus/Van Figure 4-3. Public transportation mode shares at European and Asian airports.

In each case, key roles are played by rail and bus services. These systems are presented in order of their mode share to rail and bus services combined. Shared-ride services (such as door-to- door vans) play a very small role in European and Asian airports and have been uniformly excluded from this analysis. The public transportation mode shares for the 19 European and Asian airports are shown combined and by share to rail and bus services in Table 4-2. Each European and Asian airport is reviewed in terms of the characteristics of the airport itself, the nature of its configuration relative to ground transportation services, and the role played by rail and bus services. Additionally, the services are reviewed in terms of their relationship to an overall baggage-handling strategy or approach. (This category was not included in the review of U.S. airports in the previous section.) Finally, observations are presented about the market char- acteristics of the airport ground access services when they are relevant to the emphasis areas of this report. The factors that contribute to the success of the ground access systems are examined in six categories: • The airport: Data are presented that describe each European or Asian airport’s size and loca- tion, and give a general estimate of taxi fares to the downtown area. Uniform data on origi- nating passengers are presented. • Connections at the airport: The discussion of this category examines the quality of the con- nection between the rail services and the airport check-in or baggage claim areas. Physical and architectural details are reviewed as relevant, and the physical quality of the transfer from the airline passenger terminal to the rail system is described. Also noted is the nature of the con- figuration of the airport itself. The difference between centralized and decentralized airport layouts is examined. • Rail: Most European airports rely on some form of rail service for ground access. This category includes a brief description of the nature of the rail service provided and whether the service is dedicated or shared. Fares are presented. When service is provided beyond the traditional downtown, the nature of the regional services is noted. 90 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation Market Share Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 1 Oslo 64% 39% 25% 2 Hong Kong 63% 28% 35% 3 Narita 59% 36% 23% 4 Shanghai 51% 6% 45% 5 Zurich 47% 42% 5% 6 Vienna 41% 30% 11% 7 London Stansted 40% 29% 11% 8 Paris Charles de Gaulle 40% 27% 13% 9 Amsterdam 37% 35% 2% 10 Copenhagen 37% 33% 4% 11 Munich 36% 28% 8% 12 London Heathrow 36% 24% 12% 13 Stockholm 34% 18% 16% 14 Frankfurt 33% 27% 6% 15 London Gatwick 31% 24% 7% 16 Geneva 28% 21% 7% 17 Brussels 26% 16% 10% 18 Paris Orly 26% 14% 12% 19 Düsseldorf 22% 18% 4% Table 4-2. Public transportation mode shares to European and Asian airports.

• Baggage-handling strategy: In the discussion for this category, each airport access system is reviewed in terms of the strategies employed to deal with the baggage of the air traveler. Specific examples are presented for off-site check-in strategies, ranging from full-service downtown terminals to integration with other mechanisms for off-site check-in. When rele- vant, the status of such systems is summarized. • Bus: Although their relative importance in Europe and Asia is less important than in the United States, key services are provided by bus. Small buses (i.e., vans) are included in the overall mode shares for bus. • Relevant market characteristics: This descriptive information is reviewed in the context of any known market data for each of the systems. Market characteristics include the extent to which the market is oriented to the downtown or to other areas well served by the regional rail system. Oslo (64% Market Share) The Airport. Oslo’s new airport at Gardermoen opened in 1998. The airport is 30 miles north of downtown Oslo and served more than 16 MAP in 2006. Travel time by taxi from Oslo to the airport is estimated to be 45 minutes. Because the new airport is 30 miles from downtown Oslo, high-speed transit services have a market advantage over taxis and other modes of transportation. The Norwegian authorities set a policy goal of 50% market share capture for the combined rail services. Connections at the Airport. The new Oslo airport was built from the initial concept to serve as an exemplary intermodal transfer facility. Designed from the outset to serve as part of an integrated access system, the airport is centralized, with all gates served by a single landside terminal. Because of the natural geography of the airport site, the rail facility is at grade for most of the area. The rail service is in the lower (basement) level of the air terminal building. Escala- tor service is provided from the train station to the check-in and ticketing area of the airport. Buses depart from a location very close to the baggage claim area. Rail. Rail service between the airport and downtown Oslo was initiated in 1998. The airport is served both by a dedicated service (the Oslo Airport Express) and standard national railway service. In 1998, interim service was operated bypassing an incomplete tunnel section that has now been replaced by a more direct route between the airport and downtown. The Oslo Airport Express is designed for 120-mph operation, consistent with Norwegian intercity services. The train makes this 30-mile trip between the airport and downtown in 19 minutes. There are six trains per hour; of these six trains, three continue beyond Oslo’s Central Station. Baggage-Handling Strategy. The Oslo Airport Express train was designed with a proactive strategy for baggage. The operation does not currently have an off-site baggage-handling system, but it incorporates a unique seating layout, in which every seat faces a baggage storage area. All seats served by each entrance door face the baggage-storage shelves. Originally planned baggage check-in services at the Oslo downtown rail station have now been abandoned. Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) offers a kiosk for check-in for those travelers with only hand baggage. Bus. Airport bus service is offered to some major hotels with a 55-minute travel time every 10 minutes, for a fare that is lower than the competing rail services. Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 1 Oslo Airport 64% 39% 25% SOURCE: Vergleich internationaler Flughäfen (27) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 91

Market Characteristics. The managers of the Oslo Airport Express train estimate that some 48% of all deplaning airline passengers are destined to the city of Oslo. Another 11% are going to other towns in the southwest directly served by the rail service from the airport. The marketing strategy for the Oslo Airport Express focuses heavily on the needs of the business traveler, and extensive work has been undertaken with Norway’s largest employers to sell tick- ets directly to these organizations. Some 58% of the airline passengers using rail were traveling on business. Hong Kong (63% Market Share) The Airport. Hong Kong International Airport serves about 44 MAP and is located 21 miles from Hong Kong Island. From the airport, a taxi ride to Hong Kong Island costs more than $50 and takes 30 minutes under optimal conditions, much longer when the downtown roads are congested. The new expressway, a part of the regional highway system built to access the airport development area, has virtually no associated congestion or travel time delay. Connections at the Airport. Hong Kong airport was designed to achieve optimized inte- gration between rail and air facilities. All deplaning passengers retrieve their bags in one centralized arrival hall/customs facility located on the lower level of the airport terminal. From this facility, passengers walk across the arrival hall and board the train without changing levels. Conversely, the train brings all enplaning passengers to the upper level of the airport terminal, where they proceed through ticketing without changing levels. Rail. The Hong Kong Airport Express train departs from the airport every 8 minutes for three stations: Hong Kong (Central), Kowloon, and Tsing Yi. Travel time between the airport and Hong Kong (Central) is 23 minutes. Fares were initially established at $9 to Hong Kong, $8 to Kowloon, and $5 to Tsing Yi. The Airport Express is operated by the MTRC. The researchers estimate that 25% of airline passengers take the Airport Express and 3% take the local. Baggage-Handling Strategy. MTRC developed the world’s first downtown check-in sys- tem for use by all airlines. The system provides baggage check-in facilities at both Central Sta- tion and Kowloon Station. All check-in functions, including the issuance of boarding passes, are undertaken at the downtown facilities staffed by airline personnel, rather than rail employ- ees. Although the service is free, it is available only to those who have purchased a rail ticket, and its operation is subsidized by the rail system. Central Station started with 28 check-in posi- tions of 45 potential positions, while Kowloon Station opened with 33 positions of 83 potential positions. Bus. The airport can also be reached by a bus connecting with the Tung Hung rail line, which was also built by MTRC as part of the integrated railway project serving the new devel- opment area around the airport. About 25% of airline passengers choose the more expensive Airport Express service; about 3% take the shuttle bus to the less expensive Tung Chung service. Bus service specifically designed for airline passengers serves major hotel locations in Kowloon and Hong Kong. Airbus service focusing on hotel locations was originally provided for about $5, while a major transit operator, Citybus, has created a series of new bus routes with lower fares. Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 2 Hong Kong International Airport 63% 28% 35% SOURCE: MTRC (28) 92 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

Bus ridership has been estimated at 35%, although the actual share of pre-packaged charter buses is unclear. Market Characteristics. The market for ground access services in Hong Kong is concentrated in a relatively small area. Of those passengers arriving at the previous Hong Kong airport, 40% were destined for the Kowloon Peninsula, while 33% were destined for Hong Kong Island. The rest were destined for the New Territories to the north. Of those passengers checking in, 17% had no bags checked. Another 27% had only one bag checked. Of those passengers on the new Airport Express train, 31% were resident air travelers and 39% were non-resident air travelers (29). Narita (59% Market Share) The Airport. The airport in Narita, located 40 miles east of downtown Tokyo, served more than 31 MAP in 2006. The airport has two terminals, each of which is connected by walkway to its rail station. Travel by automobile between the airport and downtown varies from 90 minutes to several hours. Taxi fare can be as much as $180 for the trip. Connections at the Airport. Initially, Narita International Airport operated from a single air terminal, which was served by the stub end terminal of the rail lines. With construction of the new Terminal 2 complex, a second railroad station has been added at Narita. Both railroad sta- tions are located in plazas beyond the access roadway, with walks of 500 ft. The stations are accessed via a mezzanine level under the airport roadway. Rail. The East Japan Railway Company (JR-East) operates the Narita Express rail service every half hour. Coach, first-class, and super-first-class services are available for the 55-minute trip to downtown. Fares on the Narita Express cost around $40. A private railroad company oper- ates Keisei Railways Skyliner service at lower prices to two downtown stations. The Narita Express captures 14% of the air traveler market; the Skyliner captures 10%. A third level of service is pro- vided by more traditional transit trains, which offer a partial express service to downtown for under $10.The three rail systems at Narita attract about 36% of the market, while buses attract an additional 23%. Baggage-Handling Strategy. The strategies for handling baggage vary considerably by service. The two major express rail services have baggage storage areas on each vehicle; the rapid transit vehicle has no provision for baggage. For years, a major downtown check-in terminal served the airport buses, but not the rail systems. This downtown check-in service was discon- tinued in 2002. Narita airport has a well-developed program for home delivery of bags that is operated by a private company. Bus. Luxury buses operate from the Tokyo City Air Terminal, where downtown check-in was once offered. Market Characteristics. Narita airport provides an excellent example of the principles of market segmentation by price points. Not only are three levels of service offered by rail operat- ing companies, but on the most popular—the Narita Express—there are three classes of seating. During peak travel periods, all seats on the Narita Express are often reserved days in advance, and only standby seating is sold at the airport. Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 3 Narita Airport 59% 36% 23% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 93

Shanghai (51% Market Share) The Airport. Shanghai Pudong International Airport is located 18 miles from downtown Shanghai and served more than 21 MAP in 2005. Built in 1999, it serves mainly international travel, with a second, older airport, Hongquiao, serving the domestic market. A taxi trip to downtown takes about 70 minutes, at a cost of about $10. Connections at the Airport. The passenger terminal at Pudong International Airport is con- nected by a long walking bridge directly to the station for the maglev train to the downtown. The connection can be made without exposure to weather. Rail/Maglev. The extremely high-speed maglev train makes the trip to downtown in about 8 minutes and costs about $7. Surveys presented to the Transportation Research Board have established that the buses as a whole capture 45% of the ground access market, while the maglev captures only 6% of the market. Bus. Costing around $3, a set of bus services offers direct services to a wide variety of city destinations. Six separate routes are offered from the airport, with headways ranging between 15 minutes (to a downtown air terminal) and 30 minutes (to a football stadium). Market Characteristics. A discussion of the relative importance of fast line-haul speed versus directness of service is presented in Chapter 3. Zurich (47% Market Share) The Airport. Zurich Airport is located in the town of Kloten, about 7 miles from the center of Zurich. The drive to downtown can take about 20 minutes, with taxi fares of about $35. The airport has suffered a loss of traffic since the demise of its principal hub airline, Swissair, and the relative role of Zurich as a transferring hub has substantially decreased. The airport handled more than 19 MAP in 2006. Connections at the Airport. Zurich Airport was one of the first to build a rail station under- ground beneath the major landside terminals. The compact configuration of Zurich Airport allows for direct connection from the rail station to both Terminals A and B. In fact, the two terminals have now been joined to create one common departure/waiting area for most passen- gers; this combined landside facility also serves a new midfield terminal. Most of the additional check-in terminals associated with the physical expansion of the terminals have been placed within the upper lobby of the rail station. Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 5 Zurich Airport 47% 42% 5% SOURCE: Vergleich internationaler Flughäfen (27) Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 4 Shanghai Pudong International Airport 51% 6% 45% SOURCE: “The Characteristic Analysis of Passengers’ Selection of Ground Transport Mode Connecting Shanghai Pudong International Airport and the Downtown Area” (8) 94 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

Rail. Service to Downtown. The trains from the airport to downtown Zurich leave approx- imately every 10 minutes, have a 10-minute travel time, and cost under $10. Integration with Regional Transportation System. The Zurich rail system can be charac- terized as being part of a national system, which operates as a shared system. More than 200 trains per day arrive at the airport; in general no trains are operated solely to serve the airport, and all trains are part of a longer route. The Zurich Airport rail station is near the eastern end of the major east–west trunk railway, which offers service every hour to Geneva at the western tip of the country. The rail system attracts 42% of airline passengers, and recent statements from the airport operator suggest this share is rising. Baggage-Handling Strategy. Zurich Airport is served by the most comprehensive off-site baggage and passenger check-in system in the world, known as the Fly-Rail Baggage program. Baggage can be checked in at 50 rail stations throughout the country for most scheduled flights, with the exception of some flights to the United States. This service costs $15 per bag. Swiss Federal Railway will accept bags as late as 3 hours before flight time in the downtown Zurich train station and requires up to 16 hours at isolated Alpine stations. The concept of a third party (neither airline nor airport) providing through-baggage service was developed in Switzerland and is discussed more thoroughly in Chapter 5. Bus. Buses play a relatively minor role at Zurich Airport, given the coverage of the national rail network. Public transportation buses are operated primarily to serve employees. Some spe- cialty buses are run from remote locations, including early in the morning (e.g., 1 a.m. to 4 a.m.) when train schedules are poor. Buses attract about 5% of the market. Market Characteristics. The access system for Zurich Airport has been structured around the needs of airline passengers who use longer distance rail, and the mode shares attained for var- ious geographic market segments support this. Of those passengers coming from non-local mar- kets in Switzerland, more than 50% travel by rail. For example, the market share from the national capital, Bern, a city 75 miles from the airport, is about 60%. Conversely, from the imme- diate bedroom suburbs, only about 8% of airline passengers select the rail option to get to the air- port. Of all outbound travelers at the Zurich Airport rail station, about 40% are going to the Zurich metropolitan area, with 60% traveling longer distances. Vienna (41% Market Share) The Airport. Vienna International Airport is located about 12 miles from Vienna and served nearly 17 MAP in 2006. The drive by automobile takes less than 25 minutes under uncongested roadway conditions. Connections at the Airport. The Vienna International Airport operates as one single struc- ture, in spite of the terminology of Terminals 1, 1a, and 2. From a common baggage pick-up area, an underground walkway leads directly to the rail station and also connects to the central park- ing facilities. The traveler can choose between one platform for the express, dedicated train and a second platform for shared commuter rail services. Newly redesigned luxury buses operate from the curb. Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 6 Vienna International Airport 41% 30% 11% SOURCE: “Vienna International Airport–AirRail 2007” (48) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 95

Rail. A new City Air Terminal has been created within the Vienna-Middle station. The terminal is well located relative to major tourist hotels, at the edge of the Stadtpark, and has four check-in counters and five automatic kiosk machines. From this location, the traveler has a choice of dedicated rail service, called the “CAT,” or shared rail services from the regional sub- urban rail system. The CAT service offers non-stop connections to the airport in 16 minutes. Tickets on the dedicated service are available for about $12, with the competing services priced like commuter rail service. The dedicated rail is currently attracting about 14% of the market, while the standard rail service is attracting about 16% of the market. Baggage-Handling Strategy. For those travelers who choose the higher priced dedicated rail service, baggage check-in is offered for 25 airlines, including Star Alliance airlines, of which Austrian Airlines is a member. Travelers to the United States can check their bags at the City Air Terminal. The downtown check-in station is unusual in that it offers totally automated baggage check-in service. About one in five airline passengers are reported to use the check-in service (37). Bus. Bus service is offered from three downtown locations, including the South Rail Station and the West Rail Station, at a price of about $8. The airport reports that bus services capture about 11% of the ground access market for airline passengers. London Stansted (40% Market Share) The Airport. Stansted Airport is located 35 miles north of London, which is about 70 min- utes by automobile. Taxi fare for the journey is estimated at $100. Stansted served about 21 MAP in 2005 and is growing rapidly. About 13% of traffic is to UK destinations, and about 87% is international. Some 87% of these travelers are terminating, and not transferring to other flights. Connections at the Airport. Stansted Airport has a centralized configuration, with a com- pact landside terminal serving a series of airside concourses via a people-mover link. The rail station is integrated into the basement of the terminal structure and accessed by elevator, esca- lators, and ramps. The escalators from the rail station are located in the departures concourse; the escalators to the rail station are located in the arrivals concourse. The bus station is across the airport roadway, in a central plaza. Rail. Stansted Airport is served by both dedicated rail services to London and shared rail services in the region. Initially called the “Stansted Skytrain,” the dedicated rail service to London operated every half hour from Liverpool Street Station, with about a 40- to 45-minute travel time to the airport. In 1999, the service was rebranded as the Stansted Express and began to offer ser- vice with 15-minute headways for much of the day. In 2007, the fare was about $30 one way. Hourly local service between the airport and London is also provided. Additional services are provided directly to the Midlands and destinations in the north of England. Rail captures 29% of the airline passenger market. Baggage-Handling Strategy. The dedicated trains of the Stansted Express are designed with ample luggage storage areas on board. The concept of downtown check-in at Liverpool Street Station was explored by the operators of the Stansted Express along with the airlines and the owners of the rail station and was discontinued. Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 7 London Stansted Airport 40% 29% 11% SOURCE: CAA Passenger Survey Report 2004 (30) 96 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

Bus. An aggressive program of bus operations to UK airports is now under way, with direct service from the London bus terminal near Victoria and Liverpool Street Station to Stansted, at prices lower than the rail. Over time, bus ridership has risen from 10.2% in 2003 to 11.4% in 2004. Market Characteristics. Managers of the rail system have seen a significant rise in mode share to rail, from less than 10% to 29% in the last decade. Analysts note that, in the past, Stansted air travelers did not tend to come from the London area. Market data showed that, for the small portion of travelers who did come from central London, their mode share to rail was extremely high, at a capture rate of more than 50%. Over the past 5 years, a greater proportion of Stansted air travelers are now coming from London, resulting in a higher airport-wide mode share for rail. Paris Charles de Gaulle (40% Market Share) The Airport. Located 15 miles north of Paris, Charles de Gaulle International Airport is the dominant airport in not only Paris, but also France. The airport’s passenger volume was more than 56 million in 2006. A rail station has been built in the center of a new air terminal complex. Ground access time on the motorways from downtown Paris varies from 30 minutes to more than 1 hour in heavy congestion. Taxi fares are about $50. Connections at the Airport. A shuttle bus connects Terminal 1 with the original Regional Express Network (RER) station, which is 1 mile away. In 1998, a second rail station incorporat- ing both high-speed national service and the regional RER was opened in the new Terminal 2 complex. The current long-term plans for the airport call for the creation of a people-mover system; earlier attempts at building an innovative system failed. Currently, Terminal 1 is con- nected to the rail stations by a shuttle bus. Rail. Line Haul to Downtown. Regional services are capturing 21% of the ground access market. The airport is served by both metropolitan and national rail services. The electrified sub- urban rail network, known as the RER Line B, provides service every 15 minutes to downtown, with direct service to many downtown stations that offer quick connections to the rapid transit system (Metro). The RER Line B provides a 35-minute travel time from the airport to downtown Paris, for less than $10. Connections to the National System. Over the past decade there has been a rapid increase in the importance of the national high-speed rail system at Charles de Gaulle airport. At present, the national service attracts 6% of the ground access market. These services provide high-speed rail as far north as Brussels, and to the Mediterranean coast to the south. Aéroports de Paris is currently working with the national railroad authority to create a new express service into Paris, reportedly with an 18-minute travel time. Bus. Buses are capturing 13% of the market. Bus service is provided by Air France and the local public transit operator, the RATP. The Air France bus costs more than $10 between the airport and downtown; the “Roissybus” to the bus station next to the opera house costs somewhat less. Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 8 Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport 40% 27% RER 21% TGV 6% 13% SOURCE: Aéroports de Paris (31) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 97

Baggage-Handling Strategy. There is currently no downtown check-in facility in Paris to replace the original City Air Terminal at Invalides Station on the Left Bank. There are no dedi- cated areas for baggage on the RER trains, which are overcrowded during peak periods. The long- distance TGV trains have excellent baggage storage, and plans are under consideration for off-site check-in services. Amsterdam (37% Market Share) The Airport. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Europe’s fourth largest airport, served more than 44 MAP in 2006. It is located about 12 miles from Amsterdam and 40 miles from The Hague, capital of the Netherlands. The airport serves a wide geographic feeder area; for exam- ple, travel to Rotterdam (approximately 32 miles from Amsterdam) is often made via rail connections after a flight into Schiphol. A taxi ride takes about 30 minutes from the airport to downtown Amsterdam, at a fare of approximately $30. Connections at the Airport. Schiphol airport was reconstructed to create a common arrivals area adjacent to three baggage claim areas. The rail platforms are located directly under this com- mon area. Even though the design evolved from the construction of separate terminal buildings, the main arrival hall functions occur near the rail and bus departure areas. With metropolitan rail service, national rail service, and an increasing amount of international high-speed rail ser- vices, Schiphol airport is served by one of the widest varieties of high-quality public transporta- tion modes of any airport in the world. Rail. Line-Haul Service. The combined rail system provides service every 15 minutes throughout most of the day, with a 15- to 20-minute travel time to Amsterdam Central Station. The fare between the airport and downtown is about $5. Integration with the Regional Transportation System. Although the local rapid transit lines do not serve the airport, the national railway system operates high-frequency services through- out the country, meeting the needs of local commuters. Therefore, service to Rotterdam or The Hague is offered as frequently as many traditional airport services to the dominant CBD. This strategy, which serves destinations throughout the country, is similar to that adopted in Switzerland. Services to international destinations are provided both by traditional intercity trains and by the high-speed Thaylis train. With new high-speed rights-of-way in the Benelux countries, service at 180 mph will be available from France to Cologne, Germany. Baggage-Handling Strategy. Currently, there are no off-site baggage check-in facilities in the Netherlands. In general, the trains that serve Schiphol airport are designed for national ser- vice and have ample space for bags. Bus/Van. Schiphol airport is developing a wide array of van-type services. Eight-person shuttle vans depart every 10 minutes to more than 100 hotels, providing essentially a flexible shared-ride van system; the return trip on the hotel shuttle can be requested up to 2 hours in advance. Importantly, the airport also offers shared-ride taxis, which are essentially small vans, operating to any destination in the Netherlands. Taxis must be reserved 24 hours in advance, at which time the user is given an Internet confirmation, including price and pick-up time. The air- port shared-ride taxi system commits to the traveler that the distance taken in the journey to the Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 9 Amsterdam Schiphol Airport 37% 35% 2% SOURCE: International AirRail Organization (32) 98 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

airport will not be more than 1.5 times the distance of a non–shared-ride trip. The reservation systems are well integrated with the airport website, as discussed in Chapter 9. Copenhagen (37% Market Share) The Airport. Copenhagen Airport served nearly 20 MAP in 2005. The airport is located in Kastrup, 7 miles southwest of downtown Copenhagen. Taxi service from the airport to down- town takes about 15 minutes and costs less than $30. The layout of the airport, including the rail station connected with Terminal 3, has been designed to create “seamless” transfer. The airport is an integral part of the Oresund Crossing system, which links Denmark with Southern Sweden by a complex bridge/tunnel system that has both highway and rail facilities. Connections at the Airport. The new Terminal 3 has been designed to include an architec- turally ambitious integrated air-rail terminal complex. A new check-in facility has been opened in the rail station lobby of Terminal 3. A new baggage claim and customs clearance center for the airport has been built as part of the new Terminal 3 complex. Rail. Rail service began in fall of 1998 and operates every 20 minutes, with a 12-minute travel time to Central Station for about $4. The service continues on to Hollinger and other cities, pro- viding national rail access to the airport. Passengers on other national services are provided with transfers at major stations, including Central Station. In July 2000, the rail service was inaugu- rated through the new bridge and tunnel to southern Sweden. Baggage-Handling Strategy. No off-site check-in services are planned in Denmark. The future of airport check-in facilities in Malmo, Sweden, is currently under discussion. New rail equipment for the cross-sound service is designed to accommodate a wide variety of objects, including bicycles. Historically, SAS provided baggage check-in services in many of their hotels, but this has been phased out. Bus. Until 1999, airport bus service to Central Station had been provided every 15 minutes in association with SAS—the airport’s dominant airline. The SAS bus charged $5 for the 20-minute ride. As a result of the introduction of rail service to downtown, the SAS bus to down- town has been eliminated. The city transit agency runs a bus to Central Station downtown, which is priced below the rail fare. Direct bus service is also operated between the airport and the south of Sweden. Before the rail service was initiated, the bus system captured 28% of the air traveler market. Munich (36% Market Share) The Airport. Munich Airport is located 17 miles north of downtown Munich and served nearly 31 MAP in 2006. From its opening in 1992, the airport was served by one line of the S-Bahn, the Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 11 Munich Airport 36% 28% 8% SOURCE: Munich airport website (33) Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 10 Copenhagen Airport 37% 33% 4% SOURCE: Vergleich internationaler Flughäfen (27) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 99

suburban rail system. In 1998, the German Federal Railroad inaugurated a second rail service to the Munich Airport. When the airport was served by only one rail line, rail captured 28% of the airline passenger market. By January 1999, the ridership on the two lines together had increased to 31% mar- ket share. Taxi service to the downtown area can cost as much as $60 and can take about 40 minutes. Connections at the Airport. The airport rail station was constructed as part of the new air- port and, thus, benefits from architectural integration with the airport terminals. Previously, enplaning passengers arriving by rail took an escalator from the platform to a mezzanine level where a check-in facility was provided; that separate baggage check-in area has been discontin- ued. Although the connection brings the rail passenger directly into the terminal structure, the configuration of the terminal calls for long walking distances within the building. For most of the airline gates, the walking distances from parking and from curbside drop-off are consider- ably shorter than the walking distance from the rail station. Rail. Rail currently captures about 28% of the market. The original rail service is provided every 20 minutes via the eastern downtown station (travel time of 31 minutes), through City Hall Square (37 minutes), and Main Station (40 minutes). The second service also provides 20-minute headways following the opposite route, with service via Main Station (40 minutes), through City Hall Square (43 minutes), and to the eastern downtown station (48 minutes). In the common downtown distribution section, service is provided every 10 minutes. However, travelers have to monitor train departures in two directions to catch the first train to the airport. A one-way ticket on either line costs about $11. Extensive plans have been developed to build a high-speed maglev from Munich Airport to the main train station in downtown. The route would follow the existing service commuter rail route via the Main Station. At present, the national government has not committed to funding the project. Baggage-Handling Strategy. A downtown check-in facility in the Main Station for Lufthansa passengers was discontinued for lack of customer use. Baggage space on the rail line varies by time of day and by level of crowding on the commuter systems. Bus. The city bus, which goes to Main Station every 20 minutes, has a travel time of 45 min- utes. The airport website describes 20 bus services to both metropolitan and longer distance des- tinations. Eight percent of Munich airline passengers come by bus. London Heathrow (36% Market Share) The Airport. London’s Heathrow Airport served more than 67 MAP in 2006, making it the busiest airport in Europe. Heathrow is located 15 miles west of London, with a driving time of 45 minutes to more than 1 hour. The taxi fare is more than $80, depending on the destination in London. Connections at the Airport. Terminals 1, 2 and 3, all located in the central terminal area, are con- nected with both London Underground and Heathrow Express stations by relatively long under- ground walkways. In a complex design to serve Heathrow’s scattered terminals, the Heathrow Express uses a two-track tunnel to serve the central terminal area; a single-track tunnel continues on to Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 12 Heathrow Airport 36% 24% Tube 14% Express 9% 12% SOURCE: CAA Passenger Survey Report 2004 (30) 100 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

Terminal 4. A two-track tunnel to the new Terminal 5 is now under construction. The London Under- ground employs a one-direction loop between the central terminal area and the newer Terminal 4. Within the central terminal area, the Heathrow Bus Station is the second busiest bus station in the United Kingdom, with many transfers from bus to bus by patrons not destined to the airport. Rail. In 1998, BAA (the airport operator) began operating the high-speed Heathrow Express, which captures more than 9% of the airline passenger market. With another 14% of air- line passengers using the Underground’s Piccadilly Line, rail captures almost 24% of the airline passenger market at Heathrow Airport. The Heathrow Express operates every 15 minutes on a scheduled 15-minute journey from the airport to Paddington Station in London’s West End. The new service, with a top speed of 100 mph, uses rail equipment built specifically for airline passengers. The fare for the high-speed express service is about $30, slightly less expensive when purchased online and slightly more expensive when purchased on board. The Piccadilly Line opened in 1977 and averages 20 mph, including station dwell times. This service takes 40 minutes to the closest parts of downtown London, with trip times including transfers of about 1 hour to farther downtown locations. The Piccadilly Line serves many pop- ular destination areas directly, with excellent connections to the rest of the London Underground rail system. The Underground service costs about $10. Recently, the managers of the Heathrow Express, which offers non-stop service to Padding- ton Station, have added a local train that stops at several stations. These stations allow several points of transfer with the rest of the metropolitan railway and underground systems. The new service, Heathrow Connect, is provided every half hour and the fare is significantly lower than the express service. This new service is not emphasized by the operators; the trains run from a separate part of Paddington Station and are not emphasized in the station graphics. It is too early to analyze ridership results. Baggage-Handling Strategy. Beginning in June 1999, full off-site airline check-in service was provided at Paddington Station, the terminus for the Heathrow Express. At its peak, 27 check-in positions were in use. The baggage check-in service was gradually discontinued between 2001 and 2003 (for more discussion, see Chapter 5). When the baggage system was in operation, Heathrow Express managers attempted to market an in-bound baggage service from the airport to downtown hotels. It was not used to any extent. There is little space to handle baggage on board the low-ceiling Piccadilly Line trains, and Underground stations are not designed for travelers with baggage. The Heathrow Express vehi- cles have large baggage storage areas on board. Bus. A wide variety of bus services are operated from Heathrow Airport, which serves as the second largest bus station in the United Kingdom. Many buses connect with parts of the national rail service that are poorly accessed through downtown London. National Express runs nearly 400 bus services per day, including to downtown London. Market Characteristics. Ridership of the London Underground service was documented as 62% airline passengers, 11% airport employees, 15% meeters and greeters, and 12% travelers with business in the airport vicinity. Only 5% of airport employees use the Underground (34). Stockholm (34% Market Share) Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 13 Stockholm-Arlanda Airport 34% 18% 16% SOURCE: Vergleich internationaler Flughäfen (27) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 101

The Airport. The Stockholm–Arlanda Airport is located 25 miles from downtown Stockholm. The airport served 15 MAP in 1998. A taxi ride takes 35 minutes and costs well over $60. Connections at the Airport. The airport configuration causes the Arlanda Express to have two stations: one for Terminals 2, 3, and 4 and one for Terminals 5 and 6. Both are located con- veniently near the baggage claim area. Buses depart from a designated curb/island location. Rail. The Arlanda Express rail line is a privately funded and privately managed venture that offers high-speed rail connections between Stockholm–Arlanda Airport and downtown Stockholm. At the airport, there are two rail stations for the Arlanda Express and a third station operated by the Swedish state railways. The closest station is about 17 minutes from downtown Stockholm, with a fare of $29. The trains are designed for the European standard of 120 mph, but initially are operating at no more than 100 mph. Baggage-Handling Strategy. Initially, the main railway station in Stockholm offered three self-service machines and four counters for airline check-in for travelers who do not need to check baggage. These have been reported to be discontinued. Bus. Flybus, the local airport bus service, continues to operate from the airport to down- town in competition with the two train services. Partly because of free-flowing conditions on the expressway system between the airport and the city, the bus provides extremely strong compe- tition to the dedicated rail services, at a lower cost. Frankfurt (33% Market Share) The Airport. Frankfurt Airport served more than 52 MAP in 2006, making it the second busiest airport in Europe after London’s Heathrow Airport. The airport is 6 miles from down- town Frankfurt; travel time is about 20 minutes by automobile. Taxi service to downtown costs about $30 depending on the destination. Connections at the Airport. The original rail station is located in the basement of Terminal 1 and provides direct escalator access to a large mezzanine level, where the platforms are accessed. The new high-speed station is about 1,000 feet from the existing Terminal 1. Currently, all trav- elers using rail must access the new Terminal 2 by entering Terminal 1 and taking a people mover. Buses depart from a centrally located area adjacent to the original Terminal 1. Rail. Frankfurt Airport is currently served by the regional suburban railway—the S-Bahn—and national rail service on a trunk line between Frankfurt and Cologne. The regional S-Bahn provides suburban rail service to Frankfurt and Mainz, with a travel time of 10 minutes to downtown at a fare of about $5. The second rail station serves the new German high-speed rail system. This new station provides space for four separate lines of the German high-speed rail network, with significantly improved travel times in all directions. For example, rail travel time to Cologne has decreased from 2 hours to 1 hour with the construction of a totally new rail alignment to the east of the Rhine River. New rail stations at Cologne and Stuttgart have their own airline check-in facility. Bus. Nine local bus routes serve the airport, with Lufthansa regional bus service to Heidelberg, Mannheim, and Talheim. Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 14 Frankfurt Airport 33% 27% 6% SOURCE: Vergleich internationler Flughäfen (27) 102 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

London Gatwick (31% Market Share) The Airport. Gatwick Airport is 30 miles southwest of central London; travel takes more than 1 hour by automobile. Taxi service can cost around $70, depending on the time of day and on other factors. Gatwick Airport served more than 34 MAP in 2006. Connections at the Airport. For travelers arriving at Gatwick’s South Terminal, the walk from customs clearance to the mezzanine level above the station is less than 500 feet, shorter than the walk to the automobile curb or garage. Rail and bus users arriving at the new North Termi- nal must use a people-mover shuttle to the original terminal complex. Gatwick Express managers have encouraged Gatwick Airport managers to allow the use of baggage carts on the people mover, which is not usually allowed at major airports. The baggage carts, however, cannot be taken beyond the mezzanine level of the rail station to the rail platforms below. A heavily used bus terminal is located adjacent to the South terminal building. Rail. Gatwick Airport is part of one of the first integrated air-rail projects in the world. At present, rail services attract about 20% of airline passengers. The airport is served by both shared and dedicated rail services. The dedicated service, the Gatwick Express, runs to London’s Victo- ria Station. The non-stop service to Victoria Station, which takes about 30 minutes, runs every 15 minutes from 5 a.m. to 1 a.m. In 2007, the Gatwick Express charged about $29 for a one-way ticket. In addition to the dedicated Gatwick Express service, a variety of shared services are oper- ated. The general-purpose railway runs a near-express service (it has a 35-minute travel time) as part of a larger commuter corridor service. Five trains are operated per hour, at a lower fare than the Gatwick Express. In addition, the Thameslink railway serves destinations in London’s finan- cial district, operating to London Bridge Station and Kings Cross Station at similar running times. Baggage-Handling Strategy. Gatwick Airport’s pioneering downtown check-in service was discontinued by British Airways in 2003 (see Chapter 5 for further discussion). Bus. Bus service is operated to Victoria Station every hour, with more than a 1-hour travel time. The fare to Victoria Station is around $14. Market Characteristics. The dedicated Gatwick Express dominates the market to central London, capturing 60% of that market, with the shared rail getting 7%. Buses capture 15%, and taxis capture only 8%. The private automobile captures only 10%. Of those riding the train, 71% are airline passengers (35). Geneva (28% Market Share) The Airport. Geneva International Airport at Cointrin, which served more than 9 MAP in 2005, is 3 miles northwest of downtown Geneva. A major mode transfer station has been built Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 16 Geneva International Airport 28% 21% 7% SOURCE: Vergleich internationaler Flughäfen (27) Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 15 Gatwick Airport 31% 24% 7% SOURCE: CAA Passenger Survey Report 2004 (30) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 103

adjacent to the air terminal. Taxi rides cost up to $30, and travel time is about 10 minutes to the center of the city. Connections at the Airport. The Swiss Federal Railway airport station is located in a build- ing immediately adjacent to, but separate from, the airline passenger terminal. Walking distance is about 500 feet. Rail. The Swiss Federal Railway train departs every 15 minutes to the central station at Geneva-Cornavin. The train on the main east-west line to Lucerne, Bern, and Zurich leaves the airport station every hour. The airport’s rail service can be characterized as part of the national system because the main national east-west line has its terminus at the airport rail station. At Geneva’s central station, connections can be made to western France, including TGV service to Paris. Baggage-Handling Strategy. The Swiss Federal Railway offers the Fly-Rail Baggage service to and from the Geneva airport, which is discussed in Chapter 5 as part of the discussion of the larger Fly-Rail Baggage operation at Zurich Airport. The rail-based baggage system at Geneva airport carries one-quarter the number of bags handled in the larger, older Zurich system. Bus. Buses to the airport are provided by the local transit agency. The buses depart every 10 minutes to the downtown and every 30 minutes to the United Nations complex. New airport- specific services are being developed to such cities as Grenoble and Chambery, in France. Market Characteristics. The rail station at the Geneva airport serves a distinctly national market. It is estimated that about 25% of the travelers boarding the train at the airport station are destined for the city of Geneva. Nearly 18% of the travelers are going to Lausanne, and most of the rest have destinations around the French-speaking areas of western Switzerland (36). Brussels (26% Market Share) The Airport. Brussels Airport is located about 7 miles from the downtown and served more than 16 MAP in 2005, down from more than 21 million in 2000. About 16% of those airline passengers accessed the airport by rail. A taxi to the city from the airport costs more than $30 and takes the same amount of time as the rail service. Connections at the Airport. The rail station is at the far end of the original airport terminal and requires a walk of more than 1,000 feet for access to the farthest air terminal building. Rail. Brussels Airport is served by a spur of the main line of the national railway from the three downtown stations—North, Central, and Midi—every 15 minutes throughout the weekday and every 30 minutes on the weekends. Travel time is about 20 minutes to the nearest downtown terminal and 30 minutes to the farthest. Baggage-Handling Strategy. A downtown check-in station, which carried baggage by airline coach, has been discontinued. Ample baggage space is provided on the national railway train that serves the airport. Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 17 Brussels Airport 26% 16% 10% SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16) 104 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

Paris Orly (26% Market Share) The Airport. Orly Airport is 9 miles south of the center of Paris and serves the southern suburbs of Paris. The airport served more than 25 MAP in 2006. Travel time between the airport and the center of Paris on a combination of motorway and local streets can be as short as 25 min- utes but can fluctuate significantly. A taxi ride to the city center can cost $30. Connections at the Airport. The OrlyVal people mover has two stops at the airport, allow- ing elevated pedestrian bridge connections to both passenger terminals. On the trip to the airport, passengers can transfer from the RER Line B to the people mover without changing platforms; however, on the return trip, passengers must change platforms to connect from the people mover to RER Line B. The connection to the RER Line C is via a 5-minute shuttle bus, which operates on a short reserved right-of-way segment to avoid traffic congestion. Rail. Orly Airport is served by connecting services to two separate metropolitan rail lines. A people mover connects the two air terminals with the newer RER Line B. At the cost of about $12, a combined ticket is issued through to Paris on the OrlyVal people mover. A shuttle bus connects to the older RER Line C. Baggage-Handling Strategy. As noted for Charles de Gaulle Airport, the RER Line B is poorly structured to handle the baggage of airline passengers. Initially, the OrlyVal people mover did not have any baggage storage space; they were redesigned to provide some space for baggage. Bus lines operated by Air France have ample baggage storage capacity under the floor of the coach; other buses have only a moderate amount of storage area in the vehicle. Bus. A variety of bus services are offered, including an Air France bus with service through Paris’s Left Bank. This service is provided every 20 minutes all day between the center of Paris and Orly. Düsseldorf (22% Market Share) The Airport. Düsseldorf International Airport is the third largest airport in Germany, serv- ing more than 15 MAP in 2005. The airport serves a distinctly polycentric region, with many smaller cities clustered relatively close together; the airport is less than 5 miles from the center of Düsseldorf, 27 miles from Cologne, and 22 miles from Essen. More than 18 million residents live within 65 miles of the airport. Connections at the Airport. Düsseldorf airport has been served by the S-Bahn, regional com- muter rail, direct to Central Station in downtown Düsseldorf since 1975. In the 1990s, an indirect service was added that consisted of an automated people mover to take airline passengers to a new Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 19 Düsseldorf International Airport 22% 18% 4% SOURCE: “DUS Rail Access, History Development, Experiences” (38) Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 18 Paris Orly Airport 26% 14% 12% SOURCE: Aéroports de Paris (31) Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 105

station along a major trunk of Germany’s high-speed rail system. Thus, the deplaning airline pas- senger can go downstairs for a no-transfer service to the CBD or take the people mover to the edge of the airport where many trains offer direct service to a wide variety of destinations in the mul- ticentered region. The decision to abandon off-site baggage check-in at the high-speed rail station is discussed in Chapter 5. Rail. Given that the airport market is not particularly focused on the single central city (only about 17% of the market), a transfer somewhere in the system is needed by most travelers. The people mover connection (4 minutes) provides a faster connection to the main rail system than does the commuter service (12 minutes). The high-frequency commuter rail service to the air- port itself (55 trains a day) combines with the cross section of services on the high-speed line (345 train departures a day) to yield 400 departures by rail a day from the airport. The people mover to the regional trunk line captures about 13% of the market, while the slower direct ser- vice to downtown captures about 5% of the total market. (38). Bus. Buses capture about 4% of the market. Four bus lines serve the airport at the arrivals terminal, including a specialty service “Airport-Aixpress” from Aachen, Germany. Three regional bus services stop at the high-speed rail station, utilizing the people mover connection. 106 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 4: Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation examines key elements associated with the creation of a six-step market-based strategy for improving the quality of public mode services at U.S. airports. The report also addresses the context for public transportation to major airports, explores the attributes of successful airport ground access systems, presents an airport by airport summary of air traveler ground access mode-share by public transportation services, and more.

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