Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
T R A N S P O R T A T I O N R E S E A R C H B O A R D WASHINGTON, D.C. 2006 www.TRB.org NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 525 Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration SUBJECT AREAS Planning and Administration â¢ Operations and Safety â¢ Aviation â¢ Public Transit â¢ Rail â¢ Freight Transportation â¢ Marine Transportation â¢ Security Surface Transportation Security Volume 10 A Guide to Transportationâs Role in Public Health Disasters DAVID FRIEDMAN DELMA BRATVOLD STEVE MIRSKY GEOFF KAISER PAUL SCHAUDIES ERIC BOLZ RAY CASTOR FRED LATHAM Science Applications International Corporation McLean, VA
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Boardâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 525: Volume 10 Price $39.00 Project 12-59(19) ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 0-309-09852-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2006902581 Â© 2006 Transportation Research Board COPYRIGHT PERMISSION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Boardâs judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. NOTE: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Boardâs mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 525 VOLUME 10 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Manager, NCHRP S. A. PARKER, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications HILARY FREER, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT SP20-59 PANEL FOR PROJECT 12-59(19) Field of Special ProjectsâArea of Security DAVID S. EKERN, Idaho Transportation Department (Chair) DONNA F. BARBISCH, Global Deterrence Alternatives, LLC, Washington, DC JOHN CORBIN, Wisconsin DOT ERNEST R. âRONâ FRAZIER, Countermeasures Assessment and Security Experts, LLC, Camden, NJ FREDERICK C. GOODINE, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC RICHARD HATCHETT, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness, Washington, DC ANTHONY R. KANE, AASHTO TERRY SIMMONDS, Olympia, WA WILLIAM A. WALLACE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute JAMES WILDING, Glenwood, MD PATRICK BURNS, TSA Liaison JOEDY W. CAMBRIDGE, TRB Liaison DEBORAH DEITRICH, U.S. EPA Liaison DENNIS H. DELK, DHS Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Directorate Liaison DAVID VAN DUZEE, TSA Liaison WILLIAM J. FAGAN, Federal Railroad Administration Liaison GREG HULL, APTA Liaison ROBERT D. JAMISON, FTA Liaison JACK LEGLER, American Trucking Associations Liaison WILLIAM H. LYERLY, DHS Science and Technology Directorate Liaison LAURA MCCLURE, U.S.DOT Office of Emergency Transportation Liaison VINCENT P. PEARCE, FHWA Liaison MATTHEW D. RABKIN, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Liaison IAN A. REDHEAD, Airport Council International-North America Liaison ROGER RIEGER, Long Beach Transit Liaison MARTIN ROJAS, American Trucking Associations Liaison DAVID SARGENT, U.S.DOT Research and Special Projects Administration Liaison DAWN TUCKER, U.S.DOT Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Management Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report is the result of contributions from a number of indi- viduals. The NCHRP Project 20-59(19) panel served as the primary advisor for this report. This report reflects the best judgment and experience of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) staff, who researched and developed this report from pub- licly available literature in addition to some personal interviews. The SAIC program manager was David Friedman. Primary authors of the CBR threat sections were Delma Bratvold, Steve Mirsky, Geoff Kaiser, and Paul Schaudies. The primary authors of the trans- portation overview section were Eric Bolz, Delma Bratvold, Ray Castor, and Fred Latham.
This tenth volume of NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security will assist transportation managers in the development of transportation response options to an extreme event involving chemical, biological, or radiological agents. The project is applicable to all civilian sites (not just transportation sites) and focuses on the effect and role of transportation during such an event. This Report contains four products developed under NCHRP Project 20-59(19): 1. Technical information is presented on chemical, biological, and radiological threats, including vulnerabilities of the transportation system to these agents and consequence-minimization actions that may be taken within the transportation system in response to events that involve these agents. The threatârelated section of the Report presents the fundamentals of chemical, biological, and radiological agents; describes the basic information needed for emergency response decisions; discusses how chem- ical, biological, and radiological threats relate to transportation-system vulnerabili- ties and consequence-minimization actions; and generally compares the different threat-agent categories. The transportation section of the Report describes each of the transportation modes (i.e., highway, maritime, rail, aviation, and mass transit); their general organization; and their mode-specific emergency response plans, options, and structure. 2. Tracking Emergency Response Effects on Transportation (TERET) is a spread- sheet tool structured to assist transportation managers with recognition of mass-care transportation needs and identification and mitigation of potential transportation- related criticalities in essential services during extreme events. TERET is intended to be used as a guide during emergency response planning stages as well as during an emergency response exercise or actual event. The primary users are expected to be transportation planners and managers at emergency management centers. 3. The Userâs Manual for TERET is printed at the back of the Report. It provides step-by-step instructions on the use and maintenance of TERET. 4. An Introduction to Biological, Chemical, and Radiological Threat Agents is a slide presentation with presenter notes in MS PowerPoint. It is designed as an executive- level communications tool based on summary information from this report. Like the Report, TERET, and the Userâs Manual for TERET, the slide presentation is available on the TRB website. These materials should be helpful to transportation agencies in creating or evalu- ating and modifying emergency response plans, policies, and procedures consistent with the National Incident Management System (NIMS). The importance of NIMS is set out in a September 8, 2004, letter to state governors, from Department of Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge: âNIMS provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, territorial, tribal, and local governments to work effectively and effi- ciently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic inci- dents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity.â FOREWORD By S. A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
Science Applications International Corporation prepared this volume of NCHRP Report 525 under NCHRP Project 20-59(19). Emergencies arising from terrorist threats highlight the need for transportation managers to minimize the vulnerability of travelers, employees, and physical assets through incident prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. Man- agers seek to reduce the chances that transportation vehicles and facilities will be tar- gets or instruments of terrorist attacks and to be prepared to respond to and recover from such possibilities. By being prepared to respond to terrorism, each transportation agency is simultaneously prepared to respond to natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods, and wildfires, as well as human-caused events such as hazardous materials spills and other incidents. This is the tenth volume of NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumesâeach pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. These volumes focus on the concerns that transportation agencies are addressing when developing pro- grams in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks that followed. Future volumes of the reports will be issued as they are completed. To develop this volume in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of sig- nificant knowledge, available information was assembled from numerous sources, including a number of state departments of transportation. A topic panel of experts in the subject area was established to guide the researchers in organizing and evaluating the collected data and to review the final document. This volume was prepared to meet an urgent need for information in this area. It records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge avail- able at the time of its preparation. Work in this area is proceeding swiftly, and readers are encouraged to be on the lookout for the most up-to-date information. Volumes issued under NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security may be found on the TRB website at http://www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs.
1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 Objectives, 5 1.2 Audience, 5 1.3 Scope, 5 1.4 Limitations, 5 6 CHAPTER 2 Transportation Response to CBR Events 2.1 Chemical Threats, 6 2.1.1 Fundamentals, 6 2.1.2 Emergency Response Information Needs, 11 2.1.3 Threats and the Transportation System, 13 2.2 Biological Threats, 15 2.2.1 Fundamentals, 15 2.2.2 Emergency Response Needs, 20 2.2.3 Interrelationships between Biological Threats and Transportation Mode, 22 2.2.4 Consequence Minimization, 23 2.3 Radiological Threats, 24 2.3.1 Radiation Fundamentals, 24 2.3.2 Emergency Response Information Needs, 27 2.3.3 Radiological Threats and the Transportation System, 28 2.4 Comparison of CBR Threats, 30 34 CHAPTER 3 Emergency Response Plans, Options, and Structure 3.1 The Highway System, 34 3.1.1 Definitions, 34 3.1.2 System Size, 35 3.1.3 System Use, 35 3.1.4 Financing, 36 3.1.5 General Organization, 37 3.1.6 Operations, 37 3.1.7 Emergency Plans and Organization, 37 3.1.8 Historical Emergency Actions, 38 3.1.9 Highway System Summary Matrix, 38 3.2 The Maritime System, 38 3.2.1 Definitions, 38 3.2.2 System Size and Modes, 40 3.2.3 System Use, 40 3.2.4 Financing, 41 3.2.5 General Organization, 42 3.2.6 Operations, 43 3.2.7 Emergency Plans and Organization, 43 3.2.8 Historical Emergency Actions, 44 3.2.9 System Summary Matrix, 44 3.3 The Railway System, 44 3.3.1 Definitions, 44 3.3.2 System Size, 47 3.3.3 System Use, 47 3.3.4 Financing and Ownership, 48 3.3.5 General Organization, 49 3.3.6 Operations, 50 3.3.7 Emergency Plans and Organization, 50 3.3.8 Historical Emergency Actions, 51 3.3.9 System Summary Matrix, 51 3.4 The Aviation System, 51 3.4.1 Definitions, 51 3.4.2 System Size, 54 3.4.3 System Use, 54 3.4.4 Financing and Ownership, 54 3.4.5 General Organization, 54 3.4.6 Operations, 55 3.4.7 Emergency Plans and Organization, 55 CONTENTS
3.4.8 Historical Emergency Actions, 56 3.4.9 System Summary Matrix, 57 3.5 The Mass Transit System, 57 3.5.1 Definitions, 57 3.5.2 System Size, 57 3.5.3 System Use, 60 3.5.4 Financing, 60 3.5.5 General Organization, 61 3.5.6 Operations, 61 3.5.7 Emergency Plans and Organization, 62 3.5.8 Historical Emergency Actions, 63 3.5.9 System Summary Matrix, 63 3.5.10 Other Mass Transit Definitions, 66 A-1 APPENDIX A Chemical Threat Information B-1 APPENDIX B Biological Threat Information C-1 APPENDIX C Radiological Threat Information D-1 APPENDIX D TERET Tool Users Manual