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5CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 OBJECTIVES The overall objective of this project was to develop a guide to help transportation managers develop transportation re- sponse options in the case of an extreme event. This report is one part of this project and supports the overall project goal by providing background information to assist in transporta- tion planning for chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) events. This document describes the key features of CBR threats, and transportation responses to these threats; and provides an overview of the primary modes in the trans- portation system (i.e., highway, maritime, rail, aviation, and mass transit) including emergency response organization. 1.2 AUDIENCE This report is directed primarily toward those in the emer- gency response community with a collective interest in trans- portation incident management (i.e., emergency response). General managers, middle to upper-level managers, transit security, and community emergency response managers con- stitute the target audience for this report. 1.3 SCOPE The scope of this report includes the following: â¢ Extreme events involving CBR agents where extreme events are defined as those that may have at least a city- wide effect. â¢ Introduction to the fundamentals of CBR events, in- cluding the general types of events; categorization of the threats; and general introduction to the doses, detection, and decontamination of these threat agents. â¢ Specific address of the information needed for emer- gency response decisions during a CBR event and the transportation system vulnerabilities and actions for consequence minimization of CBR events. â¢ General description of each of the primary transporta- tion modes on a national level including system size, use, financing, and general organization. â¢ General description of each of the primary transportation modes emergency plans and organization, and historical emergency actions. 1.4 LIMITATIONS The information in this report is general, with some spe- cific examples. Although the concepts presented should be helpful in dealing with a CBR event, the details of the spe- cific threat agent and the scenario of its release (including location, quantity, and meteorology) will dictate the most appropriate specific responses.