# Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details(2006)

## Chapter: Appendix D - Turn Lanes at intersections

« Previous: Appendix C - Inventory of information Received from the 54 Agencies that Supplied Information for this Synthesis
Page 77
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Turn Lanes at intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Page 78
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Turn Lanes at intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Page 79
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Turn Lanes at intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Page 80
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Turn Lanes at intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
×
Page 81
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Turn Lanes at intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
×
Page 82
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Turn Lanes at intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
×
Page 83
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Turn Lanes at intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
×
Page 84
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Turn Lanes at intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
×
Page 85
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Turn Lanes at intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
×
Page 86
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Turn Lanes at intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. MARYLAND The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the halfway point of the full-width turn lane. A dotted line (3-ft segments with 9-ft gaps) may be used from the halfway point to the end of the full-width turn lane. In separate turn bays that are designed not to entrap through traffic, the dotted line portion of the lane line may be omit- ted, turn arrows may be used, and ONLY word markings should not be used. If turn arrows are used, the center of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line should be approximately 50 ft from the stop line. Additional turn arrows as determined by engineering analysis may be used in long turn bays. For dual turn lanes, turn arrows shall be placed in each lane at the halfway point of the full-width turn lanes. A sec- ond set of turn arrows may be placed in each lane halfway between the required arrows and the end of the full-width turn lanes (three-quarters of the distance from the stop line to the end of the full-width turn lanes). Turn arrows and ONLY word markings shall be used in all lanes where a through lane becomes a mandatory turn lane. The minimum configuration shall be an arrow-ONLY- arrow sequence, with an equal distance of 40 to 90 ft be- tween the center of the ONLY word marking and the cen- ter in each direction of the next upstream and downstream turn arrows. The center of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line should be approximately 50 ft from the stop line. Sec- tion 3B.19 of the Maryland supplement to the MUTCD has a chart that specifies (based on a variety of speeds) how to add more turn arrows and ONLY word markings to the lane being dropped such that the first turn arrow encountered ranges from 375 ft from the stop line for a prevailing (not posted) speed of 25 mph to 800 ft from the stop line for a prevailing speed of 55 mph. For lane drops, the normal broken lane line shall become a dotted line (3-ft segments with 9-ft gaps) beginning at the first turn arrow, and shall become a solid lane line at the halfway point between the first turn arrow and the stop line. MASSACHUSETTS The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is 20 ft (shown as 6 m) from the stop line. If ONLY messages are used, the top of the ONLY word marking is at least 32 ft (shown as 9.8 m) from the bottom of the turn arrow. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. 80 MICHIGAN There are two methods to mark turn lanes. One method con- sists of turn arrows and ONLY word markings and the other method consists entirely of word messages. If turn arrows and ONLY word markings are used, the top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed at least 25 ft from the stop line. The top of the letters of an ONLY word marking is placed a distance D from the bottom of the turn arrow. The distance D is based on the posted speed limit as follows: 32 ft for 25 mph or less, 48 ft for 30 or 35 mph, 64 ft for 40 or 45 mph, and 80 ft for 50 mph or more. For turn lanes that are 175 ft or less in length, only one turn arrow and one ONLY word marking are used. For turn lanes that are more than 175 ft in length, a second turn arrow and a second ONLY word marking are used. The second turn arrow and second ONLY word marking are positioned such that the bottom of the letters of the ONLY word marking is lined up with the start of the solid 4-in.-wide lane line that is used to separate the turn lane from the adjacent through lane, and such that the bottom of the turn arrow is placed a distance D from the top of the letters of the ONLY word marking. If the method consisting entirely of word messages is used, the top of the letters of an ONLY word marking is placed at least 25 ft from the stop line. The top of the letters of a TURN message is placed a distance D from the bottom of the letters of the ONLY word marking, and the top of the letters of a LEFT message is placed a distance D from the bottom of the letters of the TURN message. The distance D is based on the posted speed limit as follows: 32 ft for 25 mph or less, 48 ft for 30 or 35 mph, 64 ft for 40 or 45 mph, and 80 ft for 50 mph or more. A solid 4-in.-wide lane line is used to separate the turn lane from the adjacent through lane. The solid 4-in.-wide lane line starts at the point where the full width first becomes available for a left-turn lane and at least 25 ft from the point where the full width first becomes available for a right-turn lane. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. MINNESOTA If the length of the full-width turn lane is 200 ft or less, a sin- gle turn arrow is placed in the lane at the point that is halfway between the stop line and the end of the full-width turn lane. The lane line that is used to separate the turn lane from the adjacent through lane starts 50 ft after the turn lane becomes full width. If the length of the full-width turn lane is more than 200 ft, two turn arrows are placed in the lane. The top of the turn

An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. NEW YORK The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 21 ft (shown as 6.5 m) from the stop line. Each turn arrow is accompanied by an ONLY word marking that is placed such that the tops of the letters of the ONLY word marking are 5 ft from the bottom of the turn arrow. If the length of the full-width turn lane is less than 90 ft, only one turn arrow and ONLY word marking is provided. If the length of the full- width turn lane is between 90 and 135 ft, a second turn arrow and ONLY word marking is provided with the distance be- tween the top of the second turn arrow 25 to 65 ft (shown as 7.5 to 20 m) from the bottom of the letters of the first ONLY word marking. If the length of the full-width turn lane is be- tween 135 and 250 ft, a second turn arrow and ONLY word marking is provided with the distance between the top of the second turn arrow 65 ft (shown as 20 m) from the bottom of the letters of the first ONLY word marking. If the length of the full-width turn lane is between 250 and 500 ft, a second turn arrow and ONLY word marking is provided with the dis- tance between the top of the second turn arrow 65 ft (shown as 20 m) from the bottom of the letters of the first ONLY word marking, and a third turn arrow and ONLY word mark- ing is provided with the bottom of the ONLY word marking being 33 ft (shown as 10 m) from the start of the full-width turn lane. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. NORTH CAROLINA If the length of the full-width turn lane is less than 125 ft, a single turn arrow is placed halfway between the stop line and the end of the full-width turn lane. A 4-in. or 6-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane. This lane line starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning of the full-width turn lanes. If the length of the full-width turn lane is more than 125 ft but less than 250 ft, two turn arrows are placed in the lane. The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 50 ft from the stop line. The other turn arrow is placed such that the bottom of the arrow is lined up with the end of the full- width turn lane. A 4-in. or 6-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane. This lane line starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning of the full-width turn lanes. If the length of the full-width turn lane is more than 250 ft, three turn arrows are placed in the lane. The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 50 ft from the stop line. A second turn arrow is placed such that the bottom of 82 the arrow is lined up with the end of the full-width turn lane. A third turn arrow is centered between the other two. Addi- tional arrows may be used if the turn lane is long. A 4-in. or 6-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane. This lane line starts at the stop line and ends 250 ft from the stop line. A 4-in. or 6-in.-wide dot- ted line (2-ft segments with 13-ft gaps) starts at the end of the lane line and ends at the beginning of the left-turn lane taper. Two sets of pavement markings (with each set comprised of two turn arrows and one ONLY word marking) are used in all lanes where a through lane becomes a mandatory turn lane. In each set, the ONLY word marking is placed halfway between the two turn arrows whose tops are placed 150 ft apart. In the first set, the top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 50 ft from the stop line. In the second set, the top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 350 ft from the stop line if the speed limit is 35 mph or less, 400 ft from the stop line if the speed limit is 40 to 50 mph, or 650 ft from the stop line if the speed limit is 55 mph or more. A 200-ft solid lane line that is 4-in. to 6-in.-wide is used to separate a lane that is dropped as a turn lane from the adja- cent through lane. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. NORTH DAKOTA An 8-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane. Turn arrows and ONLY word markings are used in turn lanes. The top of the letters of an ONLY word marking are typically placed 44 ft, but no less than 32 ft, from the bottom of the next downstream turn arrow. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. OHIO Lane use arrows should be used in all turn lanes. ONLY word markings may be used if there is a need. In urban areas, the top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed at least 10 ft from the downstream edge of the stop line. A 6-ft tall ONLY word marking is placed such that the tops of the letters of the ONLY word marking are 24 to 60 ft from the bottom of the turn arrow. A second turn arrow is placed such that the top of the turn arrow is 24 to 60 ft from the bottoms of the letters of the ONLY word marking. In rural areas, the top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed at least 30 ft from the downstream edge of the

83 stop line. An 8-ft tall ONLY word marking is placed such that the tops of the letters of the ONLY word marking are 32 to 80 ft from the bottom of the turn arrow. A second turn arrow is placed such that the top of the turn arrow is 32 to 80 ft from the bottoms of the letters of the ONLY word marking. An 8-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane. (Section 301-8 of Ohioâs Traffic Engineering Manual says that the spacing between turn arrows and between turn arrows and ONLY word markings should be ten times the height of the characters.) An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. An elongated 12-ft-long turn arrow is also available. OKLAHOMA Turn arrows are required in turn lanes, but ONLY word mark- ings are optional. The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning of the full-width turn lane. If the length of the turn lane is less than 100 ft, only one turn arrow is used with the top placed 20 ft from the stop line, and an optional ONLY word marking may be provided with the top of the letters 35 ft upstream from the top of the turn arrow. If the length of the full-width turn lane is 100 to 149 ft, a second turn arrow is provided with the top of the turn arrow 35 ft upstream from the top of the letters of the ONLY word marking. If the length of the full-width turn lane is 150 to 200 ft, the top of the turn arrow that is nearest the stop line is placed 30 ft from the stop line, an optional ONLY word mark- ing may be provided with the top of the letters 55 ft upstream from the top of the turn arrow, and a second turn arrow is pro- vided with the top of the turn arrow 35 ft upstream from the top of the letters of the ONLY word marking. No informa- tion is given for turn lanes that are longer than 200 ft. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. OREGON The tip of the arrowhead for the required turn arrow in a turn lane is 10 ft downstream from the beginning of the full-width turn lane. A second turn arrow may be used and is placed such that the tip of the arrowhead is 10 ft from the stop line. If an optional ONLY word marking is used, then the second turn arrow 10 ft from the stop line is required. The top of the letters of the ONLY word marking are placed 30 ft upstream from the bottom of the turn arrow nearest the stop line. An 8-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn bay and the adjacent through lane. Two turn arrows are required in a dropped lane, but the use of an ONLY word marking is still optional. An 8-in.-wide solid line preceded by an 8-in.-wide dotted line (3-ft segments separated by 9-ft gaps) is placed in ad- vance of an intersection where the outside lane is dropped as a mandatory turn lane. The lengths of these lines are not specified. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. An elon- gated 12-ft-long turn arrow is also available. PENNSYLVANIA Where through lanes become mandatory turn lanes, turn arrows are required and ONLY word markings are optional. For other turn lanes, both the turn arrows and ONLY word markings are optional. A 4-in. or 6-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane. The length of this lane line should be two-thirds of the length of the full-width turn lane. The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is at least 20 ft from the stop line. The spacing between additional turn arrows and ONLY word markings should be four times the letter or symbol height for speeds of 35 mph or less, and should be ten times the letter or symbol height for speeds of more than 35 mph. The 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is not used. An elongated 12-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown on Page 10-11 of the Standard Highway Signs Book is the only style of turn arrow that is available for use. RHODE ISLAND ONLY word markings should only be used where through lanes become mandatory turn lanes. SOUTH CAROLINA Turn arrows and ONLY word markings are typically not used in turn bays and will be placed only at locations specifically shown on construction plans. Two turn arrows each accompanied by an ONLY word marking are used when a through lane becomes a mandatory turn lane.

another ONLY word marking, and ending with an arrow near the stop line. PUERTO RICO The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning of the full-width turn lane. Two sets of turn arrows and SOLO messages are provided in the turn lane. The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed an unspecified distance from the stop line. A SOLO message is placed such that the top of the letters of the SOLO message are 33 ft upstream from the bottom of the turn arrow. A second turn arrow and a second SOLO mes- sage are also used. The second set is placed such that the bot- tom of the SOLO message is lined up with the beginning of the full-width turn lane. The bottom of the second turn arrow is placed 33 ft downstream from the top of the letters of the second SOLO message. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. CHARLOTTE, NC Turn arrows are required in mandatory turn lanes, but ONLY word markings are not used except in situations where through lanes become mandatory turn lanes. The number of turn arrows depends on the length of the turn lane. The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 25 ft from the stop line. The next two turn arrows are placed such that the top of the turn arrow is 50 ft from the bottom of the next downstream turn arrow. The next three turn arrows are placed such that the top of the turn arrow is 100 ft from the bottom of the next downstream turn arrow. If any additional turn arrows are needed, they are placed such that the top of the turn arrow is 150 ft from the bottom of the next downstream turn arrow. Turn arrows and ONLY word markings are used in situa- tions where through lanes become mandatory turn lanes. If the speed limit is 35 mph, a sequence of four turn arrows and two ONLY word markings is used in the down- stream direction in the dropped lane as follows: a turn arrow, an ONLY word marking, two turn arrows, another ONLY word marking, and a turn arrow. The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 25 ft from the stop line. The next two markings are placed such that the top of the turn arrow or ONLY word marking is 50 ft from the bottom of the next downstream marking. The next three markings are placed such that the top of the turn arrow or ONLY word marking is 100 ft from the bottom of the next downstream marking. 86 If the speed limit is 40 mph or more, the same markings as for a 35 mph speed limit are used in the dropped lane, except that an additional turn arrow is placed upstream from the other six markings such that the top of the additional turn arrow is 150 ft from the bottom of the next downstream turn arrow. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. LOS ANGELES, CA The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning of the full-width turn lane. Typically, only one turn arrow is used and it is installed such that the bottom of the turn arrow is lined up with the beginning of the full-width turn lane. If the turn lane is longer than 250 ft, a second turn arrow is placed at the midpoint of the full-width turn lane. A turn arrow is only placed near the stop line if required by Caltrans on freeway ramps and other state highway intersections. NEW YORK, NY An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. Elongated lane- use arrows are also available for use. TUCSON/PIMA COUNTY, AZ The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning of the full-width turn lane. At least two turn arrows are placed in turn lanes. The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is typically placed 20 ft from the stop line. The bottom of the other turn arrow is lined up with the beginning of the full-width turn lane. If the turn lane is 108 to 200 ft in length, an ONLY word mark- ing is placed halfway between the two turn arrows. If the turn lane is more than 200 ft in length, an ONLY word marking and a third turn arrow are placed at one-third points between the two turn arrows, with the ONLY word marking placed closer to the stop line than the third turn arrow. Lane-reduction arrows and warning signs are used to move through traffic out of a dropped lane before the turn lane markings are started. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. No standards were found for: New Jersey New Mexico

Next: Appendix E - Lane Lines for Dual Turn Lanes »
Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details Get This Book
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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 356: Pavement Markings—Design and Typical Layout Details identifies variations in pavement marking designs, practices, and policies, as provided by 48 of 50 state departments of transportation, and transportation agencies from the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and four cities.

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