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Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details (2006)

Chapter: Appendix I - Crosswalks and Stop Lines

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Crosswalks and Stop Lines." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Page 97
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Crosswalks and Stop Lines." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Page 98
Page 99
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Crosswalks and Stop Lines." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Page 99
Page 100
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Crosswalks and Stop Lines." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
×
Page 100
Page 101
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Crosswalks and Stop Lines." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
×
Page 101
Page 102
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Crosswalks and Stop Lines." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
×
Page 102
Page 103
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Crosswalks and Stop Lines." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Page 103

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97 ALABAMA Crosswalks should be at least 10 ft wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide transverse crosswalk lines supplemented with 24-in. longitu- dinal lines separated by 24-in. spaces. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 5 ft from inter- section crosswalks. High-visibility crosswalks should be used for school crosswalks. ALASKA Standard crosswalks should be at least 10 ft wide. The trans- verse crosswalk lines shall be 24 in. wide. The crosswalk line nearest to the approach lane also serves as the stop line for the approach. High-visibility crosswalks should be at least 10 ft wide. The longitudinal lines should be 24 to 36 in. wide separated by 24-in. to 36-in. spaces. The spacing design should avoid wheel paths. Standard crosswalks should be used at signals and on approaches controlled by STOP signs. High-visibility cross- walks should be used for all other locations. ARIZONA Standard crosswalks are at least 10 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide transverse crosswalk lines supplemented with 24-in. longitu- dinal lines separated by 24-in. spaces. An 18-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. Midblock crosswalks are 15 ft wide. Stop lines at mid- block signalized locations should be placed at least 40 ft in advance of the far side signal indication. ARKANSAS Standard crosswalks are 10 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide. Crosswalks are located at least 3 ft from the extended edge line of the street that is parallel to the crosswalk. High-visibility crosswalks are shown, but dimensions are not specified. A 12-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. CALIFORNIA Transverse crosswalk lines shall be not less than 12 in. or greater than 24 in. wide. Crosswalk markings near schools shall be yellow. The nearest edge of the crosswalk line is located at least 6 ft from the extended edge line of the street that is parallel to the crosswalk. A stop line not less than 12 in. or greater than 24 in. wide is located at least 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. COLORADO Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide unless no stop line is pro- vided, in which case the transverse crosswalk lines are 24 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in. to 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are 8 to 10 ft in length. These longitudinal lines are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. High-visibility crosswalks are used at complicated and/or channelized intersections and at midblock crosswalks. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. CONNECTICUT All crosswalks are of the high-visibility type. Typical crosswalks are comprised of 16-in.-wide longitu- dinal lines that are at least 8 ft in length at intersections and 10 ft in length for midblock locations. These longitudinal APPENDIX I Crosswalks and Stop Lines

lines are parallel to the approach lanes and are separated by 16-in. spaces. For school, elderly, and handicapped crosswalks, 24-in.- wide longitudinal lines that are at least 8 ft in length at inter- sections and 10 ft in length for midblock locations are used. These longitudinal lines are parallel to the approach lanes and are separated by 24-in. spaces. Special crosswalk markings may be used for an exclusive pedestrian signal phase where all vehicles are stopped and pedestrians can cross all legs of the intersection or can cross diagonally. These markings feature a single line that com- pletely crosses each leg of the intersection. A stop line that is at least 12 in. wide is located at least 4 ft from the intersection crosswalks. DELAWARE The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. Stop lines are 16 in. wide. FLORIDA The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft, but a crosswalk width of 10 ft is desirable. Standard crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide trans- verse crosswalk lines. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 40 ft from the center of signalized midblock crosswalks. GEORGIA The minimum crosswalk width is 8 ft (measured to the out- side edges of the 8-in.-wide transverse crosswalk lines) or the width of the sidewalk, whichever is greater. However, the edge of the crosswalk should not be more than 1 ft beyond the edge of the sidewalk. All crosswalks are of the high-visibility type. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 8-in.-wide transverse crosswalk lines supplemented with sets of longi- tudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. Each set of longitudinal lines is 24 in. wide and is comprised of two 8-in.-wide lines separated by a gap of 8 in. 98 HAWAII The typical crosswalk width is 10 ft. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 8-in.-wide transverse crosswalk lines that are at least 8 in. wide sup- plemented with sets of longitudinal lines (with two sets of longitudinal lines per lane). Each set of longitudinal lines is 16 in. wide and is comprised of three 4-in.-wide lines sepa- rated by gaps of 2 in. The gap between sets of longitudinal lines is 28 in. Stop lines are 12 in. wide. IDAHO The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. Standard crosswalks are comprised of transverse cross- walk lines that are at least 12 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of transverse crosswalk lines that are at least 12 in. wide supplemented with 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines separated by 24-in. spaces. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. The use of urban midblock crosswalks, except in special cases, should be discouraged. Midblock crosswalks cause vehicular–pedestrian conflicts, additional vehicle delay, dis- rupt traffic signal progression, and present an unexpected pedestrian problem to the driver who normally expects these conflicts only at intersections. Midblock crosswalks some- times have sight distance restrictions because of parked vehi- cles. Drivers do not respect midblock crosswalks as much as crosswalks at intersections. Pedestrians have a false assump- tion that marked crosswalks provide them protection, caus- ing an extra problem at midblock locations where both the pedestrian and motorists might not be alert. ILLINOIS Because midblock crosswalks are generally unexpected by the motorist, diagonal or longitudinal lines should be used in marking midblock crosswalks. INDIANA The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. Standard crosswalks are comprised of transverse cross- walk lines that are at least 6 in. wide. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks.

99 IOWA The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft (measured to the out- side edges of the transverse crosswalk lines). The trans- verse crosswalk lines are 6 to 24 in. wide. For added visibility, the area of the crosswalk may be marked with diagonal lines at a 45° angle to the line of the crosswalk or with longitudinal lines parallel to traffic flow. When diagonal or longitudinal lines are used to mark the cross- walk, the transverse lines may be omitted. If used, the diago- nal or longitudinal lines should be 12 to 24 in. wide and spaced 12 to 24 in. apart. The spacing should avoid the wheel paths. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. KANSAS The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. Standard crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide transverse lines. High-visibility crosswalks are 8 ft wide and are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 5 ft from inter- section crosswalks. KENTUCKY The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. Standard crosswalks are comprised of transverse cross- walk lines that are 6 or 12 in. wide. A 12-in. or 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. LOUISIANA A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. MAINE The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. The transverse cross- walk lines are 6 in. wide. A 12-in. to 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. MARYLAND The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. Crosswalks are typi- cally comprised of 12-in.-wide transverse crosswalk lines. Across roadways where the speed limit is greater than 35 mph, at midblock locations, at unexpected locations, and at school crosswalks, the transverse crosswalk lines shall be at least 12 in. wide. At such locations, the space between the transverse lines may be hatched with 12-in. to 24-in. diago- nal or longitudinal lines spaced 12 to 24 in. apart. A 16-in.-wide stop line (when the approach speed limit is 35 mph or lower) or a 24-in.-wide stop line (when the approach speed limit is more than 35 mph) is located at least 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. MICHIGAN Crosswalks at intersections are the same width as the adjacent sidewalk, but the minimum crosswalk width at intersections and at midblock locations is 6 ft. Standard crosswalks are comprised of 6-in.-wide trans- verse crosswalk lines. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located 4 ft from intersection crosswalks and 4 ft from midblock crosswalks. MINNESOTA Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. Transverse crosswalk lines are 6 to 12 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24- to 36-in.- wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. The longitudinal lines are separated by 30- to 42-in. spaces. The widths of the longitudinal lines and the spaces between them are specified in a chart that is based on the width of the inside lane (left-most through lane). Stop lines are 12 to 24 in. wide. MISSOURI Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. Transverse crosswalk lines are 6 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 30- to 36-in.- wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. The longitudinal lines are sepa- rated by 30- to 36-in. spaces. The widths of the longitudinal lines and the spaces between them are based on the lane width, with 30-in. lines and 30-in. spaces for 10-ft-wide lanes,

33-in. lines and 33-in. spaces for 11-ft-wide lanes, and 36-in. lines and 36-in. spaces for 12-ft-wide lanes. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. MONTANA Transverse crosswalks are normally 8 ft wide, but should be at least 6 ft wide. Transverse crosswalk lines are normally 8 in. wide, but should be at least 6 in. wide. The width of transverse crosswalk lines may be increased to 24 in. wide in areas where posted speed limits exceed 35 mph (shown as 60 km/h), where a stop line is not provided, and in areas where crosswalks would not normally be expected. High-visibility crosswalks are 8 ft wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from cross- walks. NEBRASKA Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. Transverse crosswalk lines are at least 6 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. The longitudinal lines are separated by up to 48-in. spaces. A 12-in.-wide stop line (if needed) is located 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. NEVADA All crosswalks are of the high-visibility type. Crosswalks are at least 10 ft wide. In District 1, crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. In Districts 2 and 3, crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are sepa- rated by 24-in. spaces. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. Stop lines at midblock crosswalks are located 30 ft from the nearest edge of the crosswalk. 100 NEW HAMPSHIRE The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft (shown as 2 m) mea- sured from center to center of the transverse crosswalk lines. The transverse crosswalk lines are at least 6 in. wide. For added visibility, the area of the crosswalk may be marked with diagonal lines at a 45° angle to the line of the crosswalk or with white longitudinal lines parallel to traffic flow. When longitudinal lines are used to mark the crosswalk, the transverse lines may be omitted. If used, the diagonal or longitudinal lines should be 24 in. wide and spaced 24 in. apart. An 18-in.-wide stop line is typically located 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. NEW YORK The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft (shown as 2 m). The transverse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are 6 ft wide (shown as 2 m). High-visibility crosswalks are typically comprised of 24-in.- wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 48-in. spaces. The transverse lines may be used in combination with high- visibility crosswalks or may be omitted. An 18-in.-wide stop line is typically used, but the designer may also specify a 12-in. or 24-in.-wide stop line. The stop line is located 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. NORTH CAROLINA Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are 8 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are at least 10 ft wide. High- visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudi- nal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from cross- walks. NORTH DAKOTA Standard crosswalks are typically 6 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are 6 in. wide. A 24-in.-wide stop line is typically located 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. OHIO Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide at intersections and 24 in. wide at midblock locations.

101 Stop lines are 24 in. wide. Special crosswalk markings may be used for an exclusive pedestrian signal phase where all vehicles are stopped and pedestrians can cross all legs of the intersection or can cross diagonally. These markings feature a single line that com- pletely crosses each leg of the intersection. OKLAHOMA Crosswalks are 8 ft wide. Transverse crosswalk lines are 8 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 36-in. spaces. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. OREGON Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide, but a width of 10 ft is desired. Transverse crosswalk lines are at least 12 in. wide. On state highways with posted speed limits of 55 mph or more, transverse crosswalk lines are at least 18 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks may be comprised of 24-in.- wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. The longitudinal lines are sepa- rated by 36- to 48-in. spaces. High-visibility crosswalks may also be comprised of sets of two 12-in.-wide longitudinal lines separated by 12-in. spaces that are parallel to the approach lanes. The gaps between the two longitudinal lines in each set are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. When transverse crosswalk lines are used, the crosswalk line nearest to the approach lane is used as the stop line. If transverse crosswalk lines are not used, the stop line is 12 to 18 in. wide in urban areas and 18 to 24 in. wide in rural areas. PENNSYLVANIA Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. Transverse crosswalk lines are 6 to 24 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks may be comprised of 12- to 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 12- to 60-in. spaces without the transverse lines, or of 12- to 24-in.- wide diagonal lines that are separated by 12- to 60-in. spaces (measured perpendicular to the diagonal lines) with the trans- verse lines also provided. A 12- to 24-in.-wide stop line is located 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. If yield lines are used at unsignalized midblock crosswalks, they should be placed 20 to 50 ft in advance of the crosswalk. Special crosswalk markings may be used for an exclusive pedestrian signal phase where all vehicles are stopped and pedestrians can cross all legs of the intersection or can cross diagonally. These markings feature a single line that com- pletely crosses each leg of the intersection. RHODE ISLAND Standard crosswalks with transverse lines only are the only type of crosswalk that can be used at intersections. High-visibility crosswalks should be used for midblock crosswalks. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide diagonal lines that are separated by 30-in. spaces with the transverse lines also provided. SOUTH CAROLINA Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. Transverse crosswalk lines are 8 in. wide. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. SOUTH DAKOTA The only crosswalk shown in the standards is a high-visibility crosswalk that is comprised of 24-in. longitudinal lines sepa- rated by 24-in. spaces. The minimum width of the crosswalk is 8 ft. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. TENNESSEE Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are 8 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are at least 10 ft wide. High- visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudi- nal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. The nearest edge of the crosswalk line shall be located at least 2 ft from the extended edge line of the street that is par- allel to the crosswalk.

A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from cross- walks. TEXAS Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks may be used. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12- to 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 12- to 24-in. spaces. The transverse lines may be used in combination with high-visibility cross- walks or may be omitted. A 24-in.-wide stop line is typically located 4 ft from cross- walks. UTAH Standard crosswalks are typically 10 ft wide (measured to the outside edges of the transverse crosswalk lines). The trans- verse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal or diagonal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. The transverse lines are omitted. The high-visibility crosswalk with the longitudinal lines is used for school crossings. The high-visibility crosswalk with the diagonal lines is used only when permitted by the region traffic engineer. A 12-in.-wide stop line is typically located 4 ft from cross- walks. VERMONT High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide diag- onal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces with 12-in.-wide transverse lines also provided. High-visibility crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide (measured to the inside edges of the trans- verse crosswalk lines). A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from cross- walks. VIRGINIA A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from crosswalks. WASHINGTON High-visibility crosswalks are typically 8 ft wide. They are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are sepa- rated by spaces that are up to 60-in.-wide and that are paral- 102 lel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. A 12-in.- wide longitudinal line may be placed on paved shoulders that are 4 ft wide or less to extend the crosswalk to the edge of the pavement. A 24-in.-wide longitudinal line may be placed on paved shoulders that are more than 4 ft wide to extend the crosswalk to the edge of the pavement. If local agencies desire to do so, they can use two 8-in- wide longitudinal lines that are separated by an 8 in. space as a substitute for the 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines. An addi- tional 8-in.-wide longitudinal line may be placed on paved shoulders that are 4 ft wide or less to extend the crosswalk to the edge of the pavement. A stop line is located 4 ft from crosswalks. WEST VIRGINIA The outside edges of crosswalks (the edge farthest from the intersection) are at least 6 ft from the extension of the edge of the cross street. The transverse crosswalk lines for standard crosswalks are 6 to 24 in. wide. The 24-in. lines are used where no stop line is present, where speeds are more than 35 mph, or where crosswalks are unexpected. High-visibility crosswalks may be used for added visibil- ity. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12- to 24-in.- wide diagonal lines that are separated by 12- to 24-in. spaces. The transverse lines may be used in combination with high- visibility crosswalks or may be omitted. A 12-in.-wide stop line is used. WISCONSIN Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are at least 6 in. wide. Stop lines are typically 18 in. wide, but can vary from 12 to 24 in. in width. Stop lines are located at least 4 ft from crosswalks. WYOMING The only crosswalk shown in the standards is a 12-ft-wide high-visibility crosswalk. The standard width of the longitu- dinal lines is 18 in., but can vary from 12 to 24 in. The spac- ing of the longitudinal lines is normally 6 ft center-to-center to avoid the wheel paths. Stop lines are 24 in. wide and are located from 4 to 30 ft from crosswalks.

103 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Crosswalks are 15 ft wide unless otherwise noted on the plans. Whenever possible, crosswalks are at least 20 ft wide in the downtown central business district. Transverse crosswalk lines are 6 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. PUERTO RICO Crosswalks can be standard crosswalks with transverse lines or high-visibility crosswalks with longitudinal lines. CHARLOTTE, NC Standard crosswalks are at least 10 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are 8 in. wide. LOS ANGELES, CA The typical width of crosswalks is 15 ft, but crosswalks are 20 ft wide in high pedestrian areas and on the receptive leg of dual left turns (to provide a better turning radius). High-visibility crosswalks are placed midblock and on uncontrolled approaches to intersections and are com- prised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. Stop lines are not used on intersection approaches where crosswalks are present. The transverse crosswalk line farthest from the intersection serves as the stop line. The lane lines on the approach and departure end at the transverse crosswalk line are farthest from the intersection. The centerline crosses through standard crosswalks and ends at the transverse cross- walk line closest to the intersection. Stop lines are placed 5 ft from midblock high-visibility crosswalks. NEW YORK, NY Crosswalks are 8 to 18 ft wide. Transverse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and separated by 24-in. spaces. The transverse lines may be used in combination with high-visibility crosswalks or may be omitted. Stop lines are 24 in. wide and are located 5 ft from cross- walks. STOP messages are placed in approach lanes such that the top of the letters is 10 ft upstream from the stop line. TUCSON/PIMA COUNTY, AZ Crosswalks are 10 ft wide. Transverse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide, except that transverse crosswalk lines are 24 in. wide on approaches con- trolled by STOP signs with speed limits of 45 mph or more. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of transverse crosswalk lines that are at least 12 in. wide supplemented with 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths and are separated by spaces of approximately 48 in. Stop lines are 12 in. wide, except that stop lines are 24 in. wide on approaches controlled by STOP signs with speed limits of 45 mph or more. Stop lines are typically placed 4 ft from the crosswalk. No standards were found for: Massachusetts New Jersey Mississippi New Mexico

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 356: Pavement Markings—Design and Typical Layout Details identifies variations in pavement marking designs, practices, and policies, as provided by 48 of 50 state departments of transportation, and transportation agencies from the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and four cities.

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