**Suggested Citation:**"Appendix O - Channelizing Islands, Painted Medians, Paved Shoulders, and Approaches to Obstructions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006.

*Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details*. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.

**Suggested Citation:**"Appendix O - Channelizing Islands, Painted Medians, Paved Shoulders, and Approaches to Obstructions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006.

*Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details*. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.

**Suggested Citation:**"Appendix O - Channelizing Islands, Painted Medians, Paved Shoulders, and Approaches to Obstructions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006.

*Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details*. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.

**Suggested Citation:**"Appendix O - Channelizing Islands, Painted Medians, Paved Shoulders, and Approaches to Obstructions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006.

*Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details*. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.

**Suggested Citation:**"Appendix O - Channelizing Islands, Painted Medians, Paved Shoulders, and Approaches to Obstructions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006.

*Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details*. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

117 ALASKA No diagonal lines are used in painted medians or on paved shoulders, but 18-in. diagonal lines at 12-ft. spacing are placed in the median on approaches to obstructions. Right-turn channelizing islands are outlined by 8-in. lines, and 18-in. white chevrons at 7-ft. spacing are used within right-turn channelizing islands. ARIZONA No diagonal lines are used in painted medians. ARKANSAS Right-turn channelizing islands are outlined by 8-in. lines. No diagonal lines are used. CALIFORNIA The diagonal lines or chevron markings are normally 12 in. wide. The spacing between diagonal lines or chevron mark- ings may vary from 12 in. in a pedestrian crosswalk to 200 ft for vehicular traffic. COLORADO Diagonal lines or chevron markings are 8 in. wide at 25-ft spacing. The spacing of diagonal lines on paved shoulders can vary from 20 ft to 100 ft. Diagonal lines on paved shoulders and in painted medians are optional. Painted right-turn channelizing islands are formed with 8-in.-wide solid lines with no markings within the island. Raised right-turn channelizing islands are marked by 8-in.- wide solid lines on both sides of the gore area leading up to the island, and along the left edge line of the right-turn lane from the point where the island ends to the point where the line intersects the right edge line of the intersecting roadway. The rest of the raised island is surrounded by 4-in.-wide edge lines. There are no markings between the raised island and the 4-in.-wide edge lines or 8-in.-wide solid lines. FLORIDA Diagonal lines are optional on paved shoulders. Diagonal lines are required in painted medians. The diagonal lines are 18 in. wide. The spacing of diagonal lines on paved shoul- ders and in painted medians can vary from 10 to 40 ft based on the posted speed limit. The edge lines surrounding right-turn channelizing islands are 8-in.-wide solid lines. Chevrons or cross-hatching lines that are 18 in. wide and are spaced at 10-ft intervals are used throughout the paved portion of the right-turn island. GEORGIA Diagonal lines in painted medians are 24 in. wide at 15-ft spacing. Diagonal lines on paved shoulders are 24 in. wide at 15- to 50-ft spacing. Chevron markings in channelizing islands are 24 in. wide at 15-ft spacing. The solid lines forming the island are 8 in. wide. The spacing of 12-in.-wide diagonal lines or chevrons on approaches to obstacles is 5 ft. HAWAII Diagonal lines in painted medians are 12 in. wide at a typi- cal spacing of 20 ft. Diagonal lines on paved shoulders are 12 in. wide at a typ- ical spacing of 40 ft. Chevron markings in channelizing islands are 12 in. wide at a typical spacing of 20 ft. The solid lines forming the island are 8 in. wide. IDAHO Diagonal or chevron markings should not be placed as a stan- dard practice because of the questionable benefits and high exposure of paint crews to traffic. Exceptions should be lim- ited to those locations where the additional emphasis is clearly needed and then only for those with widths of 10 ft or more. ILLINOIS The spacing of diagonal lines used on paved shoulders and in painted medians between intersections should be 50 ft when the speed limit is less than 30 mph, 75 ft when the speed limit is 30 to 45 mph, and 150 ft when the speed limit is more than 45 mph. APPENDIX O Channelizing Islands, Painted Medians, Paved Shoulders, and Approaches to Obstructions

The spacing of diagonal lines used in painted medians near intersections and in pavement width transition markings should be 15 ft when the speed limit is less than 30 mph, 20 ft when the speed limit is 30 to 45 mph, and 30 ft when the speed limit is more than 45 mph. The spacing of diagonal lines used on approaches to obstructions and in islands for channelized turns should be 10 ft when the speed limit is less than 30 mph, 15 ft when the speed limit is 30 to 45 mph, and 20 ft when the speed limit is more than 45 mph. In all of these cases, if the recommended spacing does not provide at least five 12-in.-wide diagonal lines in the area being marked, the spacing from the next lowest speed range should be used. INDIANA When the posted speed limit is 45 mph or less, the spacing of 12-in.-wide diagonal lines used in painted medians should be 20 ft. When the posted speed limit is more than 45 mph, the spacing of 24-in.-wide diagonal lines used in painted medi- ans should be 40 ft. The edge lines surrounding right-turn channelizing islands are 8-in.-wide solid lines. Diagonal lines that are 12 in. wide and are spaced at 20-ft intervals are used throughout the paved portion of the right-turn island. IOWA The spacing of 8-in.-wide diagonal lines used in painted medians and channelizing islands is 20 ft. If the width of the painted median becomes less than 2 ft, the median is painted solid yellow. The lines outlining the painted median or chan- nelizing island are also 8 in. wide. KANSAS Diagonal and chevron lines are 12 in. wide, are inclined at a 30Â° angle, and are spaced at a distance in feet equal to the speed in mph. LOUISIANA Diagonal lines in painted medians are 24 in. wide at 24-ft spacing. MICHIGAN The edge lines surrounding right-turn channelizing islands are 6-in.-wide solid lines. Chevrons or cross-hatching lines that are 6 in. wide when the speed is 45 mph or less or 12 in. 118 wide when the speed is more than 45 mph and that are spaced at 20-ft intervals are used throughout the paved portion of the right-turn island. Solid 12-in.-wide lane lines are used to form a painted island on approaches to raised islands or other obstacles (where traffic flows in the same direction on either side of the island). Chevrons that are 6 in. wide when the speed is 45 mph or less or 12 in. wide when the speed is more than 45 mph are spaced at 20-ft intervals within the painted island. Diagonal lines are optional in painted medians. If used, the diagonal lines are 6 in. wide when the posted speed limit is 45 mph or less or 12 in. wide when the posted speed limit is more than 45 mph. The spacing of diagonal lines on paved shoulders and in painted medians can vary from 10 to 40 ft based on the posted speed limit. Two sets of 4-in.-wide double yellow centerlines are used to form a painted island on approaches to raised medians or other obstacles (where traffic flows in the opposite direction on either side of the island). Diagonal lines that are 6 in. wide when the posted speed limit is 40 mph or less or 12 in. wide when the posted speed limit is more than 40 mph are placed within the painted island. The spacing of the diagonal lines can vary from 10 to 40 ft based on the posted speed limit. MINNESOTA Diagonal lines in painted medians are 24 in. wide at 20-ft spacing (measured perpendicular to the diagonal lines instead of along the lane line). For speeds less than 40 mph, the diag- onal lines may be reduced to 12 in. in width. For speeds more than 40 mph, the spacing may be increased to 30 ft. MISSISSIPPI Diagonal lines in painted medians are 18 in. wide at 20-ft spacing. The lines surrounding the painted median are 12-in.- wide solid lines. Diagonal lines on paved shoulders are 18 in. wide at 20-ft spacing. MONTANA The edge lines surrounding right-turn channelizing islands are 8-in.-wide solid white lines. Chevrons or cross-hatching lines are not used on the paved portion between the edge lines and the raised island. The curbs of the raised right-turn chan- nelizing islands are painted yellow. Diagonal lines in painted medians are 24 in. wide, are in- clined at a 30Â° angle, and are spaced at 25-ft (shown as 7.5-m) intervals.

119 NEBRASKA Diagonal lines in painted medians are 12 in. wide. The spac- ing of diagonal lines on painted medians is 12 ft in urban areas and 20 ft in rural areas. NEW HAMPSHIRE Diagonal lines are optional on paved shoulders and in painted medians. If used, the diagonal lines are 24 in. wide. The spac- ing of diagonal lines on paved shoulders and in painted medi- ans is 20 ft. NEW YORK Diagonal lines in painted medians are usually 24 in. wide at 11-ft (shown as 3.3-m) spacing. However, two other patterns of diagonal lines are also available to the designer. The diag- onal lines may be 8 in. wide at a 15Â° angle at 10-ft (shown as 3.0-m) spacing or may be 12 in. wide at a 20Â° angle at 12-ft (shown as 3.6-m) spacing. The 15Â° and 20Â° angles are mea- sured from the centerline. Diagonal lines on paved shoulders are usually 24 in. wide at a maximum spacing of 100 ft. However, two other patterns of diagonal lines are also available to the designer. The diag- onal lines may be 8 in. wide at a 15Â° angle at 10-ft (shown as 3.0-m) spacing or may be 12 in. wide at a 20Â° angle at 12-ft (shown as 3.6-m) spacing. The 15Â° and 20Â° angles are mea- sured from the edge line. NORTH CAROLINA The spacing of 8-in.-wide diagonal lines or chevrons used in painted medians and channelizing islands is typically equal in feet to the posted speed limit in mph. The spacing of the diag- onal lines can be increased to 200 ft or more on shoulders of Interstate roadways. OHIO Diagonal lines and chevrons that are 24 in. wide are used on shoulders, in painted medians that are more than 6 ft wide, and in islands. Diagonal lines may be used, but are typically not used if the painted median is 6 ft or less in width. The spacing of the diagonal lines or chevrons is 12-ft for the first 48 ft, 24 ft for the next 48 ft, and 48 ft thereafter. If a painted median separates opposing directions of traffic, the 12-ft spac- ing starts on both ends of the painted median. OKLAHOMA The edge lines surrounding right-turn channelizing islands are 8-in.-wide solid white lines. Chevrons or cross-hatching lines are not used on the paved portion between the edge lines and the raised island. Chevrons that are 8 in. wide at 10-ft spacing are used in painted right-turn channelizing islands. Diagonal lines in painted medians are 8 in. wide and are spaced at 15-ft intervals. OREGON Diagonal lines are optional in painted medians. If used, the diagonal lines are 12 in. wide and are placed at a 36Â° angle to the lane line. The spacing of diagonal lines in painted medians is 20 ft; however, a 40-ft spacing may be used when the distance between left-turn lanes exceeds 200 ft. The diag- onal lines are rectangular in shape and do not connect to the lane lines. The nearest points of the diagonal lines are placed 4 in. from the centerline. Chevrons or cross-hatching lines are optional in right-turn channelizing islands. PENNSYLVANIA Diagonal lines are used in painted medians only when re- quired to provide emphasis if the visibility or sight distance is restricted. If used, the diagonal lines are 24 in. wide and are spaced at 8-ft intervals when speeds are 35 mph or less and at 16-ft intervals when speeds are more than 35 mph. Diagonal lines on shoulders are 24 in. wide and are spaced at intervals equal in feet to the posted speed limit in miles per hour. The spacing may be increased to 200 ft or more on Interstate highways. The edge lines surrounding raised right-turn channelizing islands are 4-in.-wide solid white lines. Chevrons or cross- hatching lines are not used on the paved portion between the edge lines and the raised island. RHODE ISLAND Diagonal lines and chevrons are 12 in. wide. Diagonal lines in painted medians are spaced at 10-ft intervals. SOUTH CAROLINA Chevron markings in islands separating traffic moving in the same direction are 24 in. wide at 6-ft spacing. Diagonal lines in painted medians are 24 in. wide. The di- agonal lines begin when the median width reaches 2 ft. The first five diagonal lines are spaced at 6-ft intervals, the next four diagonal lines are spaced at 12-ft intervals, and the remaining diagonal lines are spaced at 18-ft intervals. The

diagonal lines end when the median width reaches 8 ft; how- ever, the length of median with diagonal lines spaced at 18-ft intervals is not less than 72 ft or more than 500 ft. SOUTH DAKOTA Diagonal lines in painted medians are 24 in. wide and are typ- ically spaced at 25-ft intervals. Diagonal lines in painted medians in the transition from two-lane highways to four-lane divided highways are 24 in. wide and are spaced at 20-ft intervals. TENNESSEE Diagonal lines and chevrons are 12 in. wide. Diagonal lines in painted medians that are at least 6 ft wide and on shoulders are spaced at 50-ft intervals when the posted speed limit is 40 mph or less and 100-ft intervals when the posted speed limit is 45 mph or more. Diagonal lines and chevrons on approaches to obstruc- tions are spaced at 10-ft intervals when the posted speed limit is 40 mph or less and 20-ft intervals when the posted speed limit is 45 mph or more. Diagonal lines in painted medians where a left-turn lane is formed by roadway widening at an intersection are spaced at 10-ft intervals and start when the width of the median becomes 6 ft. The edge lines surrounding right-turn channelizing islands that have an area of less than 400 ft2 or less are 8-in.-wide solid white lines. Chevrons that are 12 in. wide at 10-ft spac- ing are placed inside the island. The edge lines surrounding right-turn channelizing islands that have an area of 400 ft2 or less are 24-in.-wide solid white lines. Chevrons or cross-hatching lines are not used. The edge lines surrounding raised right-turn channelizing islands are 8-in.-wide solid white lines. Diagonal lines that are 12 in. wide at 10-ft spacing are placed in the paved por- tion between the edge lines and the raised island if the width of the paved portion is at least 6 ft. TEXAS Diagonal lines in painted medians are typically 24 in. wide, but no less than 12 in. wide, and are spaced at 20-ft intervals. UTAH Diagonal lines are optional in painted medians. If used, the diagonal lines are 8 in. wide and are spaced at 10-ft intervals. 120 The edge lines surrounding raised right-turn channelizing islands are 8-in.-wide solid white lines. Chevrons that are 8 in. wide at 10-ft spacing are placed in the painted island area before the raised portion of the island and in the painted island area after the raised portion of the island. VERMONT Diagonal lines in painted medians are 8 in. wide. Diagonal lines are spaced at 7-ft intervals where speeds are low, where sight distance is less than 200 ft, and where the length of the painted median is 75 ft or less. Diagonal lines are spaced at 14-ft inter- vals where speeds are high and sight distance is 200 ft or more, and where the length of the painted median is more than 75 ft. Painted medians and islands that are 4 ft or less in width and triangular islands that have an area of less than 450 ft2 are painted in their entirety. The edge lines surrounding triangular islands that have an area of 450 ft2 or more are 48-in.-wide solid white lines, and chevrons or cross-hatching lines are not used. WEST VIRGINIA Diagonal lines in painted medians are 12 in. wide and are spaced at 12-ft intervals. The edge lines surrounding painted islands are 6- to 8-in.- wide solid lines. Chevrons or diagonal lines that are 12 in. wide at 6-ft spacing are used in painted islands. WISCONSIN Diagonal lines in painted medians are 12 in. wide and are typically spaced at 25-ft intervals. Diagonal lines begin when the painted median becomes 3 ft wide. The edge lines on the approaches to raised islands are 8-in.- wide solid lines that extend 5 ft beyond the nose of the island. WYOMING The edge lines surrounding painted islands are 8-in.-wide solid white lines. Chevrons or diagonal lines are not used in painted islands. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Diagonal lines or chevrons in painted medians, gore areas, channelizing islands, shoulders, and approaches to obstruc- tions are 12 in. wide and are spaced at 5-ft intervals. PUERTO RICO Diagonal lines are optional on shoulders and are 12-in. lines spaced at 33-ft intervals. Diagonal lines are not used in painted medians.

121 CHARLOTTE, NC Diagonal lines or chevrons on shoulders, painted medians, and painted islands are 12 in. wide, are inclined at a 30Â° angle from the lane line, and are spaced at 30-ft intervals. NEW YORK, NY Diagonal lines on shoulders are 16-in. lines spaced at unspec- ified intervals. TUCSON/PIMA COUNTY, AZ Diagonal lines or chevrons in painted medians or islands are 12 in. wide when the speed limit is 40 mph or less and 24 in. wide when the speed limit is 45 mph or more. Diag- onal lines or chevrons in painted medians or islands are spaced at 20-ft intervals when the speed limit is 40 mph or less and at 80-ft intervals when the speed limit is 45 mph or more. No standards were found for: Alabama Nevada Connecticut New Jersey Delaware New Mexico Kentucky North Dakota Maine Virginia Maryland Washington Massachusetts Los Angeles, CA Missouri