# Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details(2006)

## Chapter: Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections

« Previous: Chapter Two - Pavement Markings at Intersections
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Three - Pavement Markings Between Intersections." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2006. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13947.
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distance shown in Table 3B-1 of the MUTCD for the pre- vailing speed. The design standards for seven agencies (ID, IL, IN, MN, OH, WI, and WY) specified the minimum length of a pass- ing zone to be a range of distances based on the speed of traffic. The following are the minimum lengths of passing zones for the seven agencies that show a range of distances: Idaho 400 ft for speed limits of 45 mph or less 450 ft for a speed limit of 50 mph 500 ft for a speed limit of 55 mph 550 ft for a speed limit of 60 mph 600 ft for a speed limit of 65 mph. Illinois 400 ft for speeds of less than 60 mph and 600 ft for speeds of 60 mph or more If the gap between consecutive no-passing zones is between 600 and 800 ft, connecting the no-passing zones is optional. Indiana 420 ft for a speed limit of 30 mph 480 ft for speed limits of 35 or 40 mph 530 ft for a speed limit of 45 mph 580 ft for a speed limit of 50 mph 730 ft for a speed limit of 55 mph 860 ft for a speed limit of 60 mph 1,000 ft for a speed limit of 65 mph (All of these dimensions are shown in metric units in the design standards.) Minnesota 500 ft for 85th percentile speeds of 20 to 39 mph 650 ft for 85th percentile speeds of 40 to 54 mph 800 ft for 85th percentile speeds of 55 mph or more. Ohio 400 ft for speeds of less than 50 mph and 600 ft for speeds of 50 mph or more. Wisconsin 528 ft for speed limits of 40 mph or less 686 ft for speed limits of 45 or 50 mph 792 ft for a speed limit of 55 mph (These dimensions are shown as 0.10, 0.13, and 0.15 mi in the design standards.) 26 Wyoming 280 ft for a speed limit of 25 mph 320 ft for a speed limit of 30 mph 370 ft for a speed limit of 35 mph 410 ft for a speed limit of 40 mph 500 ft for a speed limit of 45 mph 550 ft for a speed limit of 50 mph 650 ft for a speed limit of 55 mph 700 ft for a speed limit of 60 mph 850 ft for speed limits of 65 mph or more. MINIMUM LENGTH OF NO-PASSING ZONES 2003 MUTCD Provisions The MUTCD does not specify the minimum length of a no- passing zone. Minimum Length of No-Passing Zones (14 agencies) The design standards for Idaho show 250 ft as the minimum length of a no-passing zone. The design standards for 12 agencies (AL, AK, IL, IN, IA, NY, MN, MT, OH, OR, WI, and WY) show 500 ft as the minimum length of a no-passing zone. The design standards for Tucson/Pima County show 550 ft as the minimum length of a no-passing zone. TWO-WAY LEFT-TURN LANES 2003 MUTCD Provisions Paragraph 3 of Section 3B.03 contains the following stan- dard: âIf a two-way left-turn lane [2WLTLS] that is never operated as a reversible lane is used, the lane line pavement markings on each side of the two-way left-turn lane shall consist of a normal broken yellow line and a normal solid yellow line to delineate the edges of a lane that can be used by traffic in either direction as part of a left-turn maneuver. These markings shall be placed with the broken line toward the two-way left-turn lane and the solid line toward the adja- cent traffic lane as shown in Figure 3B-7â (see Appendix A for figures). This lane line standard is universally followed, but no standards are given as to the use or placement of turn arrows in the two-way left-turn lane. Figure 3B-7 shows an example of the pavement markings that are used for 2WLTLs. The lane lines on both sides of the 2WLTL are shown as a solid yellow line adjacent to the through lane and a broken yellow line adjacent to the 2WLTL. The typical spacing between the tips of the arrowheads of the two opposing left-turn arrows that comprise a set of arrows

27 is shown as 8 to 16 ft. The use of left-turn arrows in the 2WLTL is shown as being optional. Paragraph 23 of Section 3B.19 contains the following support: âLane-use arrow markings are often used to provide guidance . . . in two-way left-turn lanes (see Figure 3B-7).â Lane Lines (37 agencies) All of the design standards consistently show the lane lines on both sides of the 2WLTL as a solid yellow line adjacent to the through lane and a broken yellow line adjacent to the 2WLTL. None of the design standards show the use of lane lines that are different from those shown in Figure 3B-7 of the MUTCD. Use Versus Non-Use of Left-Turn Arrows (37 agencies) Except for four agencies, the design standards consistently require the use of left-turn arrows in 2WLTLs. The design standards for four agencies (AZ, CA, TX, and UT) state that the use of the arrows is optional. Spacing Between Opposing Left-Turn Arrows in a Set of Arrows (36 agencies) The design standards for 21 agencies specify the spacing between opposing left-turn arrows in a set of arrows as the distance between the tips of the arrowheads. The distances specified for these 21 agencies are as follows: WAâ5 to 10 ft NHâ8 ft MN, NV, OH, PAâ8 to 16 ft TXâtypically 8 to 16 ft MTâno less than 10 ft and no more than 20 ft CLTâ15 ft SDâ16 ft IDâ18 to 32 ft depending on the prevailing speed NEâ24 to 32 ft in urban areas and 32 to 40 ft in rural areas MIâ32 ft CO, DE, IN, IA, LA, WYâtypically 32 ft UTâtypically 33 ft CAâgenerally equal to the left-turn arrow size (the typ- ical left-turn arrow is 8 ft long, but an arrow that is 24 ft long may be used on high-speed roadways). The design standards for 15 agencies specify the spacing between opposing left-turn arrows in a set of arrows as the distance between the closest points of the arrows. The dis- tances specified for these 15 agencies are as follows: NYâ5 ft ORâtypically 8 to 16 ft MS, NCâ10 ft FLâ12 ft OK, KSâ16 ft MDâtypically 16 ft GAâ25 ft AR, WIâ32 ft AL, AZ, TN, WVâtypically 32 ft. Minimum Spacing from One Set of Arrows to the Next Set of Arrows (10 agencies) The design standards for five agencies specify the minimum spacing between sets of arrows as the distance between the center points of the sets. The minimum distances specified for these five agencies are as follows: CLTâ100 ft TXâ150 ft ORâ250 ft INâ400 ft ARâ500 ft in urban areas and 1,300 ft in rural areas. The design standards for two agencies specify the mini- mum spacing between sets of arrows as the distance between the closest points (bottom of the arrows) of each set. The minimum distances specified for these two agencies are as follows: ALâ200 ft MIâ300 ft. The design standards for one agency specify the minimum spacing between sets of arrows as the distance between the tips of the arrowheads of nearest arrows. The minimum dis- tance specified for this agency is as follows: UTâ100 ft. The design standards for two agencies specify the mini- mum spacing between sets of arrows, but do not indicate how the distance is measured. The minimum distances specified for these two agencies are as follows: ILâ200 ft OHâ500 ft for speeds of 40 mph or less and 1,000 ft for speeds of more than 40 mph. Maximum Spacing from One Set of Arrows to the Next Set of Arrows (14 agencies) The design standards for six agencies specify the maximum spacing between sets of arrows as the distance between the center points of the sets. The maximum distances specified for these six agencies are as follows: MNâ200 ft CLTâ300 ft

IDâ300 ft if the average daily traffic (ADT) is more than 10,000 and 500 ft if the ADT is less than 10,000 WAâ500 ft ARâ1,000 ft in urban areas and 1,500 ft in rural areas TXâ1,500 ft. The design standards for one agency specify the maxi- mum spacing between sets of arrows as the distance between the closest points (bottom of the arrows) of each set. The maximum distance specified for this agency is as follows: MIâ1,000 ft. The design standards for one agency specify the maxi- mum spacing between sets of arrows as the distance between the tips of the arrowheads of the nearest arrows. The maxi- mum distance specified for this agency is as follows: UTâ300 ft. The design standards for six agencies specify the maxi- mum spacing between sets of arrows, but do not indicate how the distance is measured. The maximum distances specified for these six agencies are as follows: FL, ILâ300 ft WIâ400 ft LAâ750 ft OHâ1,000 ft for speeds of 40 mph or less and 1,500 ft for speeds of more than 40 mph TNâ2,640 ft (shown as a half-mile). Spacing from One Set of Arrows to the Next Set of Arrows (12 agencies) The design standards for seven agencies specify the desired or required spacing between sets of arrows as the distance between the center points of the sets. The desired or required distances specified for these six agencies are as follows: WVâtypically 200 to 500 ft MSâ250 ft NC, PAâtypically 320 ft ORâplaced at even intervals, proportioned within each block, with the approximate interval in feet being ten times the posted speed limit in mph IAâthe interval in feet is typically ten times the speed limit in mph, or one set of arrows located midblock KSâthe interval in feet is ten times the speed limit in mph. The design standards for four agencies specify the desired or required spacing between sets of arrows as the distance between the closest points (bottom of the arrows) of each set. The desired or required distances specified for these four agencies are as follows: OKâ200 ft NYâtypically 200 ft 28 ALâ400 ft MDâtypically 800 ft. The design standards for one agency specify the desired or required spacing between sets of arrows, but do not indi- cate how the distance is measured. The desired or required distances specified for this agency are as follows: MTâ500 ft in urban areas and 1,320 ft in rural areas. Other Considerations Regarding the Spacing of Sets of Arrows (15 agencies) The design standards for New York recommend that a set of arrows be placed 21 ft (shown as 6.5 m) from the end of a single-direction turn lane (this distance is measured from the bottom of the nearest arrow to the end of the 2WLTL). The design standards for the city of Charlotte show that a set of arrows is placed 25 ft from the end of a single-direction turn lane (this distance is measured from the center point be- tween a pair of arrows to the end of the 2WLTL). The design standards for Oklahoma show that a set of arrows is placed 30 ft from the ends of the 2WLTLs, includ- ing when they are interrupted for intersecting streets. The design standards for Idaho show that a set of arrows should be placed such that the tip of the nearest arrowhead is no closer than 50 ft to the nearest edge of an intersecting street. The design standards for Maryland require that a set of arrows be placed on each approach to all intersecting streets at a distance of 50 ft from the resumption of the centerline markings. The design standards for Minnesota recommend that a set of arrows be placed such that the center point between a set of arrows is 50 ft from the resumption of the centerline mark- ings if they are interrupted for an intersecting street. The design standards for Montana require that a set of arrows be placed 50 ft from intersections or the ends of single- direction turn lanes. The design standards for Mississippi require that each segment of continuous 2WLTL be considered separately. If the segment is shorter than 350 ft, one set of arrows is placed in the center of the segment. If the segment is longer than 350 ft, the first set of arrows is placed 50 to 100 ft from the beginning or end of the segment. The design standards for New Hampshire recommend that a set of arrows be placed no less than 50 ft and no more than 100 ft from the end of a single-direction turn lane (this distance is measured from the tip of the nearest arrowhead to the end of the 2WLTL).

29 The design standards for Arkansas show that a set of arrows is placed 100 ft (measured to the center point between the pair of arrows) from the beginning or end of the 2WLTL, including where the 2WLTL is interrupted for a one-direc- tion left-turn lane at an intersection. A set of arrows is placed 100 ft (measured to the center point between the pair of arrows) from side streets if the 2WLTL centerline markings are interrupted for an intersecting street. The design standards for Washington State show that a set of arrows is placed approximately 100 ft from the ends of the 2WLTLs. The design standards for Ohio recommend that a set of arrows be placed 100 to 200 ft from the near edge of inter- secting streets or from the ends of the 2WLTLs. The design standards for Wisconsin recommend that a set of arrows be placed near intersections or driveways with turning traffic. The design standards for Illinois require that at least two sets of arrows be used. The design standards for Louisiana require that at least one set of arrows be used per block. The design standards for Montana require that at least two sets of arrows be used per block. CLIMBING OR PASSING LANES 2003 MUTCD Provisions The MUTCD does not specifically address climbing or pass- ing lanes. Figure 3B-3 illustrates the typical pavement markings that are used on roadways that have two lanes in one direction and a single lane in the other direction. This figure shows a bro- ken lane line being used to separate the two lanes traveling in the same direction. Drawing âaâ in Figure 3B-3 shows that passing can be permitted in the single-lane direction. Figure 3B-12 shows examples of the pavement markings that are used where a lane is ending. This figure shows the broken lane line ending 0.75D upstream from the downstream end of the full-width section, where D is the distance (based on Section 2C.05) that a Lane Ends (W4-2) sign is placed upstream from the downstream end of the full-width section. This is consistent with Paragraph 5 of Section 3B.09, which says that, âLane line markings should be discontinued one- quarter of the distance between the Lane Ends sign (see Sec- tion 2C.33) and the point where the transition taper begins.â Lane-reduction arrows are not shown in Figure 3B-12. Paragraph 19 of Section 3B.19 contains the following option: âIn situations where a lane reduction transition occurs, the lane reduction arrow markings shown in Figure 3B-21 may be usedâ (see Appendix A for figures). Type of Lane Line (22 agencies) Except for the three agencies listed here, the design standards consistently show a broken lane line being used to separate the two lanes in the same direction. The design standards for California show a broken lane line being used to separate the two lanes in the same direc- tion, but state that when a climbing lane is provided and it is necessary to prohibit trucks from passing slower moving vehicles, an 8-in.-wide solid line shall be used in place of the broken lane line and a TRUCKS RIGHT LANE ONLY sign shall be placed at the beginning of the restriction and at approximately quarter-mile intervals. The design standards for Connecticut show a double bro- ken line (10-ft segments with 30-ft gaps) starting at the upstream end of the full-width climbing lane and ending 1,150 ft upstream from the downstream end of the full-width climbing lane. For the next 500 ft, a double line comprised of a solid line next to the permanent (left) lane and a broken line (10-ft segments with 30-ft gaps) next to the climbing (right) lane is used. For the last 650 ft of the full-width climb- ing lane, no lane line is used. (The treatments of climbing lanes through portions of roadways where entrance or exit ramps enter or exit the roadway are also shown, as is the treatment of a climbing lane that is on an entrance ramp.) The design standards for Massachusetts show a broken line comprised of 100-ft segments with 10-ft gaps. Start (Upstream End) of Lane Line (22 agencies) Except for the four agencies listed here, the design standards consistently show the lane line starting at the upstream end of the full-width climbing or passing lane. The design standards for California and climbing lanes in Minnesota show the lane line starting 50 ft downstream from the upstream end of the full-width climbing or passing lane. The design standards for Iowa show the lane line starting 250 ft downstream from the upstream end of the full-width climbing or passing lane. The design standards for Wyoming show the lane line start- ing an unspecified distance downstream from the upstream end of the full-width climbing or passing lane. Other Markings at Start (Upstream End) of Lane Line (6 agencies) The design standards for Georgia show that drivers are always directed into the right lane when they are approaching a

passing lane area regardless of which side or sides of the roadway are widened. This is done by providing a painted median for the upstream two-thirds of the transition taper. The painted median, which includes 24-in.-wide diagonal stripes between two sets of double yellow centerlines, goes from no width to a width of 8 ft during this distance. After the painted median has become 8 ft wide, a 100-ft taper is used to open up the left lane for faster traffic. The design standards for Idaho and Kansas show a dotted line (2-ft segments with 4-ft gaps) connecting the double yel- low centerline at the upstream end of the shifting taper with the upstream end of the broken lane line to encourage drivers to move into the right lane at the beginning of the passing lane area. The design standards for Minnesota show that when a pass- ing lane section is provided, passing lanes are constructed for both directions of traffic. A painted median marked with diag- onal stripes is provided to move all traffic into the newly formed right lane by means of a shifting taper. A no-passing zone that is at least 500 ft in length is provided upstream of the painted median. At the downstream end of the painted median, a broken lane line begins and the painted median abruptly ends with a line that is perpendicular to the centerline. The design standards for New York show a partial barrier line (a 4-in.-wide solid line on the left-hand side and a 4-in.- wide broken line with 10-ft segments and 30-ft gaps on the right-hand side) connecting the centerline at the upstream end of the shifting taper with the upstream end of the broken lane line to encourage drivers to move into the right lane at the beginning of the passing lane area. The design standards for Wisconsin show that if the length of the shifting taper is at least 700 ft, a 4-in.-wide dotted line (3-ft segments with 12-ft gaps) connects the centerline at the upstream end of the shifting taper with the upstream end of the broken lane line to encourage drivers to move into the right lane at the beginning of the climbing or passing lane area. End (Downstream End) of Lane Line (18 agencies) The design standards for seven agencies (AK, AZ, CA, KS, KY, MT, and UT) show the lane line ending at a distance 0.75D upstream from the downstream end of the full-width climbing or passing lane. The design standards for Wyoming show the lane line ending at a distance 0.5D upstream from the downstream end of the full-width climbing or passing lane. For each of these eight agencies, the distance D is the advance distance (based on Condition A in Table 2C-4 of the MUTCD) in feet that a Lane Ends warning sign is placed upstream from the downstream end of the full-width section. The design standards for 10 agencies show the lane line ending at a specific distance upstream from the downstream 30 end of the full-width climbing or passing lane. The distances are as follows: MAâ0 ft NYâ100 ft MNâpassing lanes at 150 ft, climbing lanes at 200 ft IDâ200 ft ORâat least 200 ft, but typically 375 ft (which is 0.75D, where D is the 500-ft distance to the advance warning sign) GAâ200 ft for 35 mph, 275 ft for 45 mph, 350 ft for 55 mph WIâ350 ft INâ375 ft IAâ550 ft CTâ650 ft. Use of Lane-Reduction Arrows (18 agencies) The design standards for 14 agencies (AZ, CT, GA, IN, IA, KS, KY, MA, MN, MT, NY, UT, WI, and WY) do not show the use of lane-reduction arrows in the climbing or passing lane. The design standards for Idaho and Oregon state that the use of lane-reduction arrows in the climbing or passing lane is optional. The design standards for Arkansas and California require the use of lane-reduction arrows in the climbing or passing lane. Number and Placement of Lane-Reduction Arrows (4 agencies) The four agencies that use lane-reduction arrows in the climbing or passing lane use the following number of arrows: ORâat least 2 AK, CA, IDâ3. The four agencies that use lane-reduction arrows in the climbing or passing lane place the top of the arrows at the fol- lowing distances upstream from the downstream end of the full-width climbing or passing lane: CA, IDâ0 ft, 200 ft, and 400 ft AKâ0 ft, 0.375D, and 0.75D ORâ500 ft to the first arrow and then additional lane- reduction arrows are placed upstream with the spacing between the bottom of the downstream arrow and the top of the upstream arrow being 200 ft. Passing Permitted or Prohibited in Opposing (Single-Lane) Direction (21 agencies) The design standards for 17 agencies (AK, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, MA, MN, NY, ND, OR, UT, WI, WY, PR, and

31 LAN) show that passing may be permitted in the single-lane direction. The design standards for Massachusetts also show that passing can be permitted in the climbing lane direction if sight distance allows, thus creating a third available lane when there is a sufficient gap in opposing traffic. The design standards for three agencies (AZ, MT, and WV) require that passing be prohibited in the single-lane direction. The design standards for Arizona also state that when uphill passing lanes are provided, the centerline for downhill traffic âshall be solid from 500 ft in advance of the initial taper to 200 ft past the end of the terminal taper.â The design standards for California require that passing be prohibited in the single-lane direction if the ADT exceeds 3,000. When the ADT is 3,000 or less, passing can be per- mitted in the single-lane direction provided that one or more YIELD TO UPHILL TRAFFIC signs are installed. LANE REDUCTIONS 2003 MUTCD Provisions Figure 3B-12 shows examples of the pavement markings that are used where a lane is ending. Figure 3B-12 shows the bro- ken lane line ending 0.75D upstream from the downstream end of the full-width section, where D is the distance (based on Section 2C.05) that a Lane Ends (W4-2) sign is placed upstream from the downstream end of the full-width section. This is consistent with Paragraph 5 of Section 3B.09, which says that, âLane line markings should be discontinued one- quarter of the distance between the Lane Ends sign (see Sec- tion 2C.33) and the point where the transition taper begins.â Lane-reduction arrows are not shown in Figure 3B-12 (see Appendix A for figures). Paragraph 19 of Section 3B.19 contains the following option: âIn situations where a lane reduction transition occurs, the lane reduction arrow markings shown in Figure 3B-21 may be used.â Downstream End of Broken Lane Line (31 agencies) The design standards for 11 agencies (AZ, CA, CO, DE, KY, LA, NV, ND, TN, UT, and PR) show the broken lane line ending at a distance 0.75D upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper. The design standards for Wyoming show the broken lane line ending 0.5D upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper. The design standards for Pennsylvania show the broken lane line ending at a distance D upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper. For each of these 13 agencies, the distance D is the advance dis- tance (based on Condition A in Table 2C-4 of the MUTCD) in feet that a Lane Ends warning sign is placed upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper. The design standards for three other agencies show the broken lane line ending at a distance 0.75D upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper, but with a different means of determining the distance D. The means of deter- mining the distance D for these three agencies are as follows: FLâthe values of D are 325 ft for 30 mph, 475 ft for 40 mph, 550 ft for 45 mph, 625 ft for 50 mph, and 700 ft for 55 mph NC, ORâthe values of D, which range from 175 ft for 20 mph to 850 ft for 65 mph, are shown in a table. The design standards for 12 agencies show the broken lane line ending at a specific distance upstream from the up- stream end of the transition taper. The distances for these 12 agencies are as follows: CLT, LANâ0 ft NYâ100 ft IDâ200 ft IAâ190 ft for 25 mph, 300 ft for 35 mph, 415 ft for 45 mph, 565 ft for 55 mph MNâ200 ft GAâ200 ft for 35 mph, 275 ft for 45 mph, 350 ft for 55 mph TUCâ245 ft for 30 mph, 300 ft for 35 mph, 350 ft for 40 mph, 415 ft for 45 mph, 475 ft for 50 mph INâ375 ft ARâ525 ft VTâ550 ft MAâ565 ft (shown as 170 m). The design standards for Michigan show the broken lane line ending at a specified distance upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper. The distance in feet is calculated using the formula 15(S â 10) + 25, where S is the higher of the posted or 85th percentile speed. The design standards for Maryland show the broken lane line ending at a specified distance upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper based on speed (1,275 ft for 65 mph, 1,165 ft for 60 mph, 1,050 ft for 55 mph, 940 ft for 50 mph, and 825 ft for 45 mph). A 10-in.-wide dotted line (3-ft seg- ments with 9-ft gaps) is provided from the downstream end of the broken lane line to the upstream end of the transition taper. The design standards for Mississippi show the broken lane line ending at an unspecified distance upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper. A 6-in.-wide dotted line (2-ft segments with 12-ft gaps) is provided from the down- stream end of the broken lane line to the upstream end of the transition taper. Dotted Lane Line in Transition Area (1 agency) The design standards for North Carolina show a 4- to 6-in.- wide dotted line (2-ft segments with 13-ft gaps) from the end

of the broken lane line to the downstream end of the transi- tion taper. Use of Lane-Reduction Arrows (31 agencies) The design standards for 17 agencies (AZ, AR, CO, DE, GA, IN, IA, LA, MA, MN, NY, ND, TN, UT, VT, WY, and PR) do not show the use of lane-reduction arrows in the lane that is ending. The design standards for three agencies (ID, MI, and OR) state that the use of lane-reduction arrows in the lane that is ending is optional. The design standards for Michigan also require a MERGE message to be placed just upstream of each lane-reduction arrow if lane-reduction arrows are used. The design standards for Oregon note that lane-reduction arrows are optional for speeds higher than 45 mph, but are generally not used for speeds of 45 mph or less. The design standards for 11 agencies (CA, FL, KY, MD, MS, NV, NC, PA, CLT, LAN, and TUC) require the use of lane-reduction arrows in the lane that is ending. The design standards for Florida also require a MERGE message to be placed just upstream of each lane-reduction arrow. Number and Placement of Lane-Reduction Arrows (14 agencies) The 14 agencies that use lane-reduction arrows in the lane that is ending use the following number of arrows: FL, MI, MSâ2 ORâat least 2 CA, ID, KY, MD, NV, LAN, TUCâ3 PAâat least 3 CLTâ4 NCâ5. The design standards for Maryland show a lane-reduction arrow positioned such that the bottom of the arrow is lined up with the downstream end of the broken lane line. Two additional lane-reduction arrows are placed in the lane, one in either direction from the lane-reduction arrow that is lined up with the downstream end of the broken lane line. These additional arrows are placed at a distance (measured from the bottom of one arrow to the bottom of the next arrow) that is based on speed (850 ft for 65 mph, 775 ft for 60 mph, 700 ft for 55 mph, 625 ft for 50 mph, and 550 ft for 45 mph). The design standards for Mississippi show a lane-reduction arrow placed at the halfway point of the 6-in.-wide dotted line and the other placed 100 ft upstream of the downstream end of the broken lane line. The lane-reduction arrows are the same shape as the lane use arrows used in straight-through lanes and are positioned at a 30Â° angle from the lane line. The design standards for Pennsylvania show the center of the lane-reduction arrow nearest to the downstream end of 32 the lane placed at a distance D upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper. At least two additional lane-reduction arrows are placed upstream of the arrow nearest to the down- stream end of the lane. The distance from the center of one arrow to the center of the next arrow is 300 ft on conventional roadways and 600 ft on expressways and freeways. The design standards for the city of Charlotte show the tops of the lane-reduction arrows positioned as follows: 25 ft downstream from the upstream end of the transition taper, at the upstream end of the transition taper, at 50 ft upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper, and at 100 ft upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper. The design standards for the city of Tucson/Pima County show the lane-reduction arrow farthest upstream positioned with its top a distance in feet upstream from the upstream end of the transition taper that is calculated using the formula 15(S â 25) + 250, where S is the posted speed in mph. Two additional lane-reduction arrows are placed downstream from this arrow at 40-ft intervals for speed limits of 30 mph or less, 80-ft intervals for 35 or 40 mph speed limits, and 120-ft intervals for speed limits of 45 mph or more. The other nine agencies that use lane-reduction arrows in the lane that is ending place the top of the arrows at the fol- lowing distances upstream from the upstream end of the tran- sition taper: CA, ID, LANâ0 ft, 200 ft, and 400 ft NCâ0 ft, 100 ft, 200 ft, 500 ft, and 800 ft NVâ0, 0.25D, and 0.5D KYâ0.75D, D, and D + 250 ft MIâD and 2D FLâjust before the downstream end of the full-width lane where a painted taper begins (the edge of pave- ment taper begins 120 to 910 ft farther downstream based on the speed and lateral offset, and at the down- stream end of the broken lane line ORâtypically 500 ft to the first arrow and then additional lane-reduction arrows are placed upstream with the spacing between the bottom of the downstream arrow and the top of the upstream arrow being 200 ft. PAINTED MEDIANS, PAVED SHOULDERS, AND APPROACHES TO OBSTRUCTIONS Figure 9 shows examples of diagonal lines in painted medians and on paved shoulders. Figure 3B-13 (see Appendix A) shows examples of diagonal lines and chevrons on approaches to obstructions. 2003 MUTCD Provisions Paragraph 6 of Section 3B.03 contains the following standard that makes it clear that painted medians do not have to include

33 diagonal lines, but that yellow pavement markings (such as diagonal lines) may be used: âIf a continuous median island formed by pavement markings separating travel in opposite directions is used, two sets of double solid yellow lines shall be used to form the island as shown in Figures 3B-2 and 3B-4. Other markings in the median island area shall also be yellow, except crosswalk markings which shall be white (see Section 3B.17).â Although the type of lane line has been made a stan- dard, no standards are provided for the use, width, or placement of diagonal lines in the painted median area. Paragraph 7 of Section 3B.10 contains the following option: âIf traffic is required to pass only to the right of the obstruction, yellow diagonal approach markings may be placed in the neutral area between the no-passing zone mark- ings as shown in Figure 3B-13â (see Appendix A for figures). Paragraph 9 of Section 3B.10 contains the following option: âIf traffic can pass either to the right or left of the obstruction, additional white markings may be placed in the neutral area between the channelizing lines as shown in Figure 3B-13.â Use Versus Non-Use of Diagonal Lines Within Painted Medians (39 agencies) Except for the 12 agencies listed here, the design standards con- sistently show the use of diagonal lines within painted medians. The design standards for three agencies (AK, AZ, PR) indi- cate that diagonal lines are not used within painted medians. The design standards for Tennessee indicate that diagonal lines are not used within painted medians that are less than 6 ft wide. The design standards for six agencies (CA, CO, MI, NH, OR, UT) indicate that diagonal lines are optional within painted medians. The design standards for Ohio indicate that diagonal lines are optional, but typically not used within painted medians that are less than 6 ft wide. The design standards for Idaho state that diagonal lines should not be placed as a standard practice because of the questionable benefits and high exposure of paint crews to traffic. Exceptions should be limited to those locations where the additional emphasis is clearly needed and then only for medians with widths of 10 ft or more. The design standards for Pennsylvania note that diagonal lines are used only when required to provide emphasis if the visibility or sight distance is restricted. The design standards for Iowa state that if the width of the painted median becomes less than 2 ft the median is painted solid yellow. Width of Diagonal Lines Within Painted Medians (34 agencies) The design standards for the 34 agencies that specify a line width for the diagonal lines (at a forward angle of 45Â° unless otherwise stated) within painted medians use the following widths: MIâ6 in. for posted speed limits of 45 mph or less and 12 in. for posted speed limits of more than 45 mph CO, IA, NC, OK, UT, VTâ8 in. Painted median Paved shoulder FIGURE 9 Examples of diagonal lines in painted medians and on paved shoulders.

CA, HI, IL, NE, RI, TN, WV, WI, DCâ12 in. ORâ12 in. at a 36Â° angle (the diagonal lines are rectan- gular in shape and do not connect to the lane linesâ the nearest points of the diagonal lines are placed 4 in. from the centerline) KS, CLTâ12 in. at a 30Â° angle INâ12 in. for posted speed limits of 45 mph or less and 24 in. for posted speed limits of more than 45 mph TUCâ12 in. for posted speed limits of 40 mph or less and 24 in. for posted speed limits of more than 40 mph FL, MSâ18 in. GA, LA, NH, OH, PA, SC, SDâ24 in. NYâ24 in. at a 45Â° angle, 12 in. at a 20Â° angle, or 8 in. at a 15Â° angle MTâ24 in. at a 30Â° angle MNâ24 in., but may be reduced to 12 in. for speeds less than 40 mph TXâtypically 24 in., but no less than 12 in. Spacing of Diagonal Lines Within Painted Medians (33 agencies) The design standards for the 33 agencies that specify the spacing (measured along the centerline unless otherwise stated) for the diagonal lines within painted medians use the following spacings: DCâ5 ft SCâ6 ft for the first five diagonal lines, 12 ft for the next four diagonal lines, and 18 ft for the remaining diago- nal lines (the diagonal lines start when the median width reaches 2 ft and end when the median width reaches 8 ft; however, the length of median with diag- onal lines spaced at 18-ft intervals is not less than 72 ft or more than 500 ft) VTâ7 ft where speeds are low, sight distance is less than 200 ft, and the length of the painted median is 75 ft or less; 14 ft where speeds are high, sight distance is 200 ft or more, and where the length of the painted median is more than 75 ft PAâ8 ft for posted speed limits of 35 mph or less and 16 ft for posted speed limits of more than 35 mph RI, UTâ10 ft FL, MIâ10 to 40 ft based on posted speed limit NYâ11 ft (shown as 3.3 m) for 45Â° angle lines, 12 ft (shown as 3.6 m) for 20Â° angle lines, or 10 ft (shown as 3.0 m) for 15Â° angle lines WVâ12 ft NEâ12 ft in urban areas and 20 ft in rural areas OHâ12 ft for the first 48 ft, 24 ft for the next 48 ft, and 48 ft thereafter (the 12-ft spacing starts on both ends of the painted median) GA, OKâ15 ft ILâ15 ft for speed limits less than 30 mph, 20 ft for speed limits from 30 to 45 mph, and 30 ft for speed limits of more than 45 mph near intersections and in pavement width transition areas; and 50 ft for speed 34 limits less than 30 mph, 75 ft for speed limits from 30 to 45 mph, and 150 ft for speed limits of more than 45 mph between intersections (if the recommended spacing does not provide at least five diagonal lines in the area being marked, the spacing from the next low- est speed range should be used) MNâ20 ft, but may be increased to 30 ft for speeds of more than 40 mph (measured perpendicular to the diagonal lines) HI, IA, MS, NH, TXâ20 ft ORâ20 ft, but may be increased to 40 ft if the distance between left-turn lanes exceeds 200 ft INâ20 ft for posted speed limits of 45 mph or less and 40 ft for posted speed limits of more than 45 mph TUCâ20 ft for posted speed limits of 40 mph or less and 80 ft for posted speed limits of more than 40 mph LAâ24 ft COâ25 ft MTâ25 ft (shown as 7.5 m) WIâ25 ft starting when the painted median becomes 3 ft wide SDâ25 ft, but 20 ft for two-lane to four-lane transition areas CLTâ30 ft TNâ50 ft for posted speed limits of 40 mph or less and 100 ft for posted speed limits of more than 40 mph (where a left-turn lane is formed by roadway widen- ing at an intersection, diagonal lines are spaced at 10-ft intervals and start when the width of the median becomes 6 ft) NCâthe distance in feet is equal to the posted speed limit in mph KSâthe distance in feet is equal to the speed in mph. Longitudinal Lines Surrounding Painted Medians (39 agencies) Except for the two agencies listed here, the design standards consistently show double yellow centerlines on both sides of painted medians. The design standards for Iowa show 8-in.-wide solid lines surrounding painted medians. The design standards for Mississippi show 12-in.-wide solid lines surrounding painted medians. Use Versus Non-Use of Diagonal Lines on Paved Shoulders (20 agencies) Except for the two agencies cited here, the design standards consistently show that the use of diagonal lines on paved shoulders is optional. The design standards for Arkansas indicate that diagonal lines are not used on paved shoulders.

35 The design standards for Idaho note that diagonal lines should not be placed as a standard practice because of the questionable benefits and high exposure of paint crews to traffic. Exceptions should be limited to those locations where the additional emphasis is clearly needed and then only for paved shoulders with widths of 10 ft or more. Width of Diagonal Lines on Paved Shoulders (20 agencies) The design standards for the 20 agencies that specify a line width for the diagonal lines (at a forward angle of 45Â° unless otherwise stated) on paved shoulders use the following widths: MIâ6 in. for posted speed limits of 45 mph or less and 12 in. for posted speed limits of more than 45 mph CO, NCâ8 in. CA, HI, IL, RI, TN, DC, PRâ12 in. KS, CLTâ12 in. at a 30Â° angle NYCâ16 in. FL, MSâ18 in. GA, NH, OH, PAâ24 in. NYâ24 in. at a 45Â° angle, 12 in. at a 20Â° angle, or 8 in. at a 15Â° angle. Spacing of Diagonal Lines on Paved Shoulders (17 agencies) The design standards for the 17 agencies that specify the spac- ing (measured along the centerline) for the diagonal lines (at a forward angle of 45Â° unless otherwise stated) on paved shoul- ders use the following spacings: DCâ5 ft FL, MIâ10 to 40 ft based on posted speed limit OHâ12 ft for the first 48 ft, 24 ft for the next 48 ft, and 48 ft thereafter GAâ15 to 50 ft MS, NHâ20 ft COâ20 to 100 ft CLTâ30 ft PRâ33 ft HIâ40 ft TNâ50 ft for posted speed limits of 40 mph or less and 100 ft for posted speed limits of more than 40 mph ILâ50 ft for speed limits less than 30 mph, 75 ft for speed limits from 30 to 45 mph, and 150 ft for speed limits of more than 45 mph (if the recommended spac- ing does not provide at least five diagonal lines in the area being marked, the spacing from the next lowest speed range should be used) NYâup to 100 ft for 45Â° angle lines or 12 ft (shown as 3.6 m) for 20Â° angle lines or 10 ft (shown as 3.0 m) for 15Â° angle lines NC, PAâthe distance in feet is equal to the posted speed limit in mph, but can be increased to 200 ft or more on Interstate highways KSâthe distance in meters is equal to the speed in kilometers/hour divided by five. Width of Diagonal Lines or Chevrons on Approaches to Obstructions (8 agencies) The design standards for the eight agencies that specify a line width for the diagonal lines or chevrons (both at a forward angle of 45Â° unless otherwise stated) on approaches to obstruc- tions use the following widths: COâ8 in. CA, GA, IL, TN, DCâ12 in. KSâ12 in. at a 30Â° angle AKâ18 in. Spacing of Diagonal Lines or Chevrons on Approaches to Obstructions (6 agencies) The design standards for the six agencies that specify the spacing (measured along the centerline or lane line) for the diagonal lines or chevrons on approaches to obstructions use the following spacings: GA, DCâ5 ft ILâ10 ft for speed limits less than 30 mph, 15 ft for speed limits from 30 to 45 mph, and 20 ft for speed limits of more than 45 mph (if the recommended spac- ing does not provide at least five diagonal lines in the area being marked, the spacing from the next lowest speed range should be used) TNâ10 ft for posted speed limits of 40 mph or less and 20 ft for posted speed limits of more than 40 mph AKâ12 ft COâ25 ft.

Next: Chapter Four - Pavement Markings at Interchanges »
Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details Get This Book
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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 356: Pavement Markings—Design and Typical Layout Details identifies variations in pavement marking designs, practices, and policies, as provided by 48 of 50 state departments of transportation, and transportation agencies from the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and four cities.

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