Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2007 www.TRB.org N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP REPORT 500 Subject Areas Safety and Human Performance Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan Volume 19: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Young Drivers Arthur Goodwin Robert Foss Jamie Sohn UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL Chapel Hill, NC Daniel Mayhew TRAFFIC INJURY RESEARCH FOUNDATION Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Boardâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 500, VOLUME 19 Project 17-18(3) ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN: 978-0-309-09908-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2007939323 Â© 2007 Transportation Research Board COPYRIGHT PERMISSION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Boardâs judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report.
CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 500, VOLUME 19 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Charles W. Niessner, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natassja Linzau, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 17-18(3) PANEL FIELD OF TRAFFICâAREA OF SAFETY Thomas E. Bryer, Science Applications International Corporation, Camp Hill, PA (Chair) Jasvinderjit âJesseâ Bhullar, California DOT Linda A. Cosgrove, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Troy Costales, Oregon DOT Leanna Depue, Missouri DOT L. Keith Golden, Georgia DOT Barbara Harsha, Governors Highway Safety Association, Washington, DC Bruce Ibarguen, Maine DOT Marlene Markison, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Margaret âMegâ Moore, Texas DOT Kathryn R. Swanson, Minnesota Department of Public Safety, St. Paul, MN Rudy Umbs, FHWA Thomas M. Welch, Iowa DOT Ray Krammes, FHWA Liaison Ken Kobetsky, AASHTO Liaison Richard Pain, TRB Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S
The goal of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan is to reduce annual highway fatali- ties to 1.0 fatality per 100 million vehicle-miles of travel. This goal can be achieved through the widespread application of low-cost, proven countermeasures that reduce the number of crashes on the nationâs highways. This nineteenth volume of NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Imple- mentation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan provides strategies that can be employed to reduce collisions involving young drivers. The report will be of particular interest to safety practitioners with responsibility for implementing programs to reduce injuries and fatalities on the highway system. In 1998, AASHTO approved its Strategic Highway Safety Plan, which was developed by the AASHTO Standing Committee for Highway Traffic Safety with the assistance of the Federal Highway Administration, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and the Trans- portation Research Board Committee on Transportation Safety Management. The plan includes strategies in 22 key emphasis areas that affect highway safety. The planâs goal is to reduce the annual number of highway deaths by 9,000 by 2008. Each of the 22 emphasis areas includes strategies and an outline of what is needed to implement each strategy. NCHRP Project 17-18(3) is developing a series of guides to assist state and local agencies in reducing injuries and fatalities in targeted areas. The guides correspond to the emphasis areas outlined in the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Each guide includes a brief introduc- tion, a general description of the problem, the strategies/countermeasures to address the prob- lem, and a model implementation process. This is the nineteenth volume of NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single concise volumes, each pertaining to specific types of highway crashes (e.g., run-off-the- road and head-on) or contributing factors (e.g., aggressive driving). An expanded version of each volume with additional reference material and links to other information sources is avail- able on the AASHTO Web site at http://safety.transportation.org. Future volumes of the report will be published and linked to the Web site as they are completed. While each volume includes countermeasures for dealing with particular crash emphasis areas, NCHRP Report 501: Integrated Management Process to Reduce Highway Injuries and Fatal- ities Statewide provides an overall framework for coordinating a safety program. The integrated management process comprises the necessary steps for advancing from crash data to integrated action plans. The process includes methodologies to aid the practitioner in problem identifica- tion, resource optimization, and performance measurements. Together, the management process and the guides provide a comprehensive set of tools for managing a coordinated high- way safety program. F O R E W O R D By Charles W. Niessner Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
C O N T E N T S ix Acknowledgments I-1 Section I Summary I-1 Introduction I-1 Statement of the Problem I-2 Programs and Strategies II-1 Section II Introduction III-1 Section III Type of Problem Being Addressed III-1 Young Driver Crashes III-2 Specific Attributes of the Problem IV-1 Section IV Index of Strategies by Implementation Timeframe and Relative Cost V-1 Section V Description of Strategies V-1 Objectives V-6 Related Strategies for Creating a Truly Comprehensive Approach V-7 Objective 1.1 AâImplement or Improve Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) Systems V-22 Objective 1.1 BâPublicize, Enforce, and Adjudicate Laws Pertaining to Young Drivers V-28 Objective 1.1 CâAssist Parents in Managing Their Teensâ Driving V-37 Objective 1.1 DâImprove Young Driver Training V-41 Objective 1.1 EâEmploy School-Based Strategies VI-1 Section VI Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan VII-1 Section VII Key References A-1 Appendixes
A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S American Driver and Traffic Safety Education Association Elizabeth Shepard California Department of Motor Vehicles Kathy Kelly City of Santa Fe, NM John Nitzel Delaware Office of Highway Safety Tricia Roberts DriveSafety Inc. Frank Weinrauch Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Allan Williams, PhD Oregon DOT Troy Costales Raleigh NC Police Department Sgt. Tim Tomczak Traffic Injury Research Foundation Herb Simpson, PhD Traffic Safety North James Hedlund, PhD University of Michigan Jean Shope, PhD University of Minnesota Max Donath, PhD Iowa DOT Tom Welch Maine DOT Bruce Ibarguen Missouri DOT Leanna Depue, PhD National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Jim Wright Patricia Ellison-Potter, PhD Cheryl Neverman National Inst. of Child Health & Human Development Bruce Simons-Morton, EdD Ohio Highway Safety Office Lorrie Laing This volume of NCHRP Report 500 was developed under NCHRP Project 17-18(3), the product of which is a series of implementation guides addressing the emphasis areas of AASHTOâs Strategic Highway Safety Plan. The project was managed by CH2M HILL, and the co-principal investigators were Kevin Slack of CH2M HILL and Ron Pfefer. Timothy Neuman of CH2M HILL served as the overall project director for the team. Kelly Hardy, also of CH2M HILL, served as a technical specialist on the development of the guides. The project team was organized around the specialized technical content contained in each guide, and the overall team included nationally recognized experts from many organizations. The following team of experts, selected on the basis of their knowledge of young drivers, served as lead authors for the young drivers guide: â¢ Arthur Goodwin, Robert Foss, and Jamie Sohn University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill â¢ Daniel Mayhew Traffic Injury Research Foundation Development of the volumes of NCHRP Report 500 used the resources and expertise of many professionals from around the country and overseas. Through research, workshops, and actual demonstration of the guides by agencies, the resulting documents represent best practices in each emphasis area. The project team is grateful to the following list of people and their agen- cies for supporting the project by providing material, participating in workshops and meetings, and providing input and comments during the development of the young driver guide: