Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
A three-phase response to an agroterrorism incident or other natural or unintended outbreak of a foreign animal or plant disease is presented in this chapter. The three phases are as follows: 1. Phase 1 takes place before an incident occurs, and is termed the planning phase. 2. Phase 2 typically occurs over the first 3 days of the incident, from the time an outbreak is suspected until it has been confirmed, and state and federal resources have become fully deployed. This phase involves an initial response orchestrated by local authorities using local, immediately available resources. 3. Phase 3 involves the long-term response, which is usually supported by state and/or federal resources. In the third phase, any nonstandard traffic control devices used in the second phase should be replaced with standard traffic control devices, and the number of traffic checkpoints and roadblocks may be increased to more thoroughly secure the perimeter of the quarantine area. Table 2-1 provides a breakdown of the three phases. For each phase, the table lists the per- sonnel involved and their likely tasks and responsibilities, as well as information on quarantine authority, traffic control, and timeframe. While each state and local jurisdiction may have dif- ferent response plans and authority structures, the table presents general information that is applicable to most locations. The guide is written with the assumption that the leadership for local response is at the county government level, although other local government units, such as cities, towns, villages, and townships may have leadership responsibility in some cases. 2.1 Phase 1: Planning Phase 1, referred to as the planning phase, should be viewed as an ongoing process that is con- tinually upgraded and refined as threats are better understood and as resources and technolo- gies become available. Phase 1 may include the following tasks: â¢ Identify major agricultural routes through the county; â¢ Develop standard detour routes through the county; â¢ Inventory traffic control devices, such as signs, barricades, changeable message signs, etc.; â¢ Identify other available local items that might be used to provide traffic control; â¢ Develop a command structure with personnel and responsibilities specific to a foreign animal or plant disease outbreak; â¢ Develop traffic control plans for road blocks, traffic checkpoints, and disinfection stations; â¢ Foster relationships among stakeholders (law enforcement, producers, public works, state highway departments, and public health officials); â¢ Develop a communications plan for informing the public of road closure; â¢ Determine legal authority for initiating and enforcing a quarantine or stop movement order; 4 C H A P T E R 2 Phased Response to Agricultural Emergencies
Phase 1: Planning Prior to Incident Phase 2: Initial Response: Detection to Confirmation Phase 3: Long-term Response: Confirmation to Restoration Personnel Tasks sksaT lennosreP Personnel Tasks Responsible Person or Incident Commander County Emergency Manager Initiate planning, preparation, and training for the county's response to a FAD. Law Enforcement Provide enforcement for Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostician (FADD) issued quarantine if necessary. Begin to assess required traffic control if test results are positive and a 6-mi radius buffer zone is required. Incident Comander Request state or federal resources or assistance if needed. Act as liaison between local, state, and federal responses. Identify no-access points and controlled-access points. Fire and EMT personnel Become familiar with disinfection procedures for different possible FADs. Identify what equipment is needed and where it can be obtained. Land owner where disease is suspected (farmer, producer, grower, etc.) Comply with FADD's instructions regarding animal movement and care and disinfection of vehicles and people. Stop scheduled deliveries and visits to the premises. Law Enforcement Supervise staffing at traffic stops and road blocks, ensure problems are being addressed and training and guidance are provided as needed. Local producers and producer organizations Implement biosecurity measures. Educate about all producers and livestock in the area (by required or voluntary registration). Encourage voluntary cooperation with quarantines and stop movement orders. FADD (Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostician) or other qualified veterinarian who can act on behalf of the state veterinarian Remain on premises, issue verbal quarantine if necessary, monitor and control traffic into and out of infected premises. Maintain communication with state veterinarian. Make contact with county and state emergency manager. Direct law enforcement in securing immediate premises. Assist fire department or other responders with disinfection for people and vehicles that must enter and exit the premises. State Department of Agriculture personnel Coordinate care of animals stopped in the county. Study epidemiology of outbreak to determine quarantine area and necessary biosecurity and disinfection measures. Law Enforcement Assess ability to enforce traffic stops. Determine availability and location of additional resources for closing roads or implementing traffic stops (signs, barricades, patrol cars, etc.). Create emergency management assistance compacts with surrounding jurisdictions to provide help with and resources for traffic control efforts. County Emergency Response Team Use county's Local Emergency Operations Plan (LEOP) to begin preparing for an emergency response. Provide support to FADD in basic emergency support function areas as needed. Public Information (PI) Officer should coordinate with PI personnel at the state level to prepare statements for the public if the FAD is confirmed. County Emergency Response Team (and SEMA, FEMA if needed) Implement county's Local Emergency Operations Plan (LEOP) [in conjunction with State Emergency Operations Plan (SEOP) if SEMA is involved] to provide and manage emergency support functions. County engineer and public works Work with sheriff to identify signs, barricades, and other equipment. Help identify local roads with high livestock traffic. Determine roads suitable to serve as detours for truck traffic. State Department of Agriculture personnel and SEMA Prepare for state emergency response if FAD is confirmed. County Engineer and Area DOT Engineer Finalize and implement detour plans according to quarantine area developed by epidemiologists. Public Health Department Ensure health of responders. Other Personnel Area engineer and maintenance crew from state DOT Work with law enforcement and county public works to identify signs, barricades, and other equipment. Help identify state routes with high livestock traffic. Develop highway detour plans. Public Health Department Advise on PPE needed according to disease suspected. Public Works and DOT Maintenance Crews Install and maintain barricades and signs at road closures, detours, and traffic stops. Table 2-1. Phased response to Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) outbreak. (continued on next page)
Table 2-1. (Continued). Phase 1: Planning Prior to Incident Phase 2: Initial Response: Detection to Confirmation Phase 3: Long-term Response: Confirmation to Restoration Personnel Tasks sksaT lennosreP Personnel Tasks State Department of Agriculture representatives Provide training and information regarding the state policies and procedures during a FAD outbreak. State and Federal Agencies (DOT, Dept. of Conservation, Highway Patrol, National Guard) Fulfill roles as defined in SEOP. Support local authorities as needed. Public Health Department Prepare information about risk to humans from various FADs. Other Volunteers (firefighters, contractors, off- duty officers or maintenance staff, community groups) Provide additional support and equipment as needed (traffic control, disinfection, care of animals, provide equipment). Authority for Quarantine or Stop Movement State Veterinarian, Governor, Livestock Commissioner or State Department of Agriculture Director Depending on the state, one of these officials may issue quarantines or stop movement orders when a FAD is suspected or detected in his or her state or in other states in the United States. Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostician or other qualified veterinarian States may have varying policies on who has the authority to issue a quarantine on behalf of the state veterinarian, but in all cases, a FADD who has inspected the animals and believes that a FAD is possible or highly likely can issue a quarantine on behalf of the state veterinarian. The quarantine can prohibit the movement of animals and can require disinfection of people who must leave the premises. State Veterinarian, Governor, Livestock Commissioner or State Department of Agriculture Director, Secretary of Agriculture (USDA) States may have varying policies on who is responsible to declare a quarantine or stop movement order, but once a FAD is confirmed, it is likely that livestock movement in the region, and potentially across the county, will be stopped completely. Traffic Control Identify routes of high animal traffic. Locate producers. Estimate livestock moved into, out of, and through the county. Plan detours for major routes and routes that pass through farms or near feedlots, sale barns, slaughterhouses, etc. Restricting movement into and out of infected and surrounding premises. Farm entrances blocked with patrol cars, or other barriers in place. Certain local roads around the premises might be closed using patrol cars, barricades, hay bales or other devices. Epidemiologists will determine size of infected zone and buffer zone (estimated 6- mi radius). All routes in and out should be closed or staffed as a traffic stop and disinfection station. Stops and closures should be to MUTCD standards as resources and time allow.
â¢ Identify, with the help of public health officials and veterinarians, the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and disinfectants to stock in case of an emergency; â¢ Train responders on traffic control procedures, such as establishing road blocks, traffic check- points, and cleaning and disinfection stations; â¢ Plan for response measures in the event that a bordering county or state suspects or confirms animal or plant disease; â¢ Form emergency management assistance compacts with surrounding law enforcement and highway or public works agencies; â¢ Identify contractors with equipment or trained personnel that may be available to assist in an emergency response; â¢ Determine areas in which to shelter diverted livestock; and â¢ Determine if sufficient quantities of common radio channels, protocols, and equipment are available. In order to carry out these tasks, all identified stakeholders must be involved in Phase 1 plan- ning. Law enforcement agencies are often given the responsibility of handling traffic control because they are trained in directing traffic and stopping vehicles for traffic violations and sobri- ety checks. However, the traffic control needed to enforce a quarantine with a radius of several miles may very well exceed both the training and the resources of a local law enforcement agency. Because detours will need to be established, the agencies that maintain those detour roadways should also be involved in the planning process. For instance, the local office of the state high- way agency and the city and county public works departments can contribute information about traffic volume, flow patterns, and roadway characteristics. While most communities probably lack experience with quarantine detours, it is likely that they have developed detours for road closures due to construction, weather, or natural disasters. This experience is useful and should be considered when planning detours for an agricultural emergency. Local producers (farm asso- ciations and commodity groups) can provide feedback on traffic routes and delivery patterns of agricultural products and livestock. Furthermore, agricultural officials, local public health offi- cials, farmers, botanists, entomologists, conservationists, and veterinarians can offer advice on how plant and animal diseases are spread and the best methods for disease containment. Representing a variety of disciplines in response planning will lead to a more robust and thor- ough plan. 2.2 Phase 2: Initial Response Phase 2 concerns the intermediate traffic control to be implemented as soon as a foreign ani- mal or plant disease is suspected with the resources immediately available to the local agency. At this point, traffic control will be dictated by the policy of the county and state in which the quar- antine has been issued. If the local Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostician (FADD) determines that a foreign animal disease is possible or highly likely, he or she may issue a quarantine on the livestock at a par- ticular farm, ranch, or other agricultural center, as well as the surrounding farms, on behalf of the State Veterinarian. Alternatively, the Secretary of the State Department of Agriculture or the Governor, depending on where the authority lies, may issue the quarantine order. State and federal officials will be made aware of the situation as soon as the FADD makes a preliminary diagnosis during his or her site visit. Local law enforcement may be asked to help enforce the quarantine. Samples from the potentially affected animals or plants will be sent to a USDA authorized labo- ratory to be tested for the presence of a disease, but results may not be available for 24 to 72 hours. Phased Response to Agricultural Emergencies 7
During this period, the county may choose to implement its local emergency operations plan (LEOP) and set up traffic control around the affected premises. Local authorities and the FADD will decide whether to implement traffic control beyond the immediate vicinity of the potential outbreak until a confirmation of disease is made. If policies are not in place to enable law enforce- ment to enforce quarantines before disease confirmation is received, the incident commander may elect to place voluntary movement restrictions around the quarantine area. In some cases, traffic control in Phase 2 may consist of an officer in a squad car with its lights on, blocking a local farm road, or hay bales placed across a road with a âRoad Closedâ sign, form- ing a makeshift barricade. Upon receipt of a FAD confirmation from the USDA authorized laboratory, federal and state resources may be made available for the response. As additional traffic control devices become avail- able from federal, state, and other local agencies, nonstandard traffic controls should be replaced with standard devices. It is important to remember that events in Phase 2 are essentially local in nature, and depending on the nature and extent of the outbreak, it may be some time before fed- eral and state assets can be deployed. Phase 2 may include the following tasks: â¢ Informing stakeholders of suspected disease, if other animals are at risk; â¢ Gathering traffic control devices (including nonstandard devices); â¢ Gathering information on affected routes; â¢ Finalizing detour plans; â¢ Prioritizing road blocks and check points, and establishing levels of control; â¢ Enforcing a quarantine on livestock moving in or out of the area immediately surrounding where the disease is suspected; â¢ Initiating traffic control around a broader perimeter to contain the suspect disease (if deemed necessary by state policy or the local incident commander); and â¢ Preparing to deploy cleaning and disinfecting units to control points. 2.3 Phase 3: Long-Term Response Phase 3 represents the long-term response to a positive confirmation of a foreign animal or plant disease and should be enforced until the disease is eradicated. During this phase, road- blocks and traffic stops are established around the full quarantine boundary (usually a 3- to 6-mi [5- to 10-km] radius around the infected premises); additional signs and barricades are put in place to replace temporary traffic control; permanent detours are established and marked by signage; and information regarding open routes is made publicly available. Phase 3 may include the following task: â¢ Initiating traffic control around the quarantine areaâs perimeter, in locations not established in Phase 2; â¢ Replacing nonstandard devices with MUTCD-approved devices; â¢ Signing long-term detours; â¢ Initiating a public information campaign regarding detours, disinfection stations, travel restrictions, and other transportation-related issues; and â¢ Incorporating the available resources of state and federal agencies. 8 A Guide to Traffic Control of Rural Roads in an Agricultural Emergency