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TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 24 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subject Areas Aviation Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Jacobs Consultancy Burlingame, CA I N A S S O C I A T I O N W I T H WALKER PARKING CONSULTANTS Indianapolis, IN MANNIX GROUP Orlando, FL DMR CONSULTING Pasadena, CA
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- national commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 24 Project 10-03 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-11809-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2009940240 Â© 2009 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Boardâs judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 24 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 10-03 PANEL Field of Operations Armin Jose Cruz, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, TX (Chair) Evelyn Y. Addante, Massachusetts Port Authority, Boston, MA Dan Brame, Brame Northwest Parking and Transportation, Portland, OR Harold Schulke, Kimley-Horn & Associates, Houston, TX Danilo Simich, Parsons, Costa Mesa, CA Tim Stiles, Des Moines International Airport, IA Paul L. Friedman, FAA Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research discussed in this report was performed under ACRP Project 10-03, âEvaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies,â by a research team of recognized experts in airport parking planning, operations, and technologies. Jacobs Consultancy was the primary research con- sultant. Peter Mandle, Director at Jacobs Consultancy, was the Principal Investigator and W. Gavin R. Duncan, Principal Consultant at Jacobs Consultancy, was the Deputy Principal Investigator. The other authors were Andrew Blaisdell, Consultant at Jacobs Consultancy; Thomas A. Butcher, Executive Vice President at Walker Parking Consultants; Mike Mannix of the Mannix Group; and Diane Ricard, Princi- pal of DMR Consulting. Alice Richard, Senior Consultant at Jacobs Consultancy, coordinated the litera- ture review. Serena Quan coordinated the internal production and word processing. Deborah Lubin served as the technical editor. The research team would like to express its gratitude to the members of the project panel for their sup- port and insightful comments throughout this research project. The research team would also like to thank the many airport staff who took the time to share their insights, experience, and opinions with the research team and to respond to follow-up queries. The research team also appreciates the contribution of the representatives of the parking operators and equipment vendors and manufacturers who shared their knowledge of existing and forthcoming strategies and technologies. C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S
ACRP Report 24: Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Tech- nologies presents various parking strategies and technologies that are employed, or have poten- tial applications, at airports in the United States. This guidebook will assist airport operators in (1) determining their specific goals as they relate to public parking and their customer needs; (2) gaining an understanding of the parking strategies and technologies that correspond to their goals; and (3) evaluating benefits, costs, and implementation. With parking as the primary source of non-airline revenue at airports, and usually the cus- tomerâs first and last experience with the airport, it is an important focus in an airportâs over- all strategic plan. ACRP Report 24 providesâin a single sourceâa buffet of parking strategies and technologies to complement and achieve airport operatorsâ long-term goals and objectives. This guidebook will be useful to airport parking owners and operators, and their consultants, as they strive to better accommodate the needs of their customers, improve customer service, increase operational efficiency, and enhance net revenues. Airport parking is unique compared with other parking facilities in that the customer as an airline passenger is different from the customer using parking facilities serving office buildings, shopping malls, hospitals, or downtown areas. Furthermore, each airport is unique among all other airports, as they vary in size, configuration, and the demographics of passengers served. Thus, their needs require a careful evaluation of strategies that best fit. Under ACRP Project 10-03, Jacobs Consultancy was assigned to develop a guidebook that could be used to compare and contrast available parking strategies and supporting tech- nologies and then provide guidance on implementation for each. The research team reviewed relevant domestic and foreign literature and interviewed parking managers at air- ports known to have unique solutions, as well as senior management of non-airport park- ing facilities and equipment vendors. These interviews were conducted both domestically and internationally. The resulting strategies are categorized to allow the reader to easily eval- uate relevant parking approaches to meet their goals and objectives. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
C O N T E N T S 1 Chapter 1 Overview of the Guidebook 1 Purpose of the Guidebook 1 Distinguishing Characteristics of Airport Parking Customers 2 Distinguishing Characteristics of Airport Parking Operators 3 Methodology 4 Organization of the Guidebook 5 Chapter 2 Documenting the Goals of Airport Management 5 Evaluation of a Parking Strategy Begins with Management Goals 5 Confirming and Documenting Relevant Management Goals and Objectives 7 Developing Metrics to Evaluate the Performance of Selected Parking Strategies 8 Benchmarking 10 Chapter 3 Assessing Customer Needs and Preferences 10 Data Collection and Analysis 10 Focus Groups 11 Stakeholder Groups 11 Customer Surveys 13 Experience 14 Chapter 4 Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies 14 Parking Strategy and Technology Categories 15 Examples of Strategies Not Included 15 Potential Parking Strategies and Technologies 17 Category A: Parking ProductsâDuration Based 33 Category B: Value-Added Parking Products 53 Category C: Complementary Customer Services 68 Category D: Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems 86 Category E: Cashierless Transactions 101 Category F: Revenue Enhancement Strategies 116 Category G: Safety and Security Strategies 120 Category H: Operational Enhancements 128 Chapter 5 Selecting Potential Strategies and Supporting Technologies 128 Provide a High Level of Customer Service 129 Enhance Parking Revenues 130 Improve Operational Efficiency 139 Chapter 6 Evaluating Potential Strategies and Supporting Technologies 139 Consider the Specific Characteristics of the Airport and Its Customers 139 Airport Customers 141 The Airport Operator 142 Physical Airport Facilities
143 Evaluate the Implications on Affected Organizations and Stakeholders, as Appropriate 144 Determine the Required Implementation Actions 144 Estimate the Costs and Benefits of Implementation 146 Chapter 7 Key Implementation Steps 146 Obtain Management Approval to Proceed 147 Develop an Implementation Plan 148 Implement the Strategy 148 Conduct Follow-On Review and Evaluation 150 Appendix A Cost Estimates 153 Appendix B Glossary 156 Appendix C Suggested Sources for Further Information 158 Appendix D Bibliography