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52 Baggage claim facilities are required for both domestic and international passengers. The fol- lowing sizing methodology is primarily focused on domestic passengers; however, many of the principles apply to international baggage claim as well. Domestic baggage claim requirements are typically based on design hour deplaned O&D passengers; the concentration of these arriving passengers within a 20-minute time period; and, to a lesser extent, on checked baggage per passenger ratios. Observations at most U.S. airports indicate that the majority of domestic passengers arrive at the baggage claim area before their bags are unloaded onto the claim units. The result is that the claim unit frontage should be sized for the estimated number of passengers waiting for baggage, because most bags are claimed on the first revolution of the claim unit. The number of passengers actively engaged in claiming bags is also related to the average traveling party size, because with larger family groups, not all of the party will actually be at the claim unit picking off bags. Industry consensus is that all passengers actively claiming bags should be either adjacent to the claim unit (LOS A & B), or no more than one person away from the claim unit and able to reach in/around to the claim unit when his/her bag is presented (LOS C). This guideline results in a claim frontage of 2 to 3 feet per person (LOS A & B) to 1.0 to 1.5 feet per person (LOS C) for those actively claiming bags. For international baggage claims, bags may be unloaded to the claim units before passengers arrive, if adequate passport inspection (CBP primary) processing is not available. Such an event will increase the time a claim unit is occupied by a flight and may require claim units to be sized to accommodate nearly 100% of the number of bags on the flight. The FIS/CBP spreadsheet model also includes a Baggage Claim model that provides a tool for assessing the timing of passenger and baggage arrival at the claim unit. The Baggage Claim model takes the user through two standard approaches to size total bag claim frontage and the claim units for individual flights. The spreadsheet model is arranged in the same manner as the other models with color-coded cells and links to both the Table of Contents for the whole spreadsheet model and the Userâs Guide as seen in Figure 66. Total Design Hour Demand Figure 67 shows the section of the model that calculates the overall frontage demand based on the peak period of terminating passengers. This number can then be compared to the existing frontage and a first hand observation of the use and adequacy of the baggage claim area. The Bag- gage Claim model follows the method described above. The user must determine and input the passenger and baggage relationships for the design hour. The cell comments will help to make a general or default decision when specific data can not be found. Baggage Claim Model
Baggage Claim Model 53 The following factors are required for estimating the total claim unit capacity for the design hour: â¢ The number of design hour deplaned passengers. â¢ The concentration of passengers arriving within a 20-minute period. â¢ Percentage of passengers terminating at this airport. For international airports this is typically 100% because all passengers (except those in-transit) must clear CBP inspection at their first point in the United States. Connecting passengers then re-check their bags to their final destination. â¢ Percentage of passengers with checked bags. This number does not include carry-on gate- checked bags for regional aircraft which are claimed plane side. â¢ Average traveling party size. It has been observed that not all members of a traveling party (especially families with children) will actually be at the claim unit. Typically one member will claim the bags with most of the other members waiting in the peripheral area. â The spreadsheet model estimates this by calculating the number of traveling parties, taking one member to actively claim bags, and then adding in a percentage of the âextraâ passengers who may accompany the active claimer at the claim unit. These factors would be based on passenger survey data (party size) and observations. â¢ The active claim frontage per passenger to achieve the desired LOS. The total claim frontage combined with claim size for individual flights (Figure 68) can be used by the planner to determine the number and sizes of claim units needed for the current mix of design hour aircraft. Single Aircraft Arrival The same basic approach is used to estimate the amount of claim frontage for a single aircraft arrival. In this method, aircraft seat and load factor assumptions of an individual flight are substituted for the design hour deplaning passengers and the percentage of arrivals in the peak 20 minutes. See Figure 68. Once the total frontage is estimated, the size and number of claim units should be determined based on the expected number of flights and aircraft sizes during the design hour(s), and airport operating policies regarding exclusive or preferential use of claim units. Figure 66. Example of Baggage Claim model. Figure 67. Example of demand input.
54 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Baggage Claim Time in Use The minimum time a claim unit would be in use for an individual flight helps establish the turnover of claim units. Turnover is more significant for widebody aircraft. The following factors are required for estimating the time a claim unit is in use for an individual flight: â¢ Aircraft seating capacity â¢ Design hour load factor â¢ Percentage of passengers terminating at this airport â¢ Percentage of passengers with checked bags â¢ The average number of bags/passenger â¢ The average bag unloading rate. This rate varies depending on the size of the bags and the number of feed conveyors per claim unit In addition to the time needed to unload the checked bags, additional time is added for bags that are not claimed on the first rotation of the claim unit because passengers either fail to see them or arrive late (add up to 10 minutes, unless there are unusual conditions). As shown in the example in Figure 69, narrowbody domestic flights typically occupy a claim unit for 20 minutes or less (which results in the typical approach of sizing domestic baggage claim for a peak 20-minute period). Widebody flights can occupy a claim unit for significantly longer periods, which is why units sized for large aircraft typically are configured with two feed conveyors. Baggage Claim Unit Types The two basic types of claim units are flat plate and sloped bed. See Figure 70. Flat plate units can be designed in various configurations; âL,â âT,â âU,â and variations of these are most common. Direct-feed, flat plate units are simpler to maintain and are generally Figure 68. Example of typical single aircraft claim unit sizing. Figure 69. Example of Baggage Claim Use Time
preferred if the baggage off-load area is on the same level as the claim area. Bags are loaded on the secure side, pass though fire/security shutters (which are closed when the claim unit is not in use), and are claimed by passengers in the (typically) non-secure baggage claim lobby. Unclaimed bags will circulate back through the loading area. The minimum outside radius is typically 5 feet resulting in a 10-foot wide unit. It is recom- mended that the ratio of clear length of the âarmsâ to the width of the unit be no greater than 1.5:1. This ratio will limit deep, narrow bays, which can cause passenger congestion. Sloped bed units (often referred to generically as âcarouselsâ) are almost always configured as ovals. Sloped bed units are fed from one or two conveyors, with larger international terminals typically preferring two conveyors because of the time required to deliver the larger number of Baggage Claim Model 55 10-12FT / 3-3.7M bypass lane 10FT / 3M carts 13FT / 3.9 M containers 15FT / 4.5M min.30FT / 9M min. if no columns 3FT / 0.9M work aisle 10FT / 3M typical 18-25FT / 5.5-7.5M typical 35-40FT / 10.7-12.2M for Sloped Bed units: Potential for second input conveyor Flat Plate units: suggest max length to width ratio of 1.5 : 1 intâl pax using bag carts if no columns Figure 70. Typical baggage claim units.
56 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design bags. Feed conveyors can be located on a different floor level, or from some distance, and may feed the claim unit from either above or below. This capability provides flexibility in location; but, with separate feed conveyors, there is the possibility of jams if oversized bags or bags with loose straps are accidentally loaded. The minimum width of these units is 18 to 25 feet, depending on the manufacturer, but is often wider due to the location of structures and the feed conveyors. Sloped bed units can also be con- figured to allow flow-through passenger circulation, which may be advantageous in some terminal configurations, especially for larger claim units. Although sloped bed units have more baggage storage capacity, the effective amount of this capacity is often less than expected unless airline/ airport personnel manually reposition bags to optimize bag capacity. Odd-Sized or Oversized Baggage Facilities should also be provided for odd-sized or oversized baggage, such as golf clubs, skis, and packages that are too large to fit on the baggage claim units or may cause jams on feed conveyors. Odd-/Over-sized Baggage is usually handled in one of three ways: â¢ Oversized Belt: An extra wide conveyor, anywhere from 45 to 65 inches in width, transports odd-sized bags from the baggage off-load area to the baggage claim hall generally between two claim units or against an exterior wall of the claim area. This conveyor system can be flat, incline, or decline before entering the claim area, but it is recommended that no turns be used in the odd-sized system. â¢ Oversized Slide: Roll-up doors, between 6 to 10 feet wide and at least 5 feet high with a stain- less steel slide, can be used to deliver oversized bags to the claim area. This system usually func- tions effectively only when the cart is unloaded at the same level as the claim area similar to the flat plate claim arrangement. â¢ Manual Lay Down: When it is not practical to include either a slide or belt system, airline employees can take odd-sized luggage from the secured side to the non-secured side by using an airport access door usually adjacent to the claim area for passenger retrieval. Retrieval and Peripheral Areas The total amount of the retrieval and peripheral areas is ultimately determined by the num- ber of passengers expected to be near the claim unit and the desired LOS. These areas include the active claim depth along the unit (retrieval area), the depth for others in the traveling party, plus a circulation zone to and away from the claim unit peripheral area. It has been found, however, that 15 feet is typically the minimum recommended depth for the retrieval and adjacent peripheral areas at all but the smallest airports. This minimum depth results in a minimum separation of 30 feet between adjacent claim units or the âarmsâ of a flat plate claim. For international claim areas where there is a high percentage of passengers using bag trolleys, a 35- to 40-foot minimum separation is recommended. These dimensions assume an obstruction-free area to allow ease of circulation. Columns, bag cart racks, and other structures should not be within the retrieval area. Objects located within the peripheral area usually will require additional separation. A minimum separation between the claim unit and walls, or bag trolley racks is recommended to be 15 to 20 feet for domestic claim units and 20 to 25 feet for international claim units.
At airports having âpositive claim,â that is, a railing or wall around the claim units so that a security guard can check if a person has the correct bag, may require additional circulation for queuing at the controlled claim area exits. Additional area, outside of the peripheral claim area, needs to be provided for access to the claim area, circulation to ground transportation counters (rental cars, public transportation, commercial vans, etc.), seating for meeters/greeters and passengers waiting for transportation pick-up, etc. The dimensions of this circulation zone are dependent on projected passenger vol- umes and functions adjacent to the claim units, such as rental car counters. Baggage Claim Model 57