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TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 95 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subscriber Categories Public Transportation â¢ Planning and Forecasting Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Chapter 19âEmployer and Institutional TDM Strategies J. RICHARD KUZMYAK Lead Chapter Author JOHN E. (JAY) EVANS, IV AND RICHARD H. PRATT Contributing Chapter Authors RICHARD H. PRATT, CONSULTANT, INC. Garrett Park, MD JAY EVANS CONSULTING LLC Washington, DC TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE College Station, TX PB AMERICAS, INC. Baltimore, MD, Portland, OR, and San Francisco, CA J. RICHARD KUZMYAK, L.L.C. Silver Spring, MD CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS, INC. Bethesda, MD VANASSE HANGEN BRUSTLIN, INC. / VHB Vienna, VA GALLOP CORPORATION Rockville, MD MCCOLLOM MANAGEMENT CONSULTING, INC. Darnestown, MD HERBERT S. LEVINSON, TRANSPORTATION CONSULTANT Wallingford, CT K.T. ANALYTICS, INC. Bethesda, MD
TCRP REPORT 95: Chapter 19 Project B-12A ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 978-0-309-11836-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2003108813 Â© 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 95 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Stephan A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Tom K.G.C. Van Boven, Project Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natassja Linzau, Editor TCRP PROJECT B-12 PANEL Field of Service Configuration Paul J. Larrousse, National Transit Institute, Rutgers University, NJ (Chair) Patrick T. Decorla-Souza, Federal Highway Administration Keith L. Killough, Arizona DOT Reza Navai, California DOT Cynthia Ann Nordt, The Marketing Studio, Houston, TX Neil J. Pedersen, Maryland State Highway Administration G. Scott Rutherford, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Darwin G. Stuart, Skokie, IL Ron Fisher, FTA Liaison Eric Pihl, FHWA Liaison Richard Weaver, APTA Liaison Kimberly Fisher, TRB Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S
TDM (transportation demand management or travel demand management) is a process that can encompass a variety of measures intended to influence travel choices. TDM is used to manage heavy traffic demand and parking requirements, and to enhance the effective- ness of transit services. Employer and institutional TDM actions within the scope of this chapter can be classified into four major categories: employer or institutional support actions, provision of transportation âservices,â financial incentives or disincentives, and alternative work arrangements. In this report, new as well as synthesized research is presented. Using a collection of 82 cases as an analysis platform, the authors evaluate the relative importance of particular categories of TDM strategies (e.g., support versus incentives), and even, to some degree, of particular strategies (e.g., a transit subsidy versus an HOV parking discount), through pair-wise comparisons from the sample. TCRP Report 95: Chapter 19, Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies will be of inter- est to transit, transportation, and land use planning practitioners; land developers, business associations, employers, institutions, and employees; educators and researchers; and pro- fessionals across a broad spectrum of transportation and planning agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies. The overarching objective of the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook is to equip members of the transportation profession with a comprehensive, readily accessible, interpretive documentation of results and experience obtained across the United States and elsewhere from (1) different types of transportation system changes and policy actions and (2) alternative land use and site development design approaches. While the focus is on contemporary observations and assessments of traveler responses as expressed in travel demand changes, the presentation is seasoned with earlier experiences and findings to identify trends or stability, and to fill information gaps that would other- wise exist. Comprehensive referencing of additional reference materials is provided to facil- itate and encourage in-depth exploration of topics of interest. Travel demand and related impacts are expressed using such measures as usage of transportation facilities and services, before-and-after market shares and percentage changes, and elasticity. The findings in the Handbook are intended to aidâas a general guideâin preliminary screening activities and quick turn-around assessments. The Handbook is not intended for use as a substitute for regional or project-specific travel demand evaluations and model applications, or other independent surveys and analyses. The Second Edition of the handbook Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes was published by USDOT in July 1981, and it has been a valuable tool for transportation profes- F O R E W O R D By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
sionals, providing documentation of results from different types of transportation actions. This Third Edition of the Handbook covers 18 topic areas, including essentially all of the nine topic areas in the 1981 edition, modified slightly in scope, plus nine new topic areas. Each topic is published as a chapter of TCRP Report 95. To access the chapters, see the project write-up on the TCRP website: http://www.trb.org/TRBNet/ProjectDisplay.asp? ProjectID=1034. A team led by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. is responsible for the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition, through work conducted under TCRP Projects B-12, B-12A, and B-12B. REPORT ORGANIZATION The Handbook, organized for simultaneous print and electronic chapter-by-chapter pub- lication, treats each chapter essentially as a stand-alone document. Each chapter includes text and self-contained references and sources on that topic. For example, the references cited in the text of Chapter 6, âDemand Responsive/ADA,â refer to the Reference List at the end of that chapter. The Handbook user should, however, be conversant with the back- ground and guidance provided in TCRP Report 95: Chapter 1, Introduction. Upon completion of the Report 95 series, the final Chapter 1 publication will include a CD-ROM of all 19 chapters. The complete outline of chapters is provided below.
Handbook Outline Showing Publication and Source-Data-Cutoff Dates U.S. DOT Publication TCRP Report 95 General Sections and Topic Area Chapters First Second Source Data Publication (TCRP Report 95 Nomenclature) Edition Edition Cutoff Date Date Ch. 1 â Introduction (with Appendices A, B) 1977 1981 2003 a 2000/03/12a Multimodal/Intermodal Facilities Ch. 2 â HOV Facilities 1977 1981 1999-05b 2006 Ch. 3 â Park-and-Ride/Pool â 1981 2003c 2004 Transit Facilities and Services Ch. 4 â Busways, BRT and Express Bus 1977e 1981 âd âd Ch. 5 â Vanpools and Buspools 1977 1981 1999-04b 2005 Ch. 6 â Demand Responsive/ADA â â 1999 2004 Ch. 7 â Light Rail Transit â â âd âd Ch. 8 â Commuter Rail â â âd âd Public Transit Operations Ch. 9 â Transit Scheduling and Frequency 1977 1981 1999 2004 Ch. 10 â Bus Routing and Coverage 1977 1981 1999 2004 Ch. 11 â Transit Information and Promotion 1977 1981 2002 2003 Transportation Pricing Ch. 12 â Transit Pricing and Fares 1977 1981 2002 2003 Ch. 13 â Parking Pricing and Fees 1977e â 1999 2005 Ch. 14 â Road Value Pricing 1977e â 2002-03b 2003 Land Use and Non-Motorized Travel Ch. 15 â Land Use and Site Design â â 2001-02b 2003 Ch. 16 â Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities â â 2007-10b 2011d Ch. 17 â Transit Oriented Development â â 2004-06b 2007 Transportation Demand Management Ch. 18 â Parking Management and Supply â â 2000-02b 2003 Ch. 19 â Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies 1977e 1981e 2007-09b 2010 NOTES: a Published in TCRP Web Document 12, Interim Handbook (March 2000), without Appendix B. The âInterim Introduction,â published as Research Results Digest 61 (September 2003), is a replacement, available at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rrd_61.pdf. Publication of the final version of Chapter 1, âIntroduction,â as part of the TCRP Report 95 series, is anticipated for 2012. b Primary cutoff was first year listed, but with selected information up into second year listed. c The source data cutoff date for certain components of this chapter was 1999. d Deferred for a future TCRP project effort. e The edition in question addressed only certain aspects of later edition topical coverage.
TCRP Report 95, in essence the Third Edition of the âTraveler Response to Transportation System Changesâ Handbook, is being prepared under Transit Cooperative Research Program Project B-12 as amended by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc., in association with Jay Evans Consulting LLC; the Texas Transportation Institute; PB Americas, Inc.; J. Richard Kuzmyak, L.L.C.; Cambridge Sys- tematics, Inc.; Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc./VHB; Gallop Corpo- ration; McCollom Management Consulting, Inc.; Herbert S. Levin- son, Transportation Consultant; and K.T. Analytics, Inc. Richard H. Pratt is the Principal Investigator. Dr. Katherine F. Turnbull of the Texas Transportation Institute assisted as co- Principal Investigator during initial Project B-12 phases, leading up to the Phase I Interim Report and the Phase II Draft Interim Hand- book. With the addition of Project B-12B research, John E. (Jay) Evans, IV, then of Jay Evans Consulting LLC, was appointed co- Principal Investigator. Lead Handbook chapter authors and co- authors, in addition to Mr. Pratt, are Mr. Evans (initially with Par- sons Brinckerhoff and now with Cambridge Systematics); Dr. Turnbull; J. Richard Kuzmyak, initially of Cambridge Systematics and now of J. Richard Kuzmyak, L.L.C.; Frank Spielberg of VHB; Brian E. McCollom of McCollom Management Consulting, Inc.; Herbert S. Levinson, Transportation Consultant; Erin Vaca of Cam- bridge Systematics, Inc.; and Dr. G. Bruce Douglas of PB. Con- tributing authors include Dr. Kiran U. Bhatt, K.T. Analytics, Inc.; Shawn M. Turner, Texas Transportation Institute; Dr. Rachel Wein- berger, Cambridge Systematics (now with the University of Penn- sylvania); Andrew Stryker, PB; Dr. C. Y. Jeng, Gallop Corporation; and Daniel Nabors, VHB. Other research agency team members contributing to the preparatory research, synthesis of information, and development of this Handbook have been Stephen Farnsworth, Laura Higgins, and Rachel Donovan of the Texas Transportation Institute; Nick Vlahos, Vicki Ruiter, and Karen Higgins of Cambridge System- atics, Inc.; Greg Benz, Bill Davidson, G.B. Arrington, and Lydia Wong of PB, along with the late travel demand modeler/planner extraordinaire Gordon W. Schultz; Kris Jagarapu of VHB; Sarah Dowling of Jay Evans Consulting LLC; and Laura C. (Peggy) Pratt of Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. Dr. C. Y. Jeng of Gal- lop Corporation has provided pre-publication numerical quality control review throughout. By special arrangement, Dr. Daniel B. Rathbone of The Urban Transportation Monitor searched past issues. Assistance in word processing, graphics, and other essen- tial support has been provided by Bonnie Duke and Pam Rowe of the Texas Transportation Institute; Karen Applegate, Laura Reseigh, Stephen Bozik, and Jeff Waclawski of PB; others too numerous to name but fully appreciated; and lastly the warmly remembered late Susan Spielberg of SG Associates (now part of VHB). Special thanks go to all involved for supporting the cooperative process adopted for topic area chapter development. Members of the TCRP Project B-12/B-12A/B-12B Project Panel, named else- where, are providing review and comments for what will total some 18 individual publication documents/chapters. They have gone the extra mile in providing support on call including leads, reports, doc- umentation, advice, and direction over the almost-decade-and-a- half duration of the project. Four consecutive appointed or acting TCRP Senior Program Officers have given their support: Stephanie N. Robinson, who took the project through scope development and contract negotiation; Stephen J. Andrle, who led the work during the Project B-12 Phase and on into the TCRP B-12A Project Con- tinuation; Harvey Berlin, who saw the Interim Handbook through to Website publication; and Stephan A. Parker, who is guiding the entire project to its ultimate fruition. Editor Natassja Linzau is pro- viding her careful examination and fine touch, while Publications Director Eileen Delaney and her team are handling all the numer- ous publication details. TRB Librarian Jessica Fomalont has pro- vided invaluable literature procurement aid. The efforts of all are greatly appreciated. Continued recognition is due to the participants in the develop- ment of the First and Second Editions, key elements of which are retained. Co-authors to Mr. Pratt were Neil J. Pedersen and Joseph J. Mather for the First Edition, and John N. Copple for the Second Edition. Crucial support and guidance for both editions was pro- vided by the Federal Highway Administrationâs Technical Repre- sentative (COTR), Louise E. Skinner. In the TCRP Report 95 edition, J. Richard Kuzmyak is the lead author for this volume: Chapter 19, âEmployer and Institutional TDM Strategies.â Contributing authors for Chapter 19 are John (Jay) Evans, IV, and Richard H. Pratt. Participation by the profession at large has been absolutely essential to the development of the Handbook and this chapter, which has received the special attention of TRB Transportation Demand Management Committee ABE50 past chairs/chair and selected members. Past Chairs Eric Schreffler and Philip L. Win- ters, and Chair Lori Digginsâaided by committee members Tom Rye, Peter Valk, and members of the MassRIDES Outreach team, including Kay Carson, Jennifer Doyle, and Donna Smallwoodâ reviewed an early version, providing extensive comments, guid- ance, and information leads. Sara Hendricks, Ed Hillsman, and Judy Clark stepped in to provide additional reviews of the formal review draft. The contribution of each and all is truly valued. Finally, sincere thanks are due to the many other practitioners and researchers who were contacted for information and unstint- ingly supplied both that and all manner of statistics, data compila- tions, and reports. Though not feasible to list here, many appear in the âReferencesâ section entries of this and other chapters. CHAPTER 19 AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
C O N T E N T S 19-1 Overview and Summary 19-3 Objectives of TDM Strategies 19-3 Types of TDM Strategies 19-7 Analytical Considerations 19-12 Traveler Response Summary 19-15 Response by Type of TDM Strategy 19-17 Response to Support Actions 19-26 Response to Employer Transportation Services 19-40 Response to Incentives and Disincentives 19-61 Response to Alternative Work Arrangements 19-78 Underlying Traveler Response Factors 19-79 Individual Behavioral and Awareness Considerations 19-85 Voluntary Versus Regulatory Employer Motivation 19-91 Characteristics of Employer 19-98 Land Use and Site Design 19-102 Trip Chaining 19-103 Related Information and Impacts 19-103 Synergy and Complementarity 19-104 Program Development Outreach and Support 19-106 Modeling Studies 19-119 International Experience 19-121 Site- Versus System-Level Impacts 19-129 Cost-Effectiveness 19-132 Energy and Environmental Relationships 19-137 Additional Resources 19-141 Case Studies 19-141 âTransportation Daysâ Marketing and Outreach ProgramsâCross Westchester Expressway Corridor 19-144 University of Washingtonâs U-PASS ProgramâSeattle, Washington 19-147 Staggered Work Hours in ManhattanâNew York, New York 19-148 Lloyd District Travel Demand ManagementâPortland, Oregon 19-151 Overall TDM Program Effects over TimeâBellevue, Washington 19-156 References 19-164 Appendix A 19-173 How to Order TCRP Report 95