Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
46 TERMS Advanced metersâthose that have the capability to mea- sure and record interval data (at least hourly for electric- ity), and communicate the data to a remote location in a format that can be easily integrated into an advanced metering system. EPAct Section 103 requires at least daily data-collection capability (Sullivan et al. 2007, p. 2.1). Boardingsâsee enplanements Commissioningâaccording to ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996, the process of ensuring that new systems are designed, installed, functionally tested, and capable of being oper- ated and maintained to perform in conformity with the design intent. Dataloggerâa stand-alone, electronic data gathering device that uses sensors to collect equipment information over time. Data collected could include temperature, pressure, current, humidity, or other operational information. Diagnostic monitoringâpractice of collecting data on equipment operation over a period of time for the purpose of assessing the equipment performance. These data may be obtained through a datalogger or an energy management system. These data may consist of time-series or change- of-value data that can be collected for digital points such as temperature, pressure, or status. Energy assessmentâcombined evaluation of equipment and operations; investigation of systems in existing build- ings with the goal of replacing or retrofitting equipment. This is a quick process that may include building simula- tion and results in a list of energy conservation measures that involve significant capital investment. Energy auditâinvestigation of systems in existing build- ings with the goal of replacing or retrofitting equipment. This is a quick process that may include building simula- tion and results in a list of energy conservation measures that involve significant capital investment. Energy Management Systemâautomatic system used for controlling equipment in a building. Most likely this will be a computer-based system, including either pneumatic or digital components, or both. Enplanementsâdomestic, territorial, and international revenue passengers who board an aircraft in the states in scheduled and nonscheduled service of aircraft in intra- state, interstate, and foreign commerce and includes in- transit passengers (passengers on board international flights that transit an airport in the United States for non-traffic purposes). Heat gainâincrease of heat within a given space as a result of direct heating by solar radiation and of heat radiated by other sources such as lights, equipment, or people. Investment grade auditâaudit that incorporates the aspects of a traditional energy audit plus a risk assessment that evaluates the impact that occupancy, management, main- tenance, and operational behavior will have on energy efficiency measures. O&M assessmentâsystematic method for identifying ways to optimize the performance of an existing building. This assessment involves gathering, analyzing, and presenting information based on the building owner or managerâs requirements. O&M consultantâconsultant who is hired by the build- ing owner to assist with an O&M assessment or retro- commissioning in a management or oversight role. This consultant guides the owner through development and dis- tribution of a Request for Proposal, through commission- ing provider selection, and possibly assists in creating a program for retro-commissioning implementation at all owner facilities. Paybackâlength of time that an energy efficiency improve- ment will take to provide the full return on investment. For example, if a $1,000 investment will yield $1,000 in energy or maintenance savings by the end of the first year, that investment has a 1-year payback. Peak electrical demandâpeak electrical demand is the max- imum instantaneous load or the maximum average load over a designated interval of time, usually 15 or 30 min measured by meter by the utility or power provider. Also known as peak power. Peak load sheddingâdefers system loads from peak periods to periods of low demand. The result is a flattening of the system load schedule, thus decreasing demand charges from the electric utility. Design strategies that reduce the peak load are often referred to as âpeak shaving.â Preventive maintenance programâprogram that is imple- mented to address equipment maintenance issues pro- actively. The goal of such a program is to perform main- tenance tasks on a regular schedule so as to maximize the operational efficiency and lifetime of the equipment. Real-time pricingâenergy prices that are set for a specific time period on an advance or forward basis and that may change according to price changes in the generation spot market. Prices paid for energy consumed during these periods are typically established and known to consumers a day ahead (âday-ahead pricingâ) or an hour ahead (âhour- ahead pricingâ) in advance of such consumption, allow- ing them to vary their demand and usage in response to such prices and manage their energy costs by shifting usage to a lower cost period, or reducing consumption overall (Sullivan et al. 2007). Retro-commissioningâfor an existing building, the process of assessing, analyzing, and upgrading its operational per- formance. A preliminary step in the retro-commissioning process is the O&M assessment. Retro-commissioning usually results in a number of low-cost or no-cost activities that save energy while maintaining or improving comfort. GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ACRONYMS, AND ABBREVIATIONS
47 Solar heat gainâincrease of heat within a given space as a result of direct heating by solar radiation. Time-of-use pricingâenergy prices that are set for a spe- cific time period on an advance or forward basis, typically not changing more often than twice a year (summer and winter season). Prices paid for energy consumed during these periods are pre-established and known to customers in advance of such consumption, allowing them to vary their demand and usage in response to such prices and manage their energy costs by shifting usage to a lower-cost period, or reducing consumption overall. The time periods are pre-established, typically include from two to no more than four periods per day, and do not vary in start or stop times (Sullivan et al. 2007). Trend logâlog of data that is collected through an energy management system. These data may consist of time-series or change-of-value data that can be collected for digital points such as temperature, pressure, or status. Value commissioningâfocus on the most frequently avail- able re-commissioning/retro-commissioning opportunities with the highest payback as a part of daily O&M (Sullivan et al. 2004). ACRONYMS ACEEE American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy AIP Airport Improvement Program ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers BAS Building automation system BCS Building control systems CIP Capital Improvement Plan CFL Compact fluorescent light CRT Cathode ray tube DFW Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport EMCS Energy Management Control System EPACT Energy Policy Act ESCO Energy Service Company HID High intensity discharge HVAC Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning IMACS Intelligent Monitoring and Control System LCD Liquid crystal display LED Light-emitting diode LEEDÂ© Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design MAC Metropolitan Airports Commission MECP MAC Energy Conservation Program MSP MinneapolisâSt. Paul International Airport NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy) O&M Operation and maintenance OABA Open Architecture Building Automation PECI Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. PV Photovoltaics ROI Return on Investment RTU Roof-top units SAGA Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition SeaâTac SeattleâTacoma International Airport VAV Variable air volume VFD Variable frequency drive ZEB Zero energy buildings ABBREVIATIONS ft foot g gram h hour in. inch km kilometer kW kilowatt L liter lb pound mg milligram mi mile min minute mL milliliter s second ft2 square foot yd yard