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13 This chapter of the report will discuss practices for improving energy efficiency at airports as they relate to energy manage- ment, including automation and controls, systematic assess- ment, special programs and operational arrangements, and personnel and human factors. At an in-depth level the automation discussion will highlight ideas regarding upgrade and optimization of building auto- mation systems, techniques for calibrating and adjusting inte- rior temperatures, and specific controls retrofits supported by automation. Following automation, improvements to O&M practices in relation to both new and retrofit projects will be articulated into practices addressing methods of systematic assessment including audits, O&M assessment, and options for commissioning. Topics related to special or unique programs and arrangements used by airports to guide, implement, and monitor energy efficiency projects will highlight project crite- ria, temporary settings, and O&M service contracts. Finally, human factors influencing energy efficiency will be discussed. These include targeted training programs for personnel and ten- ants, communications strategies for creating a âconservation culture,â and psychological effects of certain retrofit practices. AUTOMATION AND CONTROLS Computer controls, sensors, and whole-building automation are used extensively by respondents to monitor and reduce energy consumption and provide data to support future energy efficiency projects. Building Automation Systems A building automation system (BAS) or Energy Management Control System (EMCS), identified as a best practice by numerous sources, âallow the building HVAC and lighting systems to react automatically to the operating environment, adjust to meet load conditions, and help schedule or identify equipment needing maintenance or adjustmentâ (Turner et al. 2007, p. 10). Small airports often have some form of BAS pro- viding minimum function such as âfire safety, security, and indoor air qualityâ (Turner et al. 2007, p. 3). BAS Thermal Environment Calibration $â A variety of indoor thermal environments exist within airport terminals, ranging from gate-hold to baggage handling. Main- taining comfortable conditions for occupants with different metabolic rates and clothing levels who are departing to and arriving from different climates or continually entering and exiting the building can be a challenge for BAS and airport operators. Standards established by ASHRAE specify con- ditions of the indoor environment for occupant comfort. ASHRAE 55-2004 can be used for new construction and retro- fit programs to establish parameters for proposed HVAC sys- tems and to evaluate existing thermal environments. Although not prescriptively listing thermostatic settings for buildings, the standard provides guidance for determining acceptable conditions (Olesen and Brager 2004). A majority of survey respondents that indicated energy savings were attained by adjustment of space temperature settings described variously as âtemperature adjustments and equipment shut down during non-peak hoursâ; âpro- grammable thermostatsâ; âincrease cooling temperature rangesâ; âspace energy settings of 74 to 78 degrees sum- mer, 70 to 74 degrees winterâ (noted by Phoenix Sky Har- bor InternationalâPHX); and the utilization of âoccupied/ unoccupied temperature set locks.â Other sources noted that the best strategy for implementing temperature settings was to reset thermostats incrementally CHAPTER FOUR ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES: MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS Box 5 Practice Metrics Key Following the title of each practice in chapters four and five, icons representing cost and payback are listed. Icon values are as follows: Low Cost = $ Med Cost = $$ High Cost = $$$ 0â2 year Payback = 2â5 year Payback = 5â10 year Payback = 10+ year Payback = Example: $$â = this improvement has a Medium Cost and 5- to 10-year payback. Notes: â¢ For a limited number of practices, payback and cost infor- mation was not determined. â¢ Practices with a payback of more than 10 years are beyond the scope of this report and are mentioned for informa- tion purposes only. â¢ Where percentages are noted, the value given represents a yearly reduction in energy or operations costs for that sys- tem or process.
14 âone degree per weekâ to gradually transition spaces and occu- pants and reduce complaints by tenants (CAP 2004, p. 10). Cost/Payback/Savings: In a heating condition âeach degree of thermostat offset [higher] saves approximately 2% of cool- ing energy [per year]â (Lynch and OâRourke 2008, p. 26). BAS Sensor Optimization $â - An often-quoted concept relating to mathematics and com- puter science termed âgarbage in-garbage outâ might be kept in mind when managing building automation systems. With- out accurate sensor calibration, BAS can return inaccurate data, potentially wasting energy, disrupting occupant com- fort, and causing unnecessary wear or replacement of system components (Turner et al. 2007, p. 10). Optimization for HVAC and BAS can offset aging mechan- ical equipment and related sensors, and detect temporary repair or other emergency measures that have become âper- manentâ fixes, ultimately saving energy resources (Turner et al. 2007, p. 10). Cost/Payback/Savings: Payback for optimization of BAS/ EMCS sensors has been documented at 1 to 4 years (Turner et al. 2007, p. 14). of energy savings, with many commenting that without auto- mation, energy efficiency improvements would not have been identified in the first place. These systems vary in size and scope of control and were identified by a number of names or acronyms including âIntelligent Monitoring and Control Sys- temâ (IMACS)ââOpen Architecture Building Automationâ (OABA), as well as âautomated building control systemâ (ABCS), âDirect Digital Control (DDC),â and âcomputer controlled terminal systemsâ or âautomatic timed controls.â For many facilities, including at those interviewed, automa- tion has become part of all building-related capital improve- ment projects and/or been an ongoing (yearly) retrofit for distinct systems or terminal areas (concourses). A larger air- port noted that âautomation of building systems is standard in new facilities,â whereas another noted an upgrade strategy of âreplacing building control system in multi-year phasesâ was improving efficiency. As noted in other ACRP research, âan effective BAS requires well-trained personnel, ongoing maintenance, cali- bration, and well developed control schemesâ (Turner et al. 2007, p. 12). In addition to terminal improvements for automation, air- ports noted that other automation efforts have increased effi- ciency including ânetworking ancillary building HVAC sys- temsâ and âextensive automation of district energy plant and distribution system.â Cost/Payback/Savings: Owing to the scale of airports and extensive variety in automation systems, costs for new sys- tems can vary. Payback for upgrades to BAS/EMCS has been documented at 6 to 10 years (Turner et al. 2007, p. 14). If nondigital/pneumatic systems are being replaced, additional savings can be found in the decommissioning of those sys- tems (Turner et al. 2007, p. 14). BAS Improvements Related to Lighting See Lighting in chap- ter five. BAS Improvements Related to Continuous Data Acquisition See Continuous Commissioning in the Operations and Mainte- nance section of this chapter. Box 6 Open Source Automation Currently being implemented at MSP, Open Architecture Building Automation (OABA) is an extensive program that replaces building controls and facility monitoring systems with new, nonproprietary systems, allowing the mainte- nance and operations staff to competitively bid work that was previously sole sourced by the respective vendors. While implementing OABA, extensive testing was undertaken to improve equipment efficiency and update building controls, and system improvements have been included as hundreds of pieces of equipment have been modified for the new system. When fully implemented this system is projected to deliver $150,000 in savings over the first 3 years by allow- ing improved controls and maintenance of equipment. This is one of the first open architecture building control systems in the world. Box 7 Pneumatic Control Retrofit Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) Tom Bradley Inter- national Terminal, a 25-year old, 1 million ft2 facility is under- going extensive renovations and expansion. These improve- ments include the replacement of 19 roof-mounted air handlers, variable-air-volume (VAV) distribution boxes, and an outdated pneumatic control system. New direct digital controls coupled with other practices are predicted to reduce energy use by 10% annually. (Illia 2008; Seidenman and Spanovich 2008: Mawson 2009;) BAS Upgrade $$â BAS can reduce off-line time for crucial equipment by detect- ing fluctuations in performance or degrading components and alerting O&M staff earlier, potentially reducing unnecessary energy costs and more expensive repairs. Conversely, when poorly calibrated or incorrectly installed, BAS can increase energy consumption (Turner et al. 2007, p. 10). A number of respondents and interviewees noted imple- menting various levels of building automation as a key aspect
15 Motor Controls In conjunction with building automation and systems mon- itoring, electric motors within many existing air-handling, pumping, and conveyance equipment can be outfitted with computer controls or variable frequency drives (VFDs) that sense real-time load or demand and automatically adjust to optimal efficiency (Turner et al. 2007, p. 13). These controls provide more precise feedback to operations staff, allowing adjustment and fine-tuning of settings to accommodate airport schedules and occupancy. Multiple respondents indicated uti- lization of motor controls on a variety of equipment. Smaller airports used VFD fans, whereas larger airports also used VFD pumps and cooling tower fans. FansâVariable Speed Drives $â - Application or replacement of VFD controls to fans through a BAS was identified as an energy saving action by a majority of airports surveyed. Respondents indicated payback dura- tions of between 0 and 5 years and low cost, which correlates with other findings by Turner of 3 to 7 years for simple pay- back (Turner et al. 2007, p. 14). PumpsâVariable Speed Drives $ - $$â Motor controls for pumps were used by various sized airports and were noted to have a payback time of 2 to 5 years and low to medium cost (see Figure 3). FansâCooling Tower $ - $$â Retrofit of cooling tower fans with variable drive was identi- fied by larger airports as an energy efficiency strategy with paybacks ranging from 2 to 5 years and low to medium cost. OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE Respondent airports and literature sources noted that evalua- tion of on-going engineering programs and system evaluations such as energy audits and commissioning can significantly improve energy efficiency in airport terminals. Earlier studies noted that all airports should prioritize the âdevelopment a comprehensive energy-related O&M program with clearly defined goals and benefitsâ as a way of improving energy effi- ciency (Turner et al. 2007, p. 10). Further, it was stated that it was important that these programs âset aggressive goals and secure funding and senior management support [and main- tain] implement and monitor benchmarked resultsâ (Turner et al. 2007, p. 10). It is the opinion of some experts that âwhile effective . . . capital upgrades [like equipment replacement] are not always the most cost-effective solutionâ and âthat low-cost/no-cost O&M measures . . . should be the first energy savings mea- sure consideredâ (Turner et al. 2007, p. 10). Reasons given for this assertion consider the low cost of O&M measures, ability of in-house staff to implement improvements, and immediate payback of O&M actions (Turner et al. 2007, p. 10). In addi- tion, these improvements ârarely require the design time, bid preparation, evaluation, and response compared to capital pro- jects that can take up to a year to implementâ (Sullivan et al. 2004, p. 2.3). This report generally agrees with this assertion, but cau- tions that for many small airports, limited staff resources and outside facility management contracts may increase imple- mentation cost and payback time. Respondents suggest that small airports identify a party to manage the implementation of specific energy-related O&M practices. This position at a small airport may be best per- formed by a specialist with previous experience in perform- ing commissioning at the facility. Systematic Evaluation Influenced by ârecord high energy prices, an increased num- ber of building re-commissioning agents, and the increased awareness of airport executives and the public of the direct link between energy and the environment,â evaluation and FIGURE 3 Motor controls. Variable frequency drives for condenser water pumps save energy at MSP Airport. (Courtesy: Michaud Cooley, Erickson Engineers.)
maintenance of existing systems will continue to be an acces- sible, effective, and valuable method of improving energy efficiency (Turner et al. 2007, p. 5). More than half of the survey respondents have initiated energy audits, assessments, or other intensive energy studies. Building commissioning, periodic re-commissioning, or on-going commissioning for existing facilities through build- ing automation was noted as providing additional savings in energy costs by a number of respondents. Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport noted that its first commis- sioning attempt was recently undertaken. Energy Audits $â Energy audits can take on various forms and scopes, but all types focus on evaluation of the energy used by existing equip- ment over a period of time. Traditional audits result in techno- logical solutions to save energy. Energy bills are often reviewed for inconsistency with monitoring equipment and errors as well as trends in an effort to identify efficiency opportunities. As part of an equipment replacement process (investment grade) energy audits are often a financing requirement that serves to provide assurance that the âinvestment is financially soundâ (PECI 1999b, pp. 4â5). Cost/Payback/Savings: Energy audits are often performed for free by the local utility. WEBLINKâEnergy Efficiency Handbooks These handbooks by the California Energy Commission include comparisons of different types of energy audits and information on identifying energy efficiency projects. http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/efficiency_handbooks/ O&M Assessment $ - $$â - An O&M assessment seeks to reduce operating costs and improve efficiency by recommending âlow-cost changes in O&M practices that can improve building operationâ (PECI 1999b, pp. 4â5). They can be performed before or concurrent with energy audits and may aid in reducing the payback time for capital improvements identified in the energy audit because of low-cost operations improvements (PECI 1999b, pp. 4â5). By utilizing assessment in preparation for an audit, their com- plementary nature may be exploited to identify additional or more precise areas of investigation in the audit. Cost/Payback/Savings: Costs for O&M assessments are typically equivalent or sometimes more than energy audits; however, implementation costs are small relative to large cap- ital improvements (PECI 1999b, pp. 4â5). PECI reports that âmanagers can consider most O&M assessments outside of typical corporate hurdle rates, because the risk of not realizing savings is so lowâ (PECI 1999b, pp. 4â5). 16 Energy Assessment $$â - Energy assessments offer a combined evaluation of equipment and operations and are often performed by external experts. As such, these reports that identify âpotentially beneficial equipment upgrades, needed equipment repairs, and benefi- cial changes in operating proceduresâ can represent the most objective opinion of what is needed to reduce costs and there- fore be very useful in support of energy efficiency programs (Turner et al. 2007, p. 11). Turner indicated that comprehen- sive assessments be undertaken every five years. Re-Commissioning and Optimization $â Re-commissioning and optimization for existing buildings or systems will return those systems to design specifications while accommodating facility or tenant operating requirements. These actions can apply to single systems in a âValue Re- Commissioningâ approach or include comprehensive building evaluation to support extensive retrofit/remodeling (Sullivan et al. 2004, p. 7.2). Because of its temporal nature, re- commissioning is most effective for buildings or tenant spaces lacking consistent maintenance. A change in tenant or use within a space offers an opportunity to re-commission sys- tems serving that space. Specific optimization actions cited by respondents included âchiller controller reprogramming through a BCS/EMS [energy management system] systemâ; âmonitoring of chiller plants to avoid peak demand chargesâ; and shut down of hot water boilers in the summer months.â Other optimiza- tion actions noted by Sullivan et al. include: â¢ Adjust reset and set-back temperatures and temperature settingsâSettings are often adjusted over time based on per- sonal preferences, to compensate for inadequate system opera- tion, or to achieve energy savings. In addition, sensors require periodic recalibration. â¢ Staging/sequencing of boilers, chillers, and air handling unitsâ Equipment should be operated in the most efficient combina- tion of chillers, boilers, and fans at varying load conditions. â¢ Adjust and repair dampers and economizersâMalfunctioning or poorly tuned dampers (including seals, actuators, and link- ages) and economizers result in (1) increased supply air fan energy in the closed position or require additional air heating and cooling when open too much, (2) undesired building oper- ating conditions owing to lack of outside air, and (3) prema- ture equipment degradation and replacement. â¢ Modify control strategies for standard hours of operationâ Motors, pumps, fans, and air handlers often operate on a 24/7 schedule even though not required by either the building tenants or the building operating plan. â¢ Eliminate simultaneous heating and coolingâHeating and cooling systems for the same space can compete against each other owing to improper setpoints. â¢ Air and water distribution balancing and adjustmentsâ Systems require rebalancing due to drift and changing building/ workspace mission and/or tenant requirements. â¢ Verify controls and control sequencing including enabling and re-enabling automatic controls for setpoints, weekends, and hol- idays. Verify that overrides are released (Sullivan et al. 2004). These optimization strategies can often return both energy effi- ciency savings and O&M improvements if they are performed
17 Basic Commissioning $ - $$$â - Basic commissioning, as a part of O&M best practices, is cited multiple times in the literature (Liu 2002; Sullivan et al. 2004; Commonwealth of Pennsylvania n.d.) as a primary method for improving performance and efficiency of building systems. Basic commissioning for a new or retrofit system or build- ing ensures that equipment is installed and operating prop- erly. When taking possession of a building or system that has undergone commissioning, owners gain assurance that equipment is operating within design parameters and specifi- cations (Sullivan et al. 2004, p. 7.2). In addition, the training implemented for staff as well as data and documentation col- lected will ensure optimal operations and support future re- commissioning (see Figure 4). It is suggested that commissioning be initiated early in the design process to achieve the greatest benefit (Potter et al. 2002). Specific projects that warrant commissioning as identified by the PECI include: â¢ All projects that include controls â¢ Pneumatic equipment â¢ Integrated systems â¢ HVAC-related plant equipment and air distribution systems â¢ Lighting sweeps or day-lighting controls â¢ Energy management systems and control strategies â¢ Variable speed drives in motors â¢ Ventilation air and control â¢ Building pressurization control â¢ Refrigeration improvements â¢ Capacity controls for heating and cooling plant equip- ment (PECI 1998, p. 55). Cost/Payback/Savings: Costs and payback time will vary owing to scale and scope of the commissioning of project. WEBLINKâCommissioning Resources Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. provides an in depth list of on-line commissioning resources: http://www.peci.org/cx_resources.html Continuous Commissioningâ¢ $$$â - Continuous Commissioningâ¢ describes a commissioning practice that is integrated into the day-to-day O&M program at a facility. Data compilation, calibration, and other activi- ties are performed on a regular (often daily) basis. This con- trasts to other commissioning events, which are distinct and Box 8 Programmatic Assessment Programmatic assessments are especially useful when plan- ning for renovation or retrofit. Evaluate occupancy patterns and space uses to determine if original design and mechanical/ lighting specifications are still in place or if changes to space mean changes to system settings. âHave occupancy patterns or space layouts changed? Are HVAC and lighting still zoned to efficiently serve the spaces?â (PECI 1999c, p. 4) FIGURE 4 Data gathering for commissioning. A variety of tools and sensors are used to measure airflow speed and pressure, component and air temperature, electrical power and voltage. From Top LeftâCounter Clockwise: Fluke 87 Multimeter: Used for general measurement of electrical voltage, current, and frequency. Dranetz PowerXplorer: Used to measure and data log very small fluctuations of electrical voltage, current, and frequency. Primarily used when testing data center electrical systems. Shortridge Instruments-AIRDATA Multimeterâ ADM-860: Used to measure airflow, velocity, pressure, and temperature. Vaisala Temperature/Humidity Meter: Used to measure data log temperature and humidity. (Center) Raytek Infrared temperature Gun: Used to measure surface temperatures. (Image and descriptions courtesy Michaud Cooley Erickson Engineers.) by staff and will raise awareness of energy savings potential. However, consultation with a skilled agent may be necessary for complex improvements. By targeting specific systems or components of a system through value re-commissioning data âcan be used to demonstrate benefits of larger, more aggres- sive existing building commissioning programâ (Sullivan et al. 2004, p. 7.2). Cost/Payback/Savings: Optimization efforts typically have a payback of less than two years (Sullivan et al. 2004). Other benefits of optimization for mechanical systems can include longer equipment life and a reduced chance of equipment failure.
temporal in nature. The approach was developed by the Energy Sciences Laboratory at Texas A&M University and is made possible by the integration of utility systems and some building systems to allow centralized monitoring and data acquisition (Liu 2002). The Continuous Commissioningâ¢ process or any similar ongoing monitoring program allows staff to discover prob- lems within systems immediately and for those problems to be addressed as they occur. This rapid assessment serves to main- tain optimal efficiency for systems and increase preventive maintenance to increase the life of the system. Further, because data are constant, energy savings are continuous and ongoing. Specific actions and operating strategy modifications imple- mented through the Continuous Commissioningâ¢ process at DFW included equipment staging, temperature and pressure reset, and modified operating schedules. Cost/Payback/Savings: Because Continuous Commis- sioningâ¢ is dependent on both BAS and advanced metering technologies, as well as requiring significant staff support, it is mentioned for information and not as a low-cost strategy. Energy efficiency benefits resulting from continuous com- missioning were reported to be significant with more than $3 million in measured and verified energy savings over a 5-year period by DFW. In studies of this assessment method outside the DFW facility, it was reported that following imple- mentation, âthe average measured utility savings are about 20%, with simple paybacks often in less than two yearsâ (Liu 2002, p. 1.1). A 2006 DOE study indicates savings of up to 45% yearly energy costs from an âongoing commissioning programâ (Sullivan et al 2007, p. 8.3). 18 Special Programs and Operational Arrangements A number of airports noted the creation of special programs to guide, implement, and monitor energy efficiency projects. These and other operational strategies that are infrequent or one-of-a-kind as identified by respondents are noted in this section. Maintenance Agreements NO-$â One aspect of operations that can assist in achieving reductions in energy costs at small airport terminals concerns agents hired to perform periodic service at their cost on mechanical and electrical equipment and facilities. O&M contracts for low-cost and quick payback measures can include require- ments and incentives for energy savings (Sullivan et al. 2004, p. 3.6; PECI 1999a, p. 13). Quite often these incentives will cause contractors to utilize re-commissioning measures to secure incentives. Tampa International Airport (TPA) and DFW noted using maintenance agreements to aid in the implementation of energy efficiency practices. Data did not indicate if these agreements were with energy service companies. Cost/Payback/Savings: This action was identified as a no-cost improvement with immediate payback. Preventive Maintenance Programs NO-$â Survey respondents and literature reported the implementa- tion of various programs within operations to improve energy efficiency and reduce costs. â¢ Document O&M proceduresâThe documentation of âO&M procedures in a centralized manual reduces dependence on individual specialized knowledge or expertise regarding airport systemsâ (Turner et al. 2007, p. 10). â¢ Whole system maintenance such as light fixture clean- ing and bulk re-lamping or window cleaning. â¢ Seasonal review of O&M strategies and schedules to fit climatic variations (PECI 1999c, p. 4). Cost/Payback/Savings: Because these programs are already part of the operations budget, no additional cost is incurred. Payback information varies, however, as noted elsewhere, operational improvements initiated by staff often have a pay- back of less than 1 year. Box 9 An Important Part of Continuous Commissioning: Baseline Models Once the commissioning scope has been defined and a preliminary audit is performed, it is necessary to document existing conditions or create what is known as a performance baseline model in order to determine energy savings follow- ing commissioning. Baseline models can be developed data gathered over variable periods of time including âshort term measured data obtained from data loggers or the EMCS systemâ and âLong-term hourly or 15-minute whole-building energy data, such as whole-building electricity, cooling and heating consumption, and/or utility bills for electricity, gas and/or chilled or hot waterâ (Liu 2002, p. 1.6). Collecting short-term data for a baseline is usually more eco- nomical than collecting long-term data; however, âlong-term data often produce additional savings, making them the pre- ferred data type.â (Liu 2002, p. 1.7) Box 10 Energy Service Company Contract Energy service companies (ESCOs) provide performance based services with compensation relating directly to energy saved. See chapter two for more information on ESCOs.
19 Temporary Settings/Mothballing $â When airport facilities are underused or unoccupied, plans can be in place to shut down or mothball nonessential sys- tems to reduce energy use. One survey respondent reported that âdue to flight reductions we have closed off one con- course to reduce heating, cooling and lighting.â Others noted âsemi-mothballing unoccupied or under-occupied facilitiesâ; and âbaggage and security system temporary shutdown when activity is reduced.â By shutting down boilers during the summer months, Montgomery Regional Airport (MGM), Montgomery, Alabama, indicated that natural gas expenses dropped 50%. Literature described setup and setback strategies for build- ing temperature settings during nighttime operations that sets high and low limits for cooling and heating systems to reduce HVAC cycling when spaces are unoccupied (PECI 1999c, p. 23). Costs/Payback/Savings: The cost of shut down or moth- balling spaces can be quite low if BAS control is used. Pay- back for nighttime temperature settings is often less than one year (PECI 1999c p. 23). Energy Efficiency Specific Project Criteria $ - $$ Many survey respondents indicated that design and construc- tion standards at their facility include aspects of energy effi- ciency. Others noted the used of payback or return on invest- ment (ROI) criteria for any efficiency-oriented improvements. One benefit of implementing nationally recognized stan- dards is that staff or consultant time is saved by not having to develop standards; however, national scale programs have limitations when applied to unique climatic conditions such as temperature extremes or programmatic requirements of airport terminals and often have rigorous documentation requirements. Standards are referenced in chapter two. Cost/Payback/Savings: If standards exist, no cost. If national rating systems are referenced, again costs can be low. Airport Sustainability Programs $ - $$â - Fostering an operations culture that supports energy efficiency will garner long-term commitment to improvements from staff and airport users alike. In 2007, MSP instituted a comprehensive, airport-wide program to promote sustainability and stewardship of airport resources. This program notes in its vision statement that âbeing good stewards means operating and developing our airports in ways that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needsâ (Metropolitan Airports Commission 2009). Interviewees noted that this comprehensive program, which addresses aspects of energy conservation and renewable energy as well as eight other categories has been essential in promot- ing a âculture of sustainabilityâ begun by the MAC Energy Conservation Program in 1998. Box 11 MSP Metropolitan Airports Commission STAR Program At Minneapolis/Saint Paul International Airport (MSP), the Metropolitan Airports Commission (MAC) has implemented a comprehensive sustainability program entitled Stewards of Tomorrows Airport Resources (STAR) (see Figure 5). Energy efficiency components of the program, noted as âMAC ACTIONâ have included the following: â¢ Installed ground power and pre-conditioned air at gates â¢ Implemented annual energy conservation projects â¢ Installed energy-efficient lighting â¢ Implemented day-lighting window design â¢ Implemented automatic lighting controls â¢ Utilized automatic HVAC settings and controls â¢ Upgraded both hot and chilled water central plants. (Metropolitan Airports Commission 2009) FIGURE 5 Culture of sustainability. An informational document for Minneapolis/St. Paul International Airport sustainability program: Stewards of Tomorrows Airport Resources. (Courtesy: MSP Metropolitan Airports Commission.)
Personnel/Human Factors A major aspect of making effective changes to operations prac- tices for energy cost reduction involves personnel and their attitudes toward energy efficiency. As noted earlier in the spe- cial programs section, creating a âculture of sustainabilityâ within the airport operations department and across airport and tenant staff will ensure that programs and practices are imple- mented and followed. Indeed, DFW noted that after multiple presentations about the airportsâ energy conservation program to tenants and staff ideas for improving energy efficiency are now being generated outside of operations. The Hawthorne Effect NO-$â The Hawthorne Effect references an early 20th century study of workers at the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. Findings from that study indicated that the behavior of workers may be altered in a positive direc- tion when they are aware of the study. As energy efficiency improvements are initiated (espe- cially ones that increase monitoring of energy use such as sub- metering) small gains in efficiency can be expected when personnel are aware of the improvement, owing to the Hawthorne Effect (Clark 1999). Training $ A number of airports have implemented âenergy awarenessâ training programs for staff and tenants to raise awareness about energy efficiency measures. A limited number have mandated staff work practices to reduce energy use. Although mandated practices may result in some savings, literature rec- ommends that management actively âtrack and measure the success of energy-efficiency strategies [and] share energy accounting info with O&M staff to help identify problems and track successful strategiesâ (PECI 1999a, p. 7). In addition to awareness training, operations training for O&M staff and day-to-day users of airport equipment, from simple thermostats to energy management control systems, is crucial to the successful utilization of those energy manage- ment tools. An example given in a PECI report notes the importance of returning controls to original settings. Because many parties, perhaps even tenants, often have access to lighting and HVAC controls, schedule changes to meet special needs or unusual conditions may not get returned to their original settings. Over time, these schedules become further and further removed from matching actual needs (PECI 1999c, p. 21). Communications $â For the Hawthorne Effect to take place, information about energy cost-reduction practices must be distributed to per- 20 sonnel and stakeholders. This communication can take many forms and use multiple channels within airport operations and public-use areas. It can also be as simple as a sticker on a light switch suggesting that lights be switched off when exiting the room (CAP 2004). Information sharing in the form of a monthly newsletter was used at one large airport interviewed. This communica- tion strategy has proven to raise awareness about energy effi- ciency issues and provide savings through vigilance on the part of O&M staff. At another airport, energy efficiency pro- gram staff has made numerous presentations to stakeholder groups including tenants and are seeing gradual but positive changes in attitudes towards energy efficiency. Department of the Interior strategies for raising awareness suggest âproviding mandatory and voluntary training opportu- nities on smart energy practices [and] holding annual energy fairs before seasonal changes to provide additional informa- tion for employees about how to manage energy use in the work place and in their homesâ (DOI 2006). Additional communications methods include periodic noti- fications about turning off lights (see Figure 6), printers, and computers; designating space for energy efficiency informa- tion within staff common areas; or drafting monthly or quar- terly informational e-mails about planning, improvements, energy data, or other areas of operations that can affect energy efficiency. Communicating about energy efficiency with tenants is also important and, as noted in the next chapter with regard to metering data, can be effective in reducing adversarial relationships. One interviewee noted the positive effects brought about by communicating to tenants that some air- port fees had not increased for five years because of energy efficiency projects. Box 12 Communications: Cultivating a Culture of Conservation Communication is an important tool on multiple levels: Intranets, newsletters, and other means of disseminating information among airport staff, airlines, and other tenants are very useful in educating the people that inhabit the air- port on a daily basis about the benefits of energy efficiency programs, and the impact that their individual actions can have on energy efficiency and other environmental pro- grams. Some airports reported success expanding commu- nication efforts into related programs, including employee carpooling at DFW, and alternative work schedules at Tampa International Airport (TPA), where some employ- ees work four 10-hour days, decreasing their commuting costs by 20%.
21 Chapter Summary From the data collected, the following practices were discussed for reducing energy cost and improving energy efficiency within building management and operations at airport terminal buildings (see Table 1). â¢ Upgrade and optimize building automation systems to ensure performance within specifications â Calibrate and adjust interior temperatures for optimal occupant, staff, and tenant comfort â Utilize building automation systems with motor con- trols for heating, cooling, and conveyance systems. â¢ Identify improvements to O&M practices by using sys- tematic assessment for both new and retrofit projects â Methods of systematic assessment include energy audits and O&M assessment â Multiple forms of commissioning can be used depend- ing on project type and scope. â¢ A variety of programs and arrangements are used by airports to guide, implement, and monitor energy efficiency â Highlight energy efficiency within new project criteria â Utilize temporary settings for underused systems and spaces â Include energy efficiency requirements within O&M service contracts. â¢ Human factors can affect the success of energy efficiency programs â Provide targeted training programs for personnel and tenants â Identify communications strategies for creating a âconservation cultureâ â Psychological effects can provide small savings. FIGURE 6 Communication with building occupants. Light switch stickers used to encourage energy conservation at a student dormitory. (Courtesy: Office of SustainabilityâTemple University.) Notes: 1. Paybackâtime indicated refers to years required for improvement to return cost savings equivalent to project costs. 2. Cost information is based on energy rates for 2009 at respondent airport locations. 3. Cost can be defined as total project cost and not cost per square foot. 4. Percentageâvalue given represents a yearly reduction in energy or operations costs for that system or process. TABLE 1 ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICESâBUILDING MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS