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T R A N S P O R T A T I O N R E S E A R C H B O A R D WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org The Second S T R A T E G I C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M REPORT S2-L01-RR-1 Integrating Business Processes to Improve Travel Time Reliability KIMLEY-HORN AND ASSOCIATES, INC. In association with PB CONSULT
Subscriber Categories Administration and Management Highways Operations and Traffic Management
The Second Strategic Highway Research Program Americaâs highway system is critical to meeting the mobility and economic needs of local communities, regions, and the nation. Developments in research and technologyâsuch as advanced materials, communications technology, new data collection technologies, and human factors scienceâoffer a new opportunity to improve the safety and reliability of this important national resource. Breakthrough resolution of sig- nificant transportation problems, however, requires concen- trated resources over a short time frame. Reflecting this need, the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) has an intense, large-scale focus, integrates multiple fields of re- search and technology, and is fundamentally different from the broad, mission-oriented, discipline-based research pro- grams that have been the mainstay of the highway research in- dustry for half a century. The need for SHRP 2 was identified in TRB Special Report 260: Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life, published in 2001 and based on a study sponsored by Congress through the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). SHRP 2, modeled after the first Strategic Highway Research Program, is a focused, time- constrained, management-driven program designed to comple- ment existing highway research programs. SHRP 2 focuses on applied research in four areas: Safety, to prevent or reduce the severity of highway crashes by understanding driver behavior; Renewal, to address the aging infrastructure through rapid de- sign and construction methods that cause minimal disruptions and produce lasting facilities; Reliability, to reduce congestion through incident reduction, management, response, and mitiga- tion; and Capacity, to integrate mobility, economic, environ- mental, and community needs in the planning and designing of new transportation capacity. SHRP 2 was authorized in August 2005 as part of the Safe, Ac- countable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). The program is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) on behalf of the Na- tional Research Council (NRC). SHRP 2 is conducted under a memorandum of understanding among the American Associa- tion of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Academy of Sciences, parent organization of TRB and NRC. The program provides for competitive, merit-based selection of re- search contractors; independent research project oversight; and dissemination of research results. SHRP 2 Report S2-L01-RR-1 ISBN: 978-0-309-12903-9 Library of Congress Control Number: 2011936709 Â© 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copyright Information Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for ob- taining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. The second Strategic Highway Research Program grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permis- sion is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, or FHWA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing material in this document for educational and not-for-profit purposes will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the ma- terial, request permission from SHRP 2. Note: SHRP 2 report numbers convey the program, focus area, project number, and publication format. Report numbers ending in âwâ are published as web documents only. Notice The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the second Strategic Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical committee and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the second Strategic Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. SHRP 2 Reports Available by subscription and through the TRB online bookstore: www.TRB.org/bookstore Contact the TRB Business Office: 202-334-3213 More information about SHRP 2: www.TRB.org/SHRP2
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
SHRP 2 STAFF Neil F. Hawks, Director Ann M. Brach, Deputy Director Kizzy Anderson, Senior Program Assistant, Implementation Stephen Andrle, Chief Program Officer, Capacity James Bryant, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Mark Bush, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Kenneth Campbell, Chief Program Officer, Safety JoAnn Coleman, Senior Program Assistant, Capacity Eduardo Cusicanqui, Finance Officer Walter Diewald, Senior Program Officer, Safety Jerry DiMaggio, Implementation Coordinator Charles Fay, Senior Program Officer, Safety Carol Ford, Senior Program Assistant, Safety Elizabeth Forney, Assistant Editor Jo Allen Gause, Senior Program Officer, Capacity Abdelmename Hedhli, Visiting Professional Ralph Hessian, Visiting Professional Andy Horosko, Special Consultant, Safety Field Data Collection William Hyman, Senior Program Officer, Reliability Linda Mason, Communications Officer Michael Miller, Senior Program Assistant, Reliability Gummada Murthy, Senior Program Officer, Reliability David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability Monica Starnes, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Noreen Stevenson-Fenwick, Senior Program Assistant, Renewal Charles Taylor, Special Consultant, Renewal Dean Trackman, Managing Editor Pat Williams, Administrative Assistant Connie Woldu, Administrative Coordinator Patrick Zelinski, Communications Specialist
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration in cooperation with the American Association of State Highway and Transporta- tion Officials. It was conducted in the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. The project was managed by David Plazak, Senior Program Officer for SHRP 2 Capacity and Reliability. The research reported herein was performed by Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. (KHA) and PB Consult. KHA was the prime contractor for this study, and PB Consult served as subconsultant. Pierre Pretorius, PE, Senior Vice President at KHA, served as project manager and co-principal inves- tigator. Lisa M. Burgess, Vice President at KHA, was the co-principal investigator. The other authors of this report and members of the research team were Thomas M. Fowler, PE, PTOE, Vice President, KHA; Jeffery W. Dale, PE, Project Engineer, KHA; Deanna Townsend, Analyst, KHA; Amy Lewis, PE, Project Engineer, KHA; Amanda R. Good, Analyst, KHA; and Steve Lockwood, PB Consult, review/technical adviser. Numerous representatives from the selected case study programs were interviewed by the research team and provided valuable input to the research effort. They include Rick Phillips, Incident Response Program Manager, Washington State Department of Transportation; Patrick Odom, Traffic Incident Management and Road Ranger Program Manager, Florida Department of Transportation; David Grant, Group Man- ager of ATM, Highways Agency, United Kingdom; Joseph Ishak, PE, Central Work Zone Traffic Control Section Engineer, North Carolina Department of Transportation; Jennifer Portanova, PE, Project Design Engineer, North Carolina Department of Transportation; Catharine Jensen, Transportation Planner, Michigan Department of Transportation; Leslie Spencer-Fowler, ITS Program Manager, Kansas Department of Transportation; Mick Halter, PE, Retired District One Metro Engineer, Kansas Department of Transportation; Lt. Brian Basore, Kansas Highway Patrol; Lt. Paul Behm, Kansas Highway Patrol; Danielle Deneau, PE, Signal Operations Engineer, Road Commission for Oakland County, Michigan; Capt. Jim Mynesberge, Auburn Hills Police Department, Michigan; Denise Inda, PE, PTOE, Assistant Chief Operations Engineer, Nevada Department of Transportation; Mike Fuess, PE, PTOE, District 2 Traffic Engineer, Nevada Department of Transportation; John Talbott, District 2 Road Operations Center, Nevada Department of Transportation; Faisal Saleem, ITS Program Manager, Maricopa County Department of Transportation, Arizona; Jeff Georgevich, Senior Program Coordinator, Oakland County Metropolitan Transporta- tion Commission, California; and Vamsi Tabjulu, Arterial Operations Program Manager, Oakland County Metropolitan Transportation Commission, California. The SHRP 2 Reliability Project L01 workshop Integrating Business Processes to Improve Travel Time Reliability was held in Phoenix, Ariz., from May 5 to 6, 2009. Attendees were Natalie Bettger, Senior Program Manager, North Central Texas Council of Governments; Mark Bush, PE, PTOE, Program Manager for Operations, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials; John Corbin, PE, PTOE, State Traffic Engineer, Wisconsin Department of Transportation; John Conrad, PE, CH2M Hill; Leslie Spencer-Fowler, ITS Program Man- ager, Kansas Department of Transportation; Catharine Jensen, Transportation Planner, Michigan Department of Transportation; Galen McGill, PE, Intelligent Transportation Systems Manager, Oregon Department of Transportation; Terry Mullins, Bureau Chief, Bureau of Emergency Medical Services and Trauma Systems, Arizona Department of Health Services; Rick Nelson, PE, Assistant Director of Operations, Nevada Department of Transportation; David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, SHRP 2; Faisal Saleem, ITS Program Manager, Maricopa County Department of Transportation/AZTech; Battle Whitley, PE, Division Operations Engineer, North Carolina Department of Trans- portation; Lisa M. Burgess, Vice President, KHA; Jeffery W. Dale, PE, Project Engineer, KHA; Thomas M. Fowler, PE, PTOE, Vice President, KHA; Amanda R. Good, Analyst, KHA; and Pierre Pretorius, PE, Senior Vice President, KHA.
F O R E W O R D David J. Plazak, SHRP 2 Senior Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability Improving travel time reliability is an emerging business activity for transportation agencies in the United States. To improve the reliability of travel times on their roadway networks, transportation agencies must advance on a number of fronts. These include collecting and analyzing data; integrating travel time reliability considerations into planning, program- ming, and project delivery; adopting innovative operational strategies and technologies; and modifying their institutional structures and business practices surrounding traffic opera- tions. This report addresses various ways that transportation agencies can reengineer their day-to-day business practices to improve traffic operations, address nonrecurring traffic congestion, and improve the reliability of travel times delivered to roadway system users. The report is based on a series of case studies, mainly from the United States, that describe suc- cessful business processes. One case study on active traffic management from the United King- dom is also presented. The case studies show how business processes were successfully reengineered in operational areas such as traffic incident management (TIM), work zone man- agement, planned special-event management, road weather management, and traffic control system management. Students of traffic operations will recognize these subject areas as corre- sponding to five of the seven causes of nonrecurring traffic congestion. (The two that are left out are related to inadequate base roadway capacity and fluctuations in travel demand.) This research report and an accompanying guide also provide a detailed introduction to one of the most useful tools for business process reengineering: business process mapping. An approach to business process mapping developed by the IBM Corporation for use in automating business processes, called Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN), is used in this report and the guide. This approach proved highly adaptable to business processes related to traffic operations. BPMN uses a straightforward, graphical approach to business processes, illustrating them with objects, flows, swim pools, and swim lanes. Business processes diagrammed using BPMN are simple to comprehend and communicate. This report, along with the accompanying guide (which focuses on showing how to use BPMN for mapping traffic operations business processes) and other SHRP 2 Reliability products related to institutional structures and business process reengineering, is intended to help transportation agencies move forward in addressing nonrecurring traffic congestion and delivering more reliable travel times on their highway networks.
C O N T E N T S 1 Executive Summary 1 Introduction 3 Findings 4 Conclusions 5 Recommendations 6 Reference 7 CHAPTER 1 Background 7 Project Overview 8 Business Process Focus 9 References 10 CHAPTER 2 Research Approach 10 Guiding Principles 10 Literature Review 12 Case Study Evaluation Criteria 12 Selected Case Studies 12 Interviews with Agency Representatives 12 National Workshop with Key Stakeholders 13 Modeling Business Processes 19 References 20 CHAPTER 3 Case Studies: Incident Management 20 Washington: WSDOT Joint Operations Policy Statement 24 Florida: FDOT Road Rangers 29 United Kingdom: Active Traffic Management 33 References 35 CHAPTER 4 Case Studies: Work Zone Management 35 North Carolina: NCDOT Safety and Traffic Operations Committee 39 Michigan: MDOT Work Zone Traffic Control Modeling 44 References 45 CHAPTER 5 Case Studies: Special-Event Management 45 Kansas: Kansas Speedway 49 Michigan: The Palace of Auburn Hills 54 References 55 CHAPTER 6 Case Study: Weather Management 55 California and Nevada: I-80 Winter State Line Closures 60 References
61 CHAPTER 7 Case Studies: Multiagency Operations 61 Arizona: AZTech Regional Archived Data Server 66 California: San Pablo Avenue Signal Retiming Project 71 References 72 CHAPTER 8 Analysis and Applicability to Other Agencies 72 Influences to Process Initiation, Change, and Integration 73 Obstacles to Process Change 74 Elements of Process Development and Integration 76 Institutionalizing Business Processes 77 Benefits 77 National Action 78 References Color versions of the figures in this report are available online: www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/165283.aspx.