Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
37 To ensure a successful FOD management program, airports not only need to address the four main areas of inspection, detection, removal, and documentation, but also incorporate a comprehensive training and promotion program. Without adequate training of, and awareness by, all personnel of the airportâs FOD management program, employees cannot be expected to (1) understand the consequences of FOD on air- port surfaces, and (2) emphasize FOD removal during their daily work. First, however, it is useful to consider the man- ner in which human factors and culture affect personnel and the training and promotion paradigm. HUMAN FACTORS Whether implementing manual inspection and detection methods or relying heavily on automated detection technol- ogy, the human interface is still necessary; because of this, human errors can occur. Human errors are defined by ICAO as âthe failure of planned actions to achieve their desired goalâ (Mason et al. 2001, p. 3). Within the aviation industry, 75% of accidents involve human performance errors (ICAO 2005). Human factor issues may be broken down into four main categories, which can be characterized in the SHEL model of Software, Hardware, Equipment, and Liveware. Each of these categories is directly affected by human interaction, which is the most flexible and adaptable part of the aviation system; hence, the importance of considering these issues (ICAO 2005). Several steps may be taken by an airportâs FOD man- agement team to eliminate and reduce human error issues with regard to FOD. This includes the implementation of disci- plined work habits, active FOD promotion, and testing (Mason et al. 2001, p. 5). Awareness and reward programs for success- fully executing an airportâs FOD program may also help in the human factor issues of motivation and compliancy (Mason et al. 2001, p. 8). Training is especially critical to minimize the impacts of human factor issues on FOD man- agement and Mason recommends that the following topics be taught during training (2001, p. 7): 1. Proper storage, 2. Shipping and handling, 3. Ramp control, 4. Clean-up strategies, 5. Housekeeping, 6. Inspection practices, 7. Accountability, and 8. Reporting. Over the course of the last several years, the FAA has taken an increased interest in human factor issues across the aviation industry, creating a list of the dirty dozen human fac- tors. These 12 factors, if not guarded against, also can easily negatively affect the FOD process (Cunningham 2007): 1. Lack of communication 2. Complacency 3. Lack of knowledge 4. Distractions 5. Lack of teamwork 6. Fatigue 7. Lack of resources 8. Pressure 9. Lack of assertiveness 10. Stress 11. Lack of awareness 12. Norms. Although human interaction with FOD inspection and removal equipment is commonplace and may result in human performance issues, visual and manual inspection and removal practices are especially susceptible to human factor problems. As found in the survey of airport operators, the vast majority of airports do not operate FOD detection or removal equip- ment, and simply rely on visual and manual inspections; there- fore, the following human factor issues may be especially important for these operators to consider when performing a visual inspection. First, visual acuity is especially important to consider, and refers to the clearness of oneâs vision. Sunglasses, a clean windshield, and an inspection vehicle equipped with ade- quate external lighting will improve visual acuity. Also of importance is the speed at which an inspection is performed in a vehicle; the faster the vehicle travels, the harder it is for the inspector to scan the entire surface being inspected. Often, ATC asks the inspector to âexpedite,â and when this occurs it may be best to exit the runway and continue the inspection after the current aircraft operation, rather than driving the runway at excessive speed simply to finish the inspection. One potential remedy to eliminating distractions for the inspector at a towered airport is to have ATC treat the inspec- tor as it would a normal flight, complete with a flight strip, so CHAPTER SIX TRAINING AND PROMOTION
that a set amount of time can be allocated to the inspector without having to take into account incoming or departing aircraft. The location of the sun is also important, especially during sunrise and sunset. Often, driving away from the sun, especially if is located low on the horizon, will improve vision. The attentiveness of the inspector may be addressed as well, to ensure that there are no outside distractions while performing the inspection. Distractions may be minimized by prohibiting the use of the vehicle AM/FM radio, cell phone, or external music device(s) while on the runway. If airline personnel accompany the inspector, they should be instructed not to talk while the vehicle is on the runway. Pilots are routinely taught how to scan for traffic, and inspec- tion personnel can be taught the same scanning technique, as well as how to rely on peripheral vision. Night, rain, fog, and snow can negatively affect the vision of inspection person- nel. In addition, heat can impair the inspectorâs vision; gen- erating turbulent distortions over pavement and distorting images (Chadwick 2001, p. 41). CULTURE Once human factors are addressed, it is important to create a positive culture in which a safe and FOD-free work envi- ronment is a top priority. As explained by Larrigan (2004, p. 66), âFOD prevention is not something you teach once; it must be an ongoing, multifaceted program that becomes part of the culture for everyone who operates on the airside of the airport.â Developing a positive FOD culture requires, first and foremost, a thorough commitment to FOD preven- tion by management, including management of the airport, FBO(s), airline(s), other tenants, and contractors. Personnel need to see this commitment and, with an active FOD cam- paign, this can be ensured. As explained by the FAA (2010a, p. 10): An effective FOD management program requires more than the implementation of rules and procedures to be followed. It requires the support of management to establish the attitude, decisions, and methods of operation at the policy-making level that demonstrate the organizationâs priority to safety. Additional practices to ensure a positive FOD culture include (Brothers and Simmons 2004, pp. 101â104): â¢ Emphasis on the individual employee role in safety â¢ Focus on FOD awareness with efforts such as various FOD campaigns â¢ Effective training of personnel â¢ Proper containment of FOD â¢ Proper equipment and tools â¢ Regular sweeping schedule â¢ Tool inventory â¢ An active FOD committee â¢ Prohibition on bird and animal feeding on airport grounds â¢ Debris regularly removed from around ground support equipment 38 â¢ Regular ramp FOD inspections â¢ Regular FOD bin cleaning â¢ Properly stowed aircraft support equipment â¢ Prevention of personal items from becoming FOD â¢ Conducting of regular self-audits. Regardless of the specific practices adopted by an airport to create a positive FOD culture, attention to the airportâs cul- ture in relation to FOD is essential. TRAINING The first step in promoting an airportâs FOD management pro- gram is to make certain that all personnel working within the AOA, including terminal ramps and gate areas, receive proper initial training. As stressed by Messenger (2004b, p. 12): For many workers FOD training means nap time; a boring video in a darkened room administered by a bored training representa- tive who has no real contact with FOD. It doesnât have to be that way. It canât be that way. Although an abbreviated form of this training can be incor- porated into an airportâs Security Identification Display Area training program, for employees pursuing airside driving privileges, airports may wish to require the full FOD training program. In essence, airline ramp workers may receive an abbreviated FOD training program, whereas personnel respon- sible for daily FOD inspections (i.e. operations, maintenance, and/or ARFF) will be fully indoctrinated. This initial training should, according to AC 150/5210-24, focus on the following areas (FAA 2010a): 1. Overview of the FOD management program in place at the airport. 2. Safety of personnel and airline passengers. 3. Causes and principal contributing factors of FOD. 4. The consequences of ignoring FOD and/or the incen- tives of preventing FOD. 5. General cleanliness and inspection standards for work areas (including the apron and AOA). 6. Proper care, use, and stowage of material and compo- nent or equipment items used around aircraft while in maintenance or on airport surfaces. 7. Control of debris in the performance of work assignments. 8. Control over personal items and equipment. 9. Proper control/accountability and care of tools and hardware. 10. Requirements and procedures for regular inspection and cleaning of aircraft and apron areas. 11. How to report FOD incidents or potential incidents. 12. Continuous vigilance for potential courses of hazardous foreign objects. 13. FOD detection procedures, including the proper use of detection technologies. 14. FOD removal procedures.
39 Similarly, NAFPI promotes the following training sub- jects (NAFPI n.d., p. 7): 1. Proper storage, shipping, and handling of material, components, and equipment; 2. Techniques to control debris; 3. Housekeeping; 4. Cleaning and inspection of components and assemblies; 5. Accountability/control of tools and hardware; 6. Control of personal items, equipment, and consum- ables; 7. Care and protection of end items; 8. Quality workmanship (âClean-As-You-Go,â inspec- tion); 9. Flight line, taxiway, and ramp control methods; and 10. How to report FOD incidents or potential incidents. In addition to initial training, however it may be delivered, it is important to consider recurrent training. Recurrent, often- times annual, FOD training is also necessary for a continued focus on FOD prevention by airport personnel. The military is skilled in providing annual FOD refresher training and, although civilian airports may not place as great an emphasis on this, it is helpful to ask, as Messenger (2004b, p. 12) noted, âWhat should they know in order to make improvements?â The answer to this question will vary among airports, but annual training can be a great time to review details of FOD events during the past year, corrective actions taken or planned, and an overview of upcoming initiatives to better manage FOD at the airport (Messenger 2004b). By incorporating data, photographs, and even examples of FOD retrieved, the train- ing can be effective in gaining personnel support for the FOD program. Ball shares the following âBasic 10â list to teach (2004, p. 129): â¢ Keep your vehicles free from trash inside and out. â¢ Always account for your tools when you enter the flight line. â¢ Use good housekeeping; clean as you go. â¢ Never pass tools on to the next shift; always turn them in to ensure accountability. â¢ Immediately report any lost object or tool so you can get help locating it quickly. â¢ Check your tires at all entry control points before driv- ing into flight-line areas. â¢ Bag your trash before disposal to prevent it from becoming FOD. â¢ Call the appropriate person if you see a ramp area that needs to be cleaned with a sweeper. â¢ Take FOD walks seriously; spend the extra time to pick up everything you see, no matter how small. â¢ Remember, it takes each and every one of us to form the protective barrier to shield our jets from FOD and keep our people safe. In addition to these ideas, some considerations are neces- sary in developing an effective FOD training program. Mes- senger provides additional suggestions in this regard (2004b, p. 14): â¢ Determine class size, who will attend, when and where the training will be held, and the duration of training (45 min is a good rule of thumb). â¢ If possible, use a centrally located training area to reduce travel time, and schedule classes by organization/work center so that classes may be tailored to the type of work performed and particular problems encountered in that area. â¢ Provide training for all shifts and include all groups that touch the product, visit the work areas, or that may con- tribute to the generation of FOD. â¢ Consider requiring all organizations (including tenants and contractors) to attend training. PROMOTION Once initial training has been conducted, it is important to promote the FOD management program. Promotion can occur in a variety of ways, but is best accomplished by rely- ing on multiple methods. Commitment Just as a commitment by management to FOD prevention is essential in developing a positive FOD culture, management commitment is also essential in successfully promoting FOD prevention. According to Messenger (2004b, p. 9): The single most important factor in a successful FOD Prevention Program is the complete commitment and ongoing support of your organizationâs top leadership. Without it, the program is handicapped from the start and will suffer a lack of credibility. This commitment and support by top leadership requires resources and a concerted effort to maintain awareness of the FOD management program and the dangers of FOD. Other- wise, personnel will likely lose sight of the importance of FOD detection and removal and, if they do not sense it is important to the airport or management, they will likely become a liabil- ity to the program, rather than an asset. To develop this com- mitment by all levels of management and personnel, Chaplain and Reid recommend the following âTen Commitmentsâ to a FOD campaign (2004, p. 21): 1. SafetyâFOD is a primary safety issue. 2. Protect resourcesâFOD costs the global aviation commu- nity several billion dollars annually. 3. Be FOD fightersâQuality people doing quality work. 4. Our customersâThey should not have to pay for our care- lessness. Neglecting FOD prevention reveals a lack of pro- fessionalism, integrity, and maturity. 5. PartnershipâMaintain strong relationships with every organization on the airfield. 6. EmployeesâFlight operations or maintenance, civilian or military; everyone must be involved.
7. PreventionâDemonstrate complete personal commitment to this simple concept: âClean-as-you-go.â 8. Diminishing returnsâMinimize equipment or aircraft dam- aged by FOD and returned for repairs. 9. PerfectionâPerfection in a FOD free environment is possible. 10. CommunicationâThis is the key to any successful pro- gram. Do it well. Visibility Effective promotion of any FOD management program requires an emphasis on visibility. This requires regularly âadvertisingâ the importance of FOD prevention to airport personnel (Figure 32). As Messenger (2004b, p. 10) explains, âIf you canât see âadvertisingâ for a FOD prevention program in the working environment, it probably isnât reaching the target personnel.â It is important for all visual messages to be current, relevant, and dynamic. It is best to regularly change messages to catch the attention of airport personnel. Various options are available to airports in visibly pro- moting a FOD management program (Messenger 2004b, pp. 10â11). Some of these options include: â¢ FOD letters, notices, and bulletins: â Whether in the form of a memo, letter to personnel, or a one-page bulletin these written documents can serve to enhance personnel awareness of the impor- tance of FOD prevention. â¢ T-shirts, caps, or jackets with the FOD logo or mascot: â To encourage employee participation in wearing FOD apparel, consider holding a contest in which employ- ees submit designs for a FOD mascot or logo, with the winning design placed on clothing items. â Clothing items may be distributed to employees all at once, distributed to tenants finding the most FOD each calendar quarter, used as rewards for employees 40 offering suggestions for innovative FOD prevention, presented to employees signing a FOD commitment pledge, or provided to each employee participating in a FOD walk event. â¢ FOD banner: â This typically involves a large, permanently mounted vinyl sign with a changeable message. It may be mounted above a door, on a hangar wall, or elsewhere. â A set individual could be appointed with the task of changing the sign message on a monthly basis. â¢ Posters: â Posters could be mounted in frames or under Plexi- glas, rather than simply taped to a wall. â Posters need to be relevant to the work being per- formed in that area and be changed regularly. â Although FOD posters are available commercially, this is an opportunity for a design contest, allowing employees to submit poster design ideas. â¢ Signs: â Signs should be used to remind personnel of house- keeping practices to prevent FOD, as well as the importance of FOD prevention. For instance, they may remind personnel to secure loose items, pick up debris when discovered, or check vehicle tires before entering the AOA. â Whether placed on a fence at the entrance to the AOA, in airline operations areas, or on the exterior of terminal buildings, signs can serve as an important reminder of FOD prevention practices. â¢ Shop aids: â FOD containers, shop vacuums, work stations, and other shop areas can play a role in FOD prevention. â The universally accepted color scheme for FOD is yellow with black letters, and this can be quite effec- tive in promoting FOD awareness. A sample FOD bulletin appears in Figure 33. Awareness FOD Walk An innovative way to detect FOD, as well as promote an awareness of FOD prevention, is to organize team events that center around FOD detection. The most widely used such method is commonly referred to as a âFOD Walkâ (Figure 34). As previously stated, FOD walks began in the military aboard aircraft carriers and remain the first defense against foreign objects both on aircraft carriers and military installations with aircraft in operation. Many airports have adopted this practice, and although civilian airports do not conduct FOD walks as frequently as the military, it is common for these walks to be held on an annual basis. A FOD walk involves individuals (air- port or airline employees, or both) walking side by side along the entire length of a runway. Armed with buckets or trashFIGURE 32 FOD sign. Source: Indianapolis International Airport.
41 bags and constantly scanning the pavement, volunteers are asked to pick up any foreign objects, no matter how small. To ensure safety, the runway being inspected is closed, allowing individuals to detect and remove debris in an environment without a sense of urgency. As explained by Technical Sergeant Jeffrey Vergara, 57th Wing FOD prevention NCO and organizer of the 2010 FOD walk at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, âBy having all of Team Nellis walk the line together, weâre able to cover a large amount of space in a short period of time and significantly decrease our chances of missing some- thing that could damage an aircraftâ (James 2010, paragraph 4) Planning is essential for a successful FOD walk. In addi- tion to selecting and promoting a date, as well explaining as the purpose of the walk, certain supplies are provided. As Messenger suggests, personnel need to be properly equipped with the following supplies (2004b, p. 17): â¢ Heavy duty trash bags, â¢ A megaphone to communicate with the crowd, â¢ A large industrial scale to weigh the debris, â¢ A large flatbed truck to haul away bags of debris, â¢ Gifts and prizes, â¢ A photographer to document the event, and â¢ A stopwatch. To ensure a successful FOD walk, airport operators endeavor to make the walk as creative and enjoyable an expe- rience as possible. For instance, teams can be created and those teams that detect and remove the most FOD may receive prizes such as t-shirts or gift cards. At Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, the wing vice commander hides a gold-painted bolt on the pavement to be found during the FOD walk. Whoever finds the golden bolt wins their 15 min of fame and thanks from some roaring jet engines (McGloin 2010). In addition, FOD walks can be turned into a form of company picnic, with drinks and food being offered to participants. Additional steps toward teamwork can be taken in having airline personnel or airport tenants join airport inspectors on their daily FOD inspections to provide these individuals with additional insight into the daily application of FOD management. DO YOUR PART! KEEP AN EYE OUT FOR FOD! FIGURE 33 Sample FOD bulletin. FIGURE 34 FOD walk at Kadena Air Base, Japan. (Source: U.S. Air Force photo/Airman 1st Class Jarvie Wallace). HartsfieldâJackson Atlanta International Airport, the busiest airport in the world, hosts an annual FOD walk. Both airport and airline employees participating in the event are given a singular missionâto search for and pick up any FOD. Dur- ing the May 2009 event, volunteers (including pilots, admin- istrative assistants, and flight attendants) began arriving by 6:00 a.m. at the north cargo building and boarded buses to be driven to runway 8L/26R. According to Garth Collins, airport senior operations supervisor, âWe received a strong showing of support from volunteers who wanted to be a part of this yearâs FOD Walk. And they did an outstanding job. I was extremely pleased to see practically every career field in Aviation represented during the event.â Collins explained that all employees are encouraged to pick up FOD from road- ways and ramps during their daily work routine, and to report items detected on the airfield to the Airportâs Airside Oper- ations unit (Smith 2009). Additional Awareness Activities Effective FOD management programs regularly incorporate various activities to keep personnel engaged with FOD pre- vention. Many of these activities can be part of a âFOD Weekâ and prizes can be offered to participants. Messenger
(2004b, pp. 15â16), Larrigan (2004, p. 78), and Brothers and Simmons (2004, p. 105) share the following ideas: â¢ Adopt a runway â Community organizations can be invited to adopt a runway or ramp, and the airport can periodically close that pavement to allow the sponsor to clean the area of debris. â¢ Committee tours â By allowing a FOD committee to hold a meeting as they tour the AOA members may be able to identify problem areas or issues. This knowledge will allow the committee to better formulate strategies to prevent FOD at the airport. â¢ Incentive program â Allows personnel to nominate an employee who has been especially effective at removing or preventing FOD, whereby that employee is rewarded with a gift card or other incentive. â¢ Caught in the act â By rewarding employees on the spot for effective FOD removal/prevention, the motivation to continue being proactive in this regard should persist. â¢ Cleanest gate award â Personnel with the cleanest gate area may be rewarded with the âCleanest Gate of the Day Award.â â¢ FOD holiday tree â Personnel can decorate trees during the holiday season with debris that has been collected during the year. â¢ FOD poster contest â Personnel can submit designs for posters to be dis- played around the workplace. â¢ Guess the number of FOD items in the jar â Smaller pieces of FOD can be collected, retained, counted, and placed in a plastic jar. Personnel can then guess the number of items in a jar, while also getting a better idea of the types of FOD col- lected. Entering individuals into a prize drawing and awarding t-shirts to winners may be appreciated by personnel. â¢ FOD awareness test â A 10 to 15 question multiple-choice test based on the FOD management program or FOD Standard Oper- ating Procedure can be developed. â By placing these tests in a central location near a drop-box, personnel can challenge their knowledge and enter to win various prizes. â¢ FOD inventories â By sorting FOD collected from the AOA, an airport can possibly identify the company/personnel respon- sible for generating the debris and ask them to con- sider the importance of good housekeeping practices. â¢ FOD crossword puzzle â A crossword puzzle of FOD terms can be developed, with those personnel correctly completing the puzzle eligible to win prizes. 42 Because most of these activities will require prizes to ensure participation, it is helpful to develop prize guidelines. Messenger (2004b) recommends that most prizes be in the $20 to $30 range, and include items such as gift cards, FOD hats and other clothing items, or a free dinner for two. Grand prize drawings may include a set of FOD control tools, theatre tickets, or tickets to local athletic events. Airports may find it useful to survey personnel to gather additional ideas. In any event, prizes should be advertised when promoting FOD awareness or FOD special events. In addition, airports may implement promotional tools such as FOD seminars, FOD workshops or conferences, FOD lessons-learned, FOD bulletin boards, safety report- ing drop-boxes, and electronic reporting through websites or e-mail. Airports may also find it useful to develop meth- ods to exchange safety-related information with other air- port operators. CURRENT AIRPORT TRAINING, PROMOTION, AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Programs and Practices in Use When queried about the types of FOD awareness programs and practices currently in use, participating airports shared a wide variety of programs. As seen in Figure 35, the most com- mon method for promoting FOD awareness is through letters, notices, or bulletins. To stay abreast of current best practices, many participating airports also make use of methods to exchange FOD information with other airport operators. How- ever, this method of information exchange is less common among smaller airports. Almost one-third also use FOD bul- letin boards, safety reporting drop-boxes, or electronic report- ing through websites or e-mail. Level of Importance Airports were also queried about the level of importance var- ious groups at the airport place on promoting and supporting FOD awareness, as well as ensuring that debris are discovered and promptly removed. As seen in Figure 36, participating airports indicated that airport operations personnel place the highest importance on FOD awareness. Airport management and airport maintenance personnel also place a high emphasis on FOD awareness. According to participating airports, some- what less importance is placed on FOD awareness by other groups, such as air carriers, hangar tenants, concessionaires, and FBOs and ground support companies. Participation To be successful, a FOD management program requires partic- ipation by more than airport operations personnel. To guide the level of involvement by others, airports were asked which ten- ants play an active part in the FOD management program.
43 According to participating airports, air carriers and FBOs played the most active role. However, hangar tenants, ground support companies, and military operators also played signif- icant roles, with concessionaires playing a very minor role. Additional Practices FOD Manager Only 17% of participating airports mentioned that they employ a FOD manager with responsibility for the airportâs FOD management program. One-half of respondents explained that these FOD management duties are carried out by an employee as part of their existing job responsibilities. One-third of participating airports have no specific person in charge of the airportâs FOD management program. Not one respondent indi- cated that this duty was carried out by an outside consultant. When analyzing responses to this issue by airport hub size, it is common among all airports other than large hubs to have no specific person in charge of the FOD management program. Likewise, it is most common among large hubs to have the FOD management duties carried out by a current employee as part of existing job duties. Training Program To determine if airports have a training program for the purpose of increasing employee awareness of the causes and effects of 4% 6% 8% 8% 10% 22% 30% 36% 52% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Ops/staff meetings New hire training FOD seminars FOD walks Tenant meetings FOD lessons-learned FOD bulletin boards, safety reportingâ¦ Method to exchange info with airportâ¦ FOD letters, notices, bulletins FIGURE 35 FOD awareness programs and practices in use. Note: Participants were able to select all that apply. Thus, percentages do not total 100%. 22% 48% 58% 62% 78% 80% 86% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Concessionnaires Hangar tenants Air carriers FBOs, Ground support companies Airport maintenance personnel Airport management Airport operations personnel FIGURE 36 Importance placed on FOD awareness programs. Note: Participants were able to select all that apply. Thus, percentages do not total 100%.
FOD and promoting active employee participation in eliminat- ing causes of foreign object damage, airports were asked if they currently operate a FOD training program. Almost one-half (47%) of respondents indicated they do have a FOD training program, whereas 53% do not. Quality Assurance When queried about the methods used by airports to ensure the quality of a FOD management program, more than three- quarters of participants explained that management oversight was used. More than half also indicated that initial and recur- rent training was used. Only 24% relied on equipment, tech- nology, or internal audits to ensure quality. Adaptations During Low Visibility and Nighttime Of concern with any FOD management program is the abil- ity of personnel to detect and remove debris during reduced visibility and nighttime conditions. When asked how their airport had adapted its FOD management program to ensure effectiveness during reduced visibility and nighttime condi- 44 tions, 42% said there had been no adaptation. Of the adapta- tion that has taken place, the use of more frequent inspections appeared to be the most common (33%). Additional Resources When presented with the possibility of acquiring additional resources for enhancing a FOD management program, more than 70% indicated they would acquire equipment or technol- ogy for detection and/or removal. The second and third most common answers, respectively, were more frequent inspec- tions and more effective training of personnel. Liability Concerning the liability associated with FOD hazards, one question asked participating airports how many insurance or other claims resulting from FOD had been made at their air- port during the past 24 months by air carriers, FBOs, or oth- ers. The vast majority (71%) indicated that no claims had been filed, whereas 10% indicated that fewer than five claims had been filed; almost 15% were not sure.