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72 The U.S. surface freight transportation network includes 4,016,741 miles of highways, 94,942 miles of Class I freight railroad tracks, 46,474 miles of regional and shortline rail- road tracks, and 26,000 miles of navigable inland waterways. Other important components of the freight transportation network include air freight and pipelines. Freight-transportation-related services often come into con- flict with other land uses. These conflicts create, or have the potential to create, barriers to the efficient provision of freight transportation. Because of the important role of freight trans- portation in producing products and getting them to their end users, conflicts between freight and other land uses have an impact on the performance of the U.S. economy and consumer welfare. These impacts are evident from the fact that, for every person in the United States, an average of 11,000 ton-miles of freight is transported annually. The goals of the NCFRP Project 24 research were to (1) create an awareness of these conflicts, their sources, and consequences and (2) propose solutions to prevent or resolve such conflicts. Conflicting Land Uses and Barriers to Freight-Transportation-Related Services When competing and incompatible land uses exist close to each other, these uses often interfere with each other, resulting in conflicts between them. Conflicts could be physical in nature and/or involve nuisance, health, or safety concerns. Most residential, educational, and medical-related land uses are often incompatible with freight activity. Among the major conflicts non-freight interests have with freight-transportation- related services are â¢ Air and water pollution, â¢ Light pollution, â¢ Noise pollution, â¢ Effects of vibration, â¢ Safety issues, and â¢ Congestion. Some conflicts, such as noise, light, and vibration are common to all of the primary freight modes. Other con- flicts are more specific to particular modes. For example, the potential for dangerous trespass tends to be specific to railroads. From the perspective of freight interests, barriers to efficient freight-transportation-related services are often the result of these conflicts. In this context, barriers can be defined as impediments to the economically efficient transportation of freight due to land-use or policy decisions that create conflicts with other land uses. Examples of barriers or interference with freight-transportation-related services resulting from conflicts with other land uses include â¢ Speed restrictions, â¢ Limitations on hours of operation, â¢ Height and clearance impacts, â¢ Size and weight limitations, â¢ Corridor design impacts, â¢ Difficulty of dredging operations and disposing of dredged material, and â¢ Gentrification that drives up land values, making siting of transportation or industrial uses costly. Some barriers can be mode-specific (e.g., highway and road design impacts on trucking activities or dredging impacts on waterway transportation), while other barriers may be more general across modes (e.g., limitations on hours of operation). Barriers not only affect freight activities along particular corridors and facilities, but also can affect route choices and the ability to access freight and manufacturing facilities. C h a p t e r 1 0 Conclusions
73 Sources of Conflicts and Barriers The land-use planning and zoning functions of government are the primary areas where conflicts between freight and other land uses are either avoided or created. In the United States, land-use planning and zoning are mostly the respon- sibility of local governments. The NCFRP Project 24 research identified a number of ways in which land-use planning and zoning contributed to conflicts and barriers, including 1. Land-use planning processes generally plan inadequately, if at all, for freight, for a variety of reasons, including the following: â¢ Land-use planners are typically not taught about freight and do not understand why it is important to the econ- omy or how it works. â¢ There is a lack of maps that identify freight facilities and corridors. â¢ Freight entities are generally not significantly involved in local land-use and transportation visioning and planning processes. â¢ Cash-starved jurisdictions have an incentive to zone for uses with higher tax values. 2. State and regional planning does not do much to fill the gap in freight planning. 3. Regional visioning exercises generally do not deal adequately with freight. 4. Funding is often lacking or insufficient for freight planning and preservation. 5. Although most cities and counties utilize an âindustrialâ zoning designation, they generally do not create specific zoning categories for freight facilities and corridors. Freight is industrial activity, yet its impacts are distinct from other forms of heavy industry. In addition, the NCFRP Project 24 research found that poor communication is at the core of many conflicts between freight entities and other stakeholders. One example of poor communication is the lack of notice in many real estate transactions regarding possible freight-related impacts on the intended land use (e.g., residential development). Poor communication also exists between various levels of gov- ernment entities in many cases. Among other things, lack of communication leads to conflicting expectations and lack of buy-in for solutions. Suggestions for Achieving Freight-Compatible Development The research conducted under NCFRP Project 24 and previous experiences of the project team uncovered a number of approaches for preventing or resolving land-use conflicts between freight entities and other relevant stakeholder groups. These approaches were organized into âtoolsâ under the guiding principle of freight-compatible development. The two main objectives of freight-compatible development are to (1) ensure that freight-transportation-related services are not affected by, or do not affect, other land uses placed close to freight corridors or facilities and (2) reduce and minimize community impacts that arise because of the proximity of sensitive land uses, including residences, schools, hospitals, and emergency services. The four major tools availableâeither individually or in combinationâto achieve the goals of freight-compatible development are 1. Long-range planning, 2. Zoning and design, 3. Mitigation, and 4. Education and outreach. Long-range planning and zoning are primarily prospec- tive in nature with the goal of avoiding conflicts. Education and outreach also can be a prospective tool, as awareness and understanding of freight and land-use issues can lead to forward-looking solutions. The following are examples of specific prospective tools: 1. State enabling acts should ideally be amended to require that freight be one of the key elements that states, local jurisdictions, and planning agencies account for in both transportation planning and land-use planning. 2. Guidance needs to be provided to land-use planners regarding appropriate planning and zoning practices that relate to freight. For example, zoning overlays and indus- trial protection zones can be put in place not just for the industrial areas that are serviced by freight, but also for the corridors that link to them. 3. Accurate mapping of freight facilities and corridors should become part of the comprehensive planning process. Mapping of such facilities will contribute to the preserva- tion and protection of these facilities. 4. Cooperative regional planning efforts, such as regional visioning processes, should include freight entities as key stakeholders and make freight a significant focus. 5. State and national associations related to planning or development should provide the appropriate education and tools related to freight planning for city and county planners. 6. Freight entities should participate as stakeholders in local, regional, and state planning and visioning processes. 7. Private-sector groups, including local chambers of commerce, can play an important role in keeping freight issues on the agenda and ensuring buy-in from the business community when a preservation project is proposed.
74 8. Freight groups (both private sector and government) need to partner with educational institutions to ensure that the underlying principles of freight activity are included as part of the curriculum at the graduate and under- graduate levels in planning, architecture, policy, engineer- ing, business, and law disciplines. 9. Ports, which have started tracking port-related job impacts throughout the region, need to make a similar scale effort to quantify the congestion and noise impacts that they produce outside of the immediate port area. Port master plans should illustrate affiliated congestion and choke points beyond their own properties. Similar activities should be undertaken by other types of freight operations that cannot be easily relocated. 10. Innovative funding practices, including public-private partnerships and rights of first refusal, are needed for freight planning and preservation. 11. Real estate contracts and other notice-type documents provided to purchasers and lessees should include sections discussing the possible freight-related impacts that may occur as a consequence of living in proximity to freight activities. However, in many cases, incompatible land uses already exist close to freight-transportation-related services and conflict has resulted. In these cases, at least in the short run, measures such as design standards and mitigation approaches are a means to minimize conflicts. Implementation Plan for Disseminating Research Results The ultimate value of the research conducted under NCFRP Project 24 will be reflected by its usefulness to the various stakeholders who are involved with, or are affected in one way or another by, the freight transportation system. The research team believes that this largely depends on the ability and willingness of the freight, planning, and develop- ment communities to understand and communicate with each other. To this end, an innovative contribution of NCFRP Project 24 is the development of the EnvisionFreight website and its associated guidebook. The âbetaâ versions of the website and guidebook were previewed at the NCFRP Project 24 workshop, held in January 2011. As discussed, the following are exam- ples of how various stakeholders can use the EnvisionFreight website: For planners and elected officials, EnvisionFreight has been designed to help to â¢ Understand how freight fits into the local, national, and global economy; â¢ Understand the issues that arise from conflicts and how these impact freight-transportation-related services and communities; â¢ Begin to consider the kinds of tools, scenarios, commu- nication, and educational outreach that they might want to use to improve their freight planning and preservation capacity For developers, EnvisionFreight aims to ensure that they consider how freight activities may affect and intersect with residential and other sensitive types of land use they may be planning. With a better understanding of these components, developers should be able to choose appro- priate sites and design and incorporate construction and mitigation components to reduce conflicts that may arise. For freight entities, EnvisionFreight is intended to provide education and assistance regarding land-use planning and zoning processes. With a better understanding of these processes, as well as tools that can be used to more effec- tively deal with freight in land-use planning and zoning, freight entities can be more effective participants in such processes. For individual citizens or community groups, the goal of EnvisionFreight is to provide basic information about the various freight modes, impacts that arise because of freight activity and proximity to incompatible land uses, and show the types of tools that can be utilized to more effectively plan for freight. For state legislators and staff, EnvisionFreight is designed to provide information and ideas for potential legislative changes that would facilitate better integration of freight and land-use planning. In addition to the development of the EnvisionFreight web- site, as part of the implementation plan for NCFRP Project 24, the research team recommends that the following activities be undertaken to disseminate the research findings and to obtain support from organizations that link to the EnvisionFreight website: 1. Dissemination of results at the TRB 2012 annual meeting. â¢ Organize a panel for the TRB 2012 annual meeting. â Recommend a host in conjunction with NCFRP Project 23, âResearch on Freight Facility Location Selection.â 2. Conduct FHWA âTalking Freightâ seminars. â¢ Recommend delivering two âTalking Freightâ seminars during 2011. â Combine with NCFRP Project 23 research output. 3. Make presentations at conferences such as â¢ Annual meetings of organizations like the Journal of Transportation Research Forum, American Planning Association, National Association of Counties, National
75 League of Cities, National Association of Regional Councils, Association of Metropolitan Planning Orga- nizations, Urban Land Institute, and American Bar Association; â¢ Freight group meetings hosted by the American Asso- ciation of Port Authorities (AAPA), Association of American Railroads (AAR), American Short Line and Regional Railroad Association (ASLRRA), FRA, Inter- modal Asso ciation of America (IANA), AASHTO, American Water ways Operators (AWO), state DOT and freight task forces; â¢ National Governorâs Association, Republican and Democratic Governorâs Associations, as well as Western, Southern, and New England Governors Associations; and â¢ Note: members of the research team were scheduled to present at â Baltimore Industrial Group meeting (February 2011), â National Association of Counties Meeting on Freight (April 2011), â Preservation Maryland Annual Meeting (May 2011), and â FRA Grade Crossing Conference (2012). 4. Request that groups and organizations place a link to the EnvisionFreight website on their websites, including â¢ Trade groups, such as AAR, AAPA, AASHTO, AWO, CARB, and North Americaâs Superior Corridor Coalition (NASCO); â¢ Planning entities such as APA and Urban Land Institute; â¢ The university transportation centers (note: University of Texas at AustinâCenter for Transportation Research [UT-CTR] will place a link to EnvisionFreight, and their communications team will put out a blog posting on the website once it is fully liveâthis blog is picked up by many of the university transportation research centers); and â¢ NASCO has already agreed to put a link to the Envision- Freight website on their website. 5. Notify NCFRP Project 24 workshop participants, and other interested parties who are known to the research team, of final version of the EnvisionFreight website. 6. In order for the NCFRP Project 24 research to be useful over the longer term, the research team will look for per- manent sponsorship for the EnvisionFreight website for upkeep. Possibilities include industry trade groups, plan- ning associations, and/or government agencies. Publication Plan The research team will commit to publishing the study results in a manner that reaches a wide audience to broaden the impact of the research. In addition to the EnvisionFreight website, which is the principal mechanism of disseminating the results of the study, the research team will draft a brief summary of key findings for potential publication in a trade journal, such as the Journal of Commerce. The purpose of this piece will be to quickly highlight the most important lessons learned from the research and to refer interested parties to the website. The research team also plans to develop at least one in-depth article for a scholarly publication. The most likely forum for this publication would be the Transportation Research Record. Other options for publication include planning journals such as the Journal of the American Planning Association.
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83 The appendixes to the contractorâs final report are included herein as CRP-CD-103. The ISO image of this CD is also available for download from the TRB website. A p p e n D I X e S