In order to better understand the relevant issues faced at complex sites of groundwater contamination, the Committee compiled the following information on a number of both public and private hazardous waste sites:
• Hydrogeology and source zone architecture
• Whether there is drinking water or indoor air exposure
• Regulatory information including remedial goals
• How site-specific risk assessment was taken into account
• Remedial action
• Current status
• Cost information (if available)
Some of the sites are highlighted in the body of the report, either in a text box or in the main text to illustrate a point. The rest are listed in Table B-1 along with relevant references. Most of these sites are still under active remediation.
TABLE B-1 Complex Sites Studied by the Committee
|Site Name||Location of Relevant Information|
|Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, AL||Chapter 7|
|Bachman Road Dry Cleaners, Oscoda, MI||Chapter 4|
|Bethpage Navy Base, Long Island, NY||
Siegel, L. 2011. The Limitations of Wellhead Treatment: Bethpage and Massapequa, Long Island, New York. http://www.cpeo.org/pubs/Bethpage.pdf.
|CTS Asheville Site, Skyland, NC||
EPA Region 4. 2002. Request for a Removal Action at Mills Gap Road Site in Asheville, NC. Memo from James Webster, Emergency Response and Removal Branch, to Richard Green, Waste Management Division.
EPA Office of the Inspector General. 2010. EPA Activities Provide Limited Assurance of the Extent of Contamination and Risk at a North Carolina Hazardous Waste Site. Report No. 10-P-0130.
|Del Amo/Montrose Superfund Sites, Los Angeles County, CA||
EPA Region 9. 1999. Record of Decision for Dual Site Groundwater Operable Unit, Montrose Chemical and Del Amo Superfund Sites.
EPA Region 9. 2010. Notice of Public Meeting; Groundwater Cleanup Project at the Montrose and Del Amo Superfund Sites in Los Angeles County, CA.
|Former Koppers Company Wood Treating Plant, Salisbury, MD||Chapter 4|
|Hardage/Criner Site, McClain County, OK||
EPA. 1986. Superfund Record of Decision, Hardage/Criner, OK. EPA/ROD/RO6-87/017. EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
EPA. 2002. First Five-Year Review Report for the Hardage/Criner Superfund Site, McClain County, OK.
|Hill Air Force Base, Salt Lake City, UT||Chapter 5|
|Letterkenny Army Depot, Chambers, PA||
EPA. 2009a. Letterkenny Army Depot Property Disposal Office fact sheet, last updated December 2009. http://www.epa.gov/reg3hwmd/npl/PA2210090054.htm.
EPA. 2009b. Letterkenny Army Depot Southeast fact sheet, last updated December 2009. http://www.epa.gov/reg3hwmd/npl/PA6213820503.htm
|Machias Gravel Pit, Machias, NY||
Gnat, R., Loch, M. et al. 1996. Machias Gravel Pit -Assessment through remediation in under three years. Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Mid-Atlantic Industrial and Hazardous Waste Conference. Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., Lancaster, PA.
Rabideau, A. J., J. M. Blayden, and C. Ganguly. 1999. Field performance of air sparging for removing TCE from groundwater. Environmental Science & Technology 33(1):157-162.
|MEW “Regional” VOC Plume, Mountain View, CA||
EPA Region 9. 2009. Second Five-Year Review for Middlefield-Ellis-Whisman (MEW) Superfund Study Area Mountain View And Moffett Field, California.
|Mission Valley Terminal, San Diego, CA|
|Nano-Zero-Valent Iron Demonstration, Trenton, NJ|
|Orange County, CA water supply||Chapter 5|
|Orica Botany Bay, Australia|
|Palm Beach Gardens, FL, chlorinated solvent plume||
Mercer, J.W., G.C. Frederickson, D. Burnell, S. Dublin, J.E. Donahue and R.M. Ferris. 2006. Successful Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents Using Source Treatment and Natural Attenuation, The Fifth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Battelle), Monterey, CA, May 22-25.
Metcalf & Eddy. 1997. Records Review / Work Plan, Lilac Street Wellfield, Vinyl Chloride Study Project, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, FDEP Site No. 298.
Metcalf & Eddy. 1998. Groundwater Investigation, Lilac Street Wellfield Chlorinated Solvent Study Project, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida FDEP Site No. 298.
|Sages Dry Cleaners, Jacksonville, FL||
ITRC. 2003. Technical and Regulatory Guidance for Surfactant/Cosolvent Flushing of DNAPL Source Zones, ITRC.
Jawitz, J., R. K. Sillan, M. D. Annable, P. S. C. Rao and K. Warner. 2000. In-situ alcohol flushing of a dnapl source zone at a dry cleaner site. Environmental Science & Technology 34: 3722-3729.
Mravik, S., R. K. Sillan, A. L. Wood, and G. W. Sewell. 2003. Field evaluation of the solvent extraction residual biotreatment (SERB) technology. Environmental Science & Technology 37:5040-5049.
Sewell, G. W., et al. 2005. Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Soil and Ground Water: Field Application of the Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment Technology. Chapter 5 In Bioremediation of Recalcitrant Compounds. Taylor & Francis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 59-149.
|San Fernando Valley Ground Water Basin, Burbank and Glendale, CA||Chapter 5|
|San Gabriel, CA water supply||Chapter 5|
|Santa Monica, CA water supply||Chapter 5|
|Schofield Barracks, HI||Chapter 2|
|Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant, New Brighton/Arden Hills, MN||Chapter 4|
|Visalia Pole Yard Superfund Site, Visalia, CA||
EPA. 2009. DNAPL Remediation: Selected Projects Where Regulatory Closure Goals Have Been Achieved, EPA 542/R-09/008.
Southern California Edison. 2008. Remedial Action Completion Report, 9 pp.
|West Side Corporation, Queens, NY||
Sundquist, J. A., and Chiusano, D. J. 2008. Electrical Resistance Heating remediation of tetrachloroethene DNAPL and groundwater contamination. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA, May 2008, Battelle, Columbus, OH.
|Young-Rainey STAR Center, Largo, FL||
DOE. 2009. Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project, Sitewide Environmental Monitoring Semiannual Progress Report for the Young-Rainey STAR Center, June through November 2009, LMS/PIN/N01439.
Heron, G., S. Carroll, and S. G. Nielsen. 2005. Full-scale removal of dnapl constituents using steam-enhanced extraction and electrical resistance heating. Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 25(4):92-107.