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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Complex Site List." National Research Council. 2013. Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14668.
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Appendix B

Complex Site List

In order to better understand the relevant issues faced at complex sites of groundwater contamination, the Committee compiled the following information on a number of both public and private hazardous waste sites:

• Background

• Hydrogeology and source zone architecture

• Whether there is drinking water or indoor air exposure

• Regulatory information including remedial goals

• How site-specific risk assessment was taken into account

• Remedial action

• Current status

• Cost information (if available)

Some of the sites are highlighted in the body of the report, either in a text box or in the main text to illustrate a point. The rest are listed in Table B-1 along with relevant references. Most of these sites are still under active remediation.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Complex Site List." National Research Council. 2013. Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14668.
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TABLE B-1 Complex Sites Studied by the Committee


Site Name   Location of Relevant Information

Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, AL   Chapter 7
 
Bachman Road Dry Cleaners, Oscoda, MI   Chapter 4
 
Bethpage Navy Base, Long Island, NY  

Siegel, L. 2011. The Limitations of Wellhead Treatment: Bethpage and Massapequa, Long Island, New York. http://www.cpeo.org/pubs/Bethpage.pdf.

 
CTS Asheville Site, Skyland, NC  

EPA Region 4. 2002. Request for a Removal Action at Mills Gap Road Site in Asheville, NC. Memo from James Webster, Emergency Response and Removal Branch, to Richard Green, Waste Management Division.

EPA Office of the Inspector General. 2010. EPA Activities Provide Limited Assurance of the Extent of Contamination and Risk at a North Carolina Hazardous Waste Site. Report No. 10-P-0130.

http://www.mountainx.com/news/2007/cts_contanimation_report_says_no_new_dangers_residents_say_the_study_is_fla/

http://www.mountainx.com/news/2007/cts_health_assessment_released_declares_no_increased_cancer_little_risk_of_/

http://www.mountainx.com/news/2007/buncombe_residents_petition_gov_purdue_denr_officials_for_cts_cleanup/

 
Del Amo/Montrose Superfund Sites, Los Angeles County, CA  

http://yosemite.epa.gov/r9/sfund/r9sfdocw.nsf/vwsoalphabetic/Del+Amo+Facility?OpenDocument

http://yosemite.epa.gov/r9/sfund/r9sfdocw.nsf/vwsoalphabetic/Montrose%20Chemical%20Corp?OpenDocument

EPA Region 9. 1999. Record of Decision for Dual Site Groundwater Operable Unit, Montrose Chemical and Del Amo Superfund Sites.

EPA Region 9. 2010. Notice of Public Meeting; Groundwater Cleanup Project at the Montrose and Del Amo Superfund Sites in Los Angeles County, CA.

 
Former Koppers Company Wood Treating Plant, Salisbury, MD   Chapter 4
 
Hardage/Criner Site, McClain County, OK  

EPA. 1986. Superfund Record of Decision, Hardage/Criner, OK. EPA/ROD/RO6-87/017. EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.

EPA. 2002. First Five-Year Review Report for the Hardage/Criner Superfund Site, McClain County, OK.

 
Hill Air Force Base, Salt Lake City, UT   Chapter 5
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Complex Site List." National Research Council. 2013. Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14668.
×
 
Letterkenny Army Depot, Chambers, PA  

EPA. 2009a. Letterkenny Army Depot Property Disposal Office fact sheet, last updated December 2009. http://www.epa.gov/reg3hwmd/npl/PA2210090054.htm.

EPA. 2009b. Letterkenny Army Depot Southeast fact sheet, last updated December 2009. http://www.epa.gov/reg3hwmd/npl/PA6213820503.htm

 
Machias Gravel Pit, Machias, NY  

Gnat, R., Loch, M. et al. 1996. Machias Gravel Pit -Assessment through remediation in under three years. Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Mid-Atlantic Industrial and Hazardous Waste Conference. Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., Lancaster, PA.

Rabideau, A. J., J. M. Blayden, and C. Ganguly. 1999. Field performance of air sparging for removing TCE from groundwater. Environmental Science & Technology 33(1):157-162.

 
MEW “Regional” VOC Plume, Mountain View, CA  

EPA Region 9. 2009. Second Five-Year Review for Middlefield-Ellis-Whisman (MEW) Superfund Study Area Mountain View And Moffett Field, California.

 
Mission Valley Terminal, San Diego, CA  

http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/rwqcb9/board_info/agendas/2009/aug/aug_09.shtml

http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/rwqcb9/water_issues/programs/tsmc/mvt.shtml

 
Nano-Zero-Valent Iron Demonstration, Trenton, NJ  

http://www.clu-in.org/conf/tio/nano-iron_121410/

 
Orange County, CA water supply   Chapter 5
 
Orica Botany Bay, Australia  

http://www.oricabotanygroundwater.com/PDFs/Notice_of_Clean_Up_Action.pdf

http://www.oricabotanygroundwater.com/Clean%20up%20Plan%20Documents/GCP_Final_31102003%5B1%5D.pdf

http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/clm/docs/pdf/n20101714.pdf

 
Palm Beach Gardens, FL, chlorinated solvent plume  

Mercer, J.W., G.C. Frederickson, D. Burnell, S. Dublin, J.E. Donahue and R.M. Ferris. 2006. Successful Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents Using Source Treatment and Natural Attenuation, The Fifth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Battelle), Monterey, CA, May 22-25.

Metcalf & Eddy. 1997. Records Review / Work Plan, Lilac Street Wellfield, Vinyl Chloride Study Project, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, FDEP Site No. 298.

Metcalf & Eddy. 1998. Groundwater Investigation, Lilac Street Wellfield Chlorinated Solvent Study Project, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida FDEP Site No. 298.

 
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Complex Site List." National Research Council. 2013. Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14668.
×
Sages Dry Cleaners, Jacksonville, FL  

ITRC. 2003. Technical and Regulatory Guidance for Surfactant/Cosolvent Flushing of DNAPL Source Zones, ITRC.

Jawitz, J., R. K. Sillan, M. D. Annable, P. S. C. Rao and K. Warner. 2000. In-situ alcohol flushing of a dnapl source zone at a dry cleaner site. Environmental Science & Technology 34: 3722-3729.

Mravik, S., R. K. Sillan, A. L. Wood, and G. W. Sewell. 2003. Field evaluation of the solvent extraction residual biotreatment (SERB) technology. Environmental Science & Technology 37:5040-5049.

Sewell, G. W., et al. 2005. Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Soil and Ground Water: Field Application of the Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment Technology. Chapter 5 In Bioremediation of Recalcitrant Compounds. Taylor & Francis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 59-149.

 
San Fernando Valley Ground Water Basin, Burbank and Glendale, CA   Chapter 5
 
San Gabriel, CA water supply   Chapter 5
 
Santa Monica, CA water supply   Chapter 5
 
Schofield Barracks, HI   Chapter 2
 
Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant, New Brighton/Arden Hills, MN   Chapter 4
 
Visalia Pole Yard Superfund Site, Visalia, CA  

EPA. 2009. DNAPL Remediation: Selected Projects Where Regulatory Closure Goals Have Been Achieved, EPA 542/R-09/008.

Southern California Edison. 2008. Remedial Action Completion Report, 9 pp.

 
West Side Corporation, Queens, NY  

http://www.dec.ny.gov/chemical/45221.html

Sundquist, J. A., and Chiusano, D. J. 2008. Electrical Resistance Heating remediation of tetrachloroethene DNAPL and groundwater contamination. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA, May 2008, Battelle, Columbus, OH.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Complex Site List." National Research Council. 2013. Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14668.
×
Young-Rainey STAR Center, Largo, FL  

DOE. 2009. Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project, Sitewide Environmental Monitoring Semiannual Progress Report for the Young-Rainey STAR Center, June through November 2009, LMS/PIN/N01439.

Heron, G., S. Carroll, and S. G. Nielsen. 2005. Full-scale removal of dnapl constituents using steam-enhanced extraction and electrical resistance heating. Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 25(4):92-107.


Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Complex Site List." National Research Council. 2013. Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14668.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Complex Site List." National Research Council. 2013. Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Complex Site List." National Research Council. 2013. Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Complex Site List." National Research Council. 2013. Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Complex Site List." National Research Council. 2013. Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14668.
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Across the United States, thousands of hazardous waste sites are contaminated with chemicals that prevent the underlying groundwater from meeting drinking water standards. These include Superfund sites and other facilities that handle and dispose of hazardous waste, active and inactive dry cleaners, and leaking underground storage tanks; many are at federal facilities such as military installations. While many sites have been closed over the past 30 years through cleanup programs run by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. EPA, and other state and federal agencies, the remaining caseload is much more difficult to address because the nature of the contamination and subsurface conditions make it difficult to achieve drinking water standards in the affected groundwater.

Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites estimates that at least 126,000 sites across the U.S. still have contaminated groundwater, and their closure is expected to cost at least $110 billion to $127 billion. About 10 percent of these sites are considered "complex," meaning restoration is unlikely to be achieved in the next 50 to 100 years due to technological limitations. At sites where contaminant concentrations have plateaued at levels above cleanup goals despite active efforts, the report recommends evaluating whether the sites should transition to long-term management, where risks would be monitored and harmful exposures prevented, but at reduced costs.

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