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let one existing survey. Specifically, the National Science FaurKla- tion's Survey of Pant curtains addresses of bachelor's and master's graduates after they have 1QfL he universities arc! then uses these in a mailed survey. bile this technique has ban use primarily to trace and surrey those grates ho have stayed in the Unit States, there is no reason to believe that it carrot be used for go ates ho leave the country. The same nwthod owed be used with the Na- tional Rearm C~i] ' s Survey of Earned Orates to dewed pp fol- Icecap data for Ph.D.s who are no Former residing an the Unit - Stay s. While applications of this method scold undoubtedly be sore whet more difficult and expensive in foreign countries, it seems quite feasible, at l-~.ct for recent graduates. Whether it could be used for individ- u~1s who y~-~ted several years ago has to be tented. However, with continued address updating, even applications limited to new graduates would establish a data base for older graduates after several years. As for data on the extent of foreign exposure of American engi- neers, feasibility studies would have to be undertaken to ascertain whether one could obtain such data from surveys of American employers (universities, industrial companies, and government agencies). Sloce American passports can be USA freely for foreign travel without any information being coll~ on specific trips, it is not possible to Main Eta fawn the U. S . Department of State. However, it may be possible to get data fan those gover~nt:~1 agencies of other irxtus- trializec] countries that handle information on intuit foreign visi- tors, be it In the form of visa applications or landing cards. Shad employer surveys prove to be infeasible, surreys of individual engi- neer'; cad be carried cut; hirer, these wed require relatively large samples and, thus, could 1= quite Pensive. Al = ough it is our view that the policy issues that we have iden- tifie] and discussed will nck be substantially change] by improved data inputs on the international movement of engineers, efforts should nev~r- theless be made to supplement the existing data base in order to pro- vide inputs and needed information that may be useful ~ a definitive future evaluation dealing with the nature and impact of the ~nterna- tion~1 movement of engineers. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barber, Elinor G., and Robert P. Morgan. 1987. The impact of foreign graduate students on U.S. engineering education. Science 236 (April 3~:33-37. Boreal, George. 1987. Immigrants, minorities, and labor market con- ditions. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 40:3. California Postsecondary Education Commission. 1985. Foreign Graduate Students in Engineering and Cc mputer Sciences at California Public Universities (Report 85-37~. Sacramento: The C~mnission. Ccsyle, Susan L. 1986. Sublunary Report 1985: Doctorate Recipients freon Unity States Universities. Washi~n, D. C.: National Acade ret mess. 29
Bosch, Slather P. 1987. me Econc~nics of Foreign Studer~ts. New York: Stir of International Education. Engineering M~er Commission (EMC). 1975-1985 (various issues). En- gineering and engineering technology dorms granted. Engineering Education. EMC. 1975-1985 (various issues). Engineering arm eng~n~ring tedhnol- ogy enrollments. Engineering Education. Finn, Ili~hael G. 1985. Foreign National Scientists and Engineers In the U.S. labor Force (0RAIJ-244~. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge Associate Un~,remities. Institute of Interrmtional EX3llcation (TIE). 1984. Foreign Student Flaws (~r~ Report #7). New York: me ~stib~te. TIE. 1986. ppen Doors: 1985-86. New York: me ~stib~te. National Acad my of Er~n^=ring' ~ ittee on International Coc~eration in Eng~n^='ing. 1987. Strengthening U.S. Engineering mrOugh International Cooperation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Association of Foreign Student Affairs. 1987. me foreign T.A. prdblem--An update. NINA Newsletter, ME 1987. National Science canard. 1987. Science and Engineering Indicators 1987 (NSB 87-1). Waahirq~n, D.C.: U.S. Gatr~rment Printing Office. National Scions Foundation (NSF). 1987. Academic Science/Er~ineering: Graduate Er~lLment and Short, Fall 1985 (She 87-05). Wa~hing- ton, D.C.: U.S. Gent Printing Office. NSF. 1986a. Characteristics of Bribe Scientists arm Engineer the United States: 1985. Washburn, D.C.: U.S. Gc~r~nt }?rint- ing Office. NSF. 1986b. Foreign Citizens in U.S. Science and Engineering: History Status and Outlook (NSF 86-305~. Washington, D.C~.: U.S. Gc~ven~nt Printing Office. NSF. 1986c. emigrant Scientists and Engineers: 1985. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Er~nting Office. NSF. 1986cl. R - earn and Develc~nent in industry, 1985. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G=rern~nt Printing Office. NSF. 1986e. Science and Engin~rir~ Disrate: 1960-85. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Gent Printing Office. NSF. 1985. Science ark Eng~n~ring Personnel: A Nations O`rervi~r (NSF 85-302). Washburn, D.C.: U.S. Go~rerr~nent Printing Office. 30