National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: References
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×

Index

A

Abdominal surgery, 41

Acetaminophen, 76

Acetylpromazine, 87, 88

Acupuncture, 84

Adaptation, 2, 7-9, 18, 29-31, 100-101

α2-Adrenergic agonists, 90-92

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 51

Age, see Maturity

Aggression, 20-21, 95

Alopecia, 103

American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC), 1

Amphibians, euthanasia of, 107, 113, 115-116

Amphibians: Guidelines for the Breeding, Care, and Management of Laboratory Animals, 116

Analgesics, 36, 57, 58, 105

see also Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;

Opioids

Anderson, M.D., Cancer Center, University of Texas, 103

Anemia, 103

Anesthesia, 54, 56-69, 78-79

and euthanasia, 106-107, 113, 116

and muscle relaxants, 79-82

and salivation, 81

Anesthesia in Fish, 116

Animal Welfare Regulations, 1, 96

Antibody production, 101

Antipsychotics, 86-89

Anxiety, 6-7, 105, 108, 111

Anxiolytics, see Sedatives and tranquilizers

Ascites, 103

Atropine, 64

Atypical behavior, 22, 48-50

Autolysis, 102-103

Avoidance behavior, 2, 6, 54

Azaperone, 89

B

Barbiturates, 61-63, 90

for euthanasia, 111-112, 113, 116

Behavior, adaptive, 2, 7-9, 18, 29, 30-31, 100-101

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×

atypical, 22, 48-50

avoidance, 2, 6, 54

feeding, 26-28, 47, 97

maladaptive, 2, 3, 4-5, 7-9, 18, 22, 49-50, 54-55, 86, 98

signs of pain, 33-37, 41-45, 55

signs of stress and distress, 45-50, 95-98

signs of well-being, 47

stereotypic, 52

Benzodiazepines, 89-90

Biochemical processes, 4, 12, 14, 50-52

Birds, 44

euthanasia of, 107, 113, 115

Blood withdrawal, 101

Boredom, 29, 48

Bradykinin, 11-12

Buprenorphine, 74-75

Burdizzo forceps, 115

Butorphanol, 74

Butyrophenones, 89

C

Cages, 25, 29, 96-97, 99-101

Calcitonin, 52

Cannibalization, 102-103

Captive-bolt guns, 110, 115

Carbon dioxide, 108-109, 113, 114, 115, 116

Carbon monoxide, 108

Carnivores, 59

Catecholamines, 51, 110

Cats, 13-14, 42, 65, 68, 91, 107

analgesic dosages for, 70, 72, 73, 75, 77

anesthetic dosages for, 59, 63, 66

euthanasia of, 107, 113, 114

muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79

sedative dosages for, 88, 92

Cattle, 43-44, 59, 68, 91

analgesic dosages for, 77

anesthetic dosages for, 66

muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79

sedative dosages for, 88, 92

Cephalopods, 82

Cerebral cortex, 14-15

Cervical dislocation, 110, 113, 114, 115

Chinchillas, ketamine dosages for, 66

α-Chloralose, 78

Chloroform, 108

Chronic pain, 5, 36

Clinical signs

of pain, 5, 6, 33-37, 41-45, 50-52

of stress and distress, 45-52

Cold-blooded animals, 82,83

euthanasia of, 111, 113, 115-116

Comfort, definition of, 3

Committee on Animal Research, New York Academy of Sciences, 36

Conditioning, 55, 100-101

Conspecific relationships, see Social relationships

Corticosteroids, 51

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), 51

Cranial concussion, 109-110, 113, 114, 115

Crocodilians, euthanasia of, 113

Crowding, 21, 109

Curiosity, 97-98

Cyclohexamines, 63-68

D

Decapitation, 104-105, 109, 110, 113, 114, 115

Defensive responses, 23-24, 96

Definitions, 2-9

Dens, 24-25, 96

Depression, 98

Deprivation, 21-23, 98, 100

Descending control mechanisms, 15-16

Detomidine, 91

Diagnosis, see Clinical signs

Diarrhea, 103

Diazepam, 64, 90

Discomfort, definition of, 3

Dissociative anesthetics, 63-68

Distress

clinical signs of, 45-52

continuum of, 7-8

definition of, 4-5

models of, 7-9

Dogs, 42, 46, 91, 98, 100

analgesic dosages for, 69, 70, 73, 75, 77

anesthetic dosages for, 63, 66

euthanasia of, 107, 109, 113, 114

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×

muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79

postsurgical pain in, 37

sedative dosages for, 88, 92

Dorsal column postsynaptic

spinomedullary system, 14

Dorsal horn nociceptive mechanisms, 12-14

Dosages, 56

of analgesics, 70, 72, 73, 75, 77

of anesthetics, 59-60, 63, 65, 66, 67

of barbiturates, 61, 62-63

of ketamine, 65-68

of muscle relaxants, 79

of neuroleptanalgesics, 69, 70

of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 77, 78

of opioids, 72-75

of pancuronium, 79

of phenothiazines, 88-89

of sedatives and tranquilizers, 86-92

of xylazine, 91-92

Double pithing, 111, 116

Droperidol, 69, 89

Drug-abuse potential, 64, 106, 112

Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), 112

Drugs, see Pharmacologic approaches; specific types and classes

Dry ice, 108

E

Ecologic dimensions, 18, 19-28, 46, 94-98

Eicosanoids, 76

Electric shock, 29

Emesis, 72

Endorphins, 51

End-tidal alveolar concentration, 59-60

Enflurane, 59, 108

Environment

enrichment of, 25, 30, 48, 98, 99-100

predictability of, 28-29, 97-98

Epidural injection, 75

Epinephrine, 51

Equilibrium, see Adaptation; Homeostasis

Ether, 108

Ethical considerations, 38-40

Euthanasia, 102-116

Euthanasia of Amphibians and Reptiles, 115

Exercise devices, 25, 30, 96

Experimental design, 17, 46, 54-55, 100-101

and euthanasia, 102-103

guidelines, 33, 36, 38-40

Exsanguination, 109, 111

F

Fear, 6-7, 105

Feeding behavior, 26-28, 47, 97

Feeding puzzles, 30, 99

Fentanyl, 69, 89

Ferrets, euthanasia of, 113, 114

Fetal surgery, 82-83

Firearms, 110, 113, 115

Fish, 45, 82

anesthesia for, 59

euthanasia of, 107, 113

Food, 100

see also Feeding behavior;

Feeding puzzles;

Foraging;

Nutrition

Foraging, 28, 97

Freezing, 105, 111, 116

Frogs, euthanasia of, 113, 116

G

GABA-chloride ionophore receptor complex, 90

Geese, euthanasia of, 115

Gender, and social space, 21, 95

General anesthesia, 57-60, 61

and muscle relaxants, 80

Glucagon, 51

Goats, 44, 91

opioid dosages for, 75

sedative dosages for, 88

Grooming, 23

Group living, 95, 98-99

Growth hormone, 51

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 1, 96

Guidelines for experiments, 33, 36, 38-40, 94, 103-104

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×

Guillotines, 110, 114

Guinea pigs, 43, 68

analgesic dosages for, 70, 73, 75

anesthetic dosages for, 63, 66

euthanasia of, 114

sedative dosages for, 88

Gunshot, 110, 113, 115

H

Habitat, 19-20

Halothane, 59, 107, 108

Hamsters

anesthetic dosages for, 63, 66

euthanasia of, 114

sedative dosages for, 88

Handling, 21, 23, 29, 35, 98-99

Hepatic enzymes, 56

Herbivores, 56

Homeostasis, 2, 3, 7

Hormones, 11-12, 47, 51-52

Horses, 43, 87, 90-91

analgesic dosages for, 73, 77

anesthetic dosages for, 66

muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79

sedative dosages for, 88, 89, 92

Human contact, 21, 23, 29, 35, 98-99

Human drug-abuse potential, 64, 106, 112

Husbandry practices, 29, 46, 93-100

Hydrogen cyanide, 108

Hyperalgesia, 11

Hyperglycemia, 51

Hypothermia, 83, 103

Hypoxia, 108

I

IACUCs, see Institutional animal care and use committees

Icterus, 103

Immature animals, 21-22, 95, 98-99

euthanasia of, 107, 108

weaning of, 27-28, 94

Immobility reflex, 83-84

Immunization, 101

Inbred animals, 46

Infant-parent bonds, see Maternal dependence

Inflammation, 35

chemistry of, 11-12, 52

and opioid synthesis, 14

see also Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Inhalational agents, anesthetic, 58-60

for euthanasia, 107-109, 113

Innovar-Vet, 69, 70, 89

Insects, 82

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), 2

Institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs), 36, 79, 103 , 104

Insulin, 51

Intracardiac injection, 111, 114, 116

Intraperitoneal injection, 62-63, 111, 114, 116

Intrapulmonic injection, 111

Intravenous agents, for anesthesia, 60, 62-63, 70

for euthanasia, 111-112, 114, 115, 116

Isoflurane, 59

K

Ketamine hydrochloride, 63-68, 112

L

Lesions, 103

Lethargy, 103

Leukotrienes, 11

Liquid nitrogen, 105, 111

Lizards, euthanasia of, 113, 116

M

Maladaptive behavior, 2, 3, 4-5, 7-9, 18, 49-50, 54-55, 86

caused by social deprivation, 22, 98

Manipulanda, 30, 99

Maternal dependence, 21-22, 27-28, 94

Maturity, 21, 22-23, , 95

Mechanoreceptors, 12

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×

Meperidine, 74

Methoxyflurane, 59, 107, 108

Methylated oxybarbiturates, 61, 62

Metomidate, 89

Mice, 43

analgesic dosages for, 70, 73, 75, 77

anesthetic dosages for, 59, 63

sedative dosages for, 88

Microwave irradiation, 110-111

Midazolam, 90

Minimal alveolar concentration (MAC), 59-60

Models of distress, 7-9

Monitoring, of euthanasia, 104

of surgery, 60, 81

Monkeys, see Primates

Morbidity, 102-103

Morphine, 14, 72, 74

Motivational demand, 49-50

MS 222 euthanatizing agent, 113, 116

Muscle relaxants, 79-82, 89, 90

Musculoskeletal disorders, 36

Myelinated nociceptors, 11

N

Naloxone, 15-16, 71, 75

Naturalistic environments, 99

Neonatal surgery, 82-83

Nesting, 24

Neuroendocrine activity, 4, 12, 14, 50-52

Neuroleptanalgesics, 68-70, 87

Neuroleptics, 86-89

Neurologic problems, 103

Neurosurgery, 54

Newts, euthanasia of, 113

New York Academy of Sciences, Committee on Animal Research, 36

1986 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia, 102

Nitrogen, liquid, 105, 111

Nitrous oxide, 60, 108

Nociception, 5-6, 10-16, 54-55

chemistry of, 11-12, 51-52

in neonates and fetuses, 82-83

Nociperception, 5

Nocturnal species, 48

Nonhuman primates, see Primates

Nonmammalian species, 82, 83

Nonpain causes of stress, 17-31, 45, 46, 93-101

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 12, 75-78

Norepinephrine, 51

Novelty

of environment, 28-30, 97-98

of foods, 26, 100

Nurturing, see Maternal dependence

Nutrition, 26, 27, 97

O

Operant conditioning, 55

Opioid antagonists, 52, 69, 71-75

Opioids, 14, 15-16, 51, 57, 61, 68-75, 91, 112

Outbred animals, 46

Oxybarbiturates, 61, 62

Oxymorphone, 74

P

Pain, acute, 34, 35

chronic, 5, 36

clinical signs of, 5, 6, 33-37, 41-45, 50-52

in distress models, 8-9

postsurgical, 36, 37, 41

sensitivity range, 6

studies of, 53-55

threshhold, 6, 41, 115

tolerance, 6, 41, 53-55

see also Nociception

Palpation, 35

Pancuronium, 79-80

Paralysis, 103

Paresis, 103

Pentazocine, 73, 74

Pentobarbital, 61-63, 112, 114, 115, 116

Personnel

and euthanasia, 104, 106

training of, 1, 50, 104, 109

Pharmacologic approaches, 52, 53, 56-83, 86-92

in euthanasia, 107-108, 111-112

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×

Phencyclidine hydrochloride, 64

Phenobarbital, 61, 62

Phenothiazine, 86-89

Physiologic response, 4, 31, 47, 50-52

Pigs, 44

analgesic dosages for, 70, 75

anesthetic dosages for, 59, 67

euthanasia of, 107

muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79

sedative dosages for, 88, 89

Pithing, 109, 111, 115-116

Polymodal nociceptors, 11

Postsurgical pain, 36, 37, 41

Posture, 18, 33-34

Predator-prey relationships, 23-24, 96

Primates, 12, 13-14, 15, 41-42, 65, 98-99, 100-101

analgesic dosages for, 70, 73, 75, 77

anesthetic dosages for, 65

euthanasia of, 113, 115

feeding behavior, 27

sedative dosages for, 88

social bonds among, 22-23

Prolactin, 51

Promazine, 87, 88

Prostaglandins, 11

Q

Quadripole mass spectrometers, 60

R

Rabbits, 42-43, 68

analgesic dosages for, 70, 73, 75, 77

anesthetic dosages for, 63, 67

euthanasia of, 107, 113, 114

sedative dosages for, 88, 92

tonic immobility in, 84

Rats, 13-14, 24-25, 26, 43, 50, 99, 100

analgesic dosages for, 70, 73, 75, 77

anesthetic dosages for, 63, 67

euthanasia of, 114

sedative dosages for, 88

Record-keeping, 47, 112

Regulation, 1

Relief of Pain in Cold-Blooded Vertebrates, 116

Replication of findings, 1,2

Reproduction, 94

Reptiles, 44-45

euthanasia of, 107, 113, 115-116

Respiratory problems, 103

Restraint, 35, 55, 80, 83-84, 97, 100-101, 105

Rodents, 21, 27, 43, 59, 62-63, 64

euthanasia of, 107, 109, 113, 114

see also Mice;

Rats

Ruminants, see Cattle;

Goats;

Sheep

S

Salamanders, euthanasia of, 113

Salivation, and anesthesia, 81

Sanitation, 25, 96, 97

Scent-marking, 96

Sedatives and tranquilizers, 58, 61, 72, 86-92, 101, 105

Self-mutilation, 36, 103

Sensitivity range, 6

Sensitization, 11

Sheep, 44, 91

analgesic dosages for, 75

anesthetic dosages for, 67

muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79

sedative dosages for, 88

Shelter, 24-25, 96

Snakes, euthanasia of, 113, 116

Social relationships, 20-23, 95, 98-100

and euthanasia, 105

Sodium pentobarbital, 112, 114, 115, 116

Space, among animals, 20-21, 95

in cage design, 25, 96

Spinocervical tract, 13

Spinomesencephalic tract, 13-14

Spinothalamic tract, 12-13

Stereotypic behavior, 52

Sternotomy, 41

Stimulation, environmental, 29-30, 48

social, 23

Stresnil, 89

Stress

acute, 2, 6, 49, 51, 86

beneficial, 3-4, 18, 93

clinical signs of, 45-52

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×

definition of, 3-9

environmental, 4, 7, 17-31, 47-48, 86, 93-95, 97, 98

nonpain causes of, 17-31, 45, 46, 93-101

psychologic, 4

Stunning, 109-110, 113, 114, 115

Substance P, 12, 52

Surgical procedures, 36, 37, 41, 47, 54

anesthesia in, 64, 68-69, 80-82

on neonates and fetuses, 82-83

Swine, see Pigs

Sympathoadrenal system, 51

T

Telazol, 65, 68

Thalamocortical mechanisms, 14-15

Thiobarbiturates, 61, 62, 63

Thoracotomy, 41

Threshold of pain, 6, 41, 115

Tiletamine, 65, 68

Toads

anesthesia dosages for, 59

euthanasia of, 113, 116

Tolerance of pain, 6, 41, 53-55

Tonic immobility, 83-84

Tortoises, euthanasia of, 113

Tracheal intubation, 58-59, 80

Training

of animals, 54-55, 100-101

of laboratory personnel, 1, 50, 104, 109

Tranquilizers, see Sedatives and tranquilizers

Transportation, 29

Tremors, 103

Tricaine methanesulfate, 113, 116

T-61 euthanizing agent, 112

Tumors, 103

Turkeys, euthanasia of, 115

Turtles, euthanasia of, 113, 116

U

Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), 116

University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 103

Urethane, 78

Urinary dysfunction, 103

U.S. Government Principles for Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training, 33

U.S. Public Health Service Policy for Humane Care and Use of Animals , 1

V

Validation of findings, 1, 2

Valium, 90

Vasopressin, 51

Veterinarians, 104

Vocalizations, 34-35, 105

W

Weaning, 27-28, 94, 99

Weight, 103

Well-being, 3, 33, 47, 99

Wide-dynamic-range neurons, 12

Wild animals, 87

World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA), 116

X

Xylazine, 64, 90-92, 112

Z

Zolazepam, 68

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×
Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×
Page 132
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×
Page 133
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×
Page 134
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×
Page 135
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×
Page 136
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×
Page 137
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1542.
×
Page 138
Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $50.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Clear guidelines on the proper care and use of laboratory animals are being sought by researchers and members of the many committees formed to oversee animal care at universities as well as the general public.

This book provides a comprehensive overview of what we know about behavior, pain, and distress in laboratory animals.

The volume explores:

  • Stressors in the laboratory and the animal behaviors they cause, including in-depth discussions of the physiology of pain and distress and the animal's ecological relationship to the laboratory as an environment.
  • A review of euthanasia of lab animals--exploring the decision, the methods, and the emotional effects on technicians.

Also included is a highly practical, extensive listing, by species, of dosages and side effects of anesthetics, analgesics, and tranquilizers.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!