National Academies Press: OpenBook

Seafood Safety (1991)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
×

SEAFOOD SAFETY

Committee on Evaluation of the Safety of Fishery Products

Farid E. Ahmed, Editor

Food and Nutrition Board

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1991

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
×


National Academy Press
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The Institute of Medicine was chartered in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to enlist distinguished members of the appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. In this, the Institute acts under both the Academy’s 1863 congressional charter responsibility to be an adviser to the federal government and its own initiative in identifying issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine.

This study was supported by contract no. 50-WCNF-8-060636 from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Seafood safety / Committee on Evaluation of the Safety of Fishery Products, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences : Farid E. Ahmed, editor.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-04387-5

1. Seafood--Health aspects. 2. Seafood--Safety measures. 3. Seafood--Contamination. I. Ahmed, Farid E. II. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Evaluation of the Safety of Fishery Products.

RA602.F5S43 1991

363.19'29--dc20 90-25996

Copyright © 1991 by the National Academy of Sciences

No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. Government.

Printed in the United States of America

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatlichemuseen in Berlin.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
×

COMMITTEE ON EVALUATION OF THE SAFETY OF FISHERY PRODUCTS

JOHN LISTON, Chairman,

Institute for Food Science and Technology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

ROGER D. ANDERSON,

Bee Gee Shrimp, Tampa, Florida

ROBERT E. BOWEN,

Environmental Sciences Program, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts

CAMERON R. HACKNEY,

Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia

DALE HATTIS,

Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

MARILYN B. KILGEN,

Department of Biological Sciences, Nicholls State University, Thibodeaux, Louisiana

J. GLENN MORRIS, JR.,

Division of Geographic Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

W. STEVEN OTWELL,

Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

MORRIS E. POTTER,

Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia

EDWARD J. SCHANTZ,

Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

DAVID STEINMAN,

Arizona Republic Newspaper, Los Angeles, California

HARRISON M. WADSWORTH,

School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia

RICHARD E. WOLKE,

Comparative Aquatic Pathology Laboratory, University of Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island

CONSULTANTS

JUDITH McDOWELL CAPUZZO,

Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

HAROLD HUMPHREY,

Great Lakes Health Studies Division, Michigan Department of Public Health, Lansing, Michigan

KATHRYN MAHAFFEY,

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences at University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio

JOSEPH RODRICKS,

Environ Corporation, Arlington, Virginia

STUDY STAFF

FARID E. AHMED, Project Director and Editor,

Food and Nutrition Board

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
×

FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD

RICHARD J. HAVEL (Chairman),

Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, California

DONALD B. McCORMICK (Vice Chairman),

Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

EDWIN L. BIERMAN,

Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington

EDWARD J. CALABRESE,

Environmental Health Program, Division of Public Health, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts

JOHANNA T. DWYER,

Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts

JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR.,

Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

CUTBERTO GARZA,

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

DeWITT S. GOODMAN,

Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University, New York, New York

M.R.C. GREENWOOD,

Graduate Studies, University of California, Davis, California

JANET C. KING,

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California

JOHN E. KINSELLA,

School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Davis, California

LAURENCE N. KOLONEL,

Cancer Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii

WALTER MERTZ,

Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland

MALDEN C. NESHEIM,

Office of the Provost, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

JOHN LISTON (Ex Officio),

Division of Food Science, School of Fisheries, College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

ARNO G. MOTULSKY (Ex Officio),

Center for Inherited Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

ROY M. PITKIN (Ex Officio),

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California

Staff

CATHERINE E. WOTEKI, Director

SHIRLEY ASH, Financial Specialist

UTE HAYMAN, Administrative Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
×

Preface

The responsibility for monitoring and control of seafood safety is divided among various agencies of the federal government, primarily the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the states. In recent years, however, the effectiveness of their respective programs has been questioned.

As a result of negative public perceptions, studies, and surveys conducted by various groups interested in seafood safety, Congress appropriated funds in 1988 to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the Department of Commerce (DOC). These resources were dedicated to a two-year study to design a program of certification and seafood surveillance consistent with the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) program, a concept recommended in 1985 and 1987 by Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) committees for the inspection of meat and poultry. The National Marine Fisheries Service of NOAA then approached the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Food and Nutrition Board with a formal solicitation for a two-year study to be conducted as part of the agency's overall plan.

In response, a multidisciplinary committee of 13 scientists was convened under the auspices of the FNB to conduct the study. The committee consisted of experts in the fields of public health, marine pathology, marine toxicology, food science and technology, food microbiology, biostatistics, seafood safety policy and regulations, epidemiology, risk assessment, industry structure, and public interest. In addition, the committee had four consultants in the areas of trace-metal safety, environmental chemical contaminants, marine resources, and comparative risk assessment. The committee was divided into the following working groups to address contract tasks: (1) regulatory/legislative, (2) microbiology/parasitology, (3) natural toxins, (4) chemical residues/risk assessment, and (5) seafood consumption/industry structure. The committee was asked to evaluate the health effects of marine and freshwater fishery products (fresh or frozen) available to the consumer from commercial and recreational sources, and to identify options for improvement of the current system of seafood surveillance and control. The evaluation was to include an examination of the potential

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
×

health hazards ascribed to chemical, microbial, and parasitic contaminants of seafood (e.g., natural toxins, toxic metals, synthetic substances, microorganisms, and parasites). Existing programs conducted under the authority of federal, state, or local governments, other public bodies, and private organizations were to be evaluated to ensure the safety of seafood obtained from domestic and foreign sources. The charge to the committee was divided into nine tasks:

  1. Meeting with personnel from NMFS, FDA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and selected state government agencies to determine the perspectives of these agencies on seafood product safety, to learn about seafood control programs under their jurisdiction, and to hear the concerns and recommendations of federal agencies currently involved in fishery products safety issues. Programs conducted under the authority of those agencies were to be evaluated and recommendations for quality control measures were to be made.

  2. Collecting and examining data on sources of outbreaks of seafood-borne illnesses among U.S. consumers from 1978 to 1987 gathered by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Northeast Technical Support Unit (NETSU) of FDA, and the states.

  3. Evaluating the efficacy of current systems for documenting and reporting cases of seafood-borne illnesses among U.S. consumers in relation to other foods, including the prevalence and effect of underreporting by state public health authorities to CDC, and evaluating the adequacy of current mechanisms for advising the fishing industry and the public of desirable or necessary follow-up actions to ameliorate problems due to seafood-borne illnesses.

  4. Identifying the cause of illness in the targeted states or territories of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, New York, California, Washington, Connecticut, and Florida attributable to dietary exposure to fresh and frozen seafoods harvested from either commercial or recreational sources in relation to any of the following variables: the species and percentages of fishery products implicated in such illnesses, the demography of affected consumers, and the possible role of ethnic dietary habits or improper food handling by the consumer. This task includes a review of how U.S. food control systems and state programs address major health hazards associated with fishery products, as well as recommendations for improvement.

  5. Examining contemporary procedures for detecting, identifying, and quantifying etiological agents in seafood-borne illness, along with the methods used, pertinent scientific research in progress, and recommendations for improvement in these areas.

  6. Reviewing the role of principal imported fresh and frozen fishery products in reported outbreaks of illness among U.S. consumers, and examining the relative prevalence and significance of imported and domestic seafoods as vehicles of etiologic factors.

  7. Conducting a statistical evaluation of FDA's acceptance sampling plans and associated decision criteria, evaluating the quality assurance principles and procedures used by FDA in accepting the results of private testing laboratories for blocklisted imported products, and making suggestions for improvements of these procedures.

  8. Reviewing contaminants associated with seafoods that are defined by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as "avoidable" or "unavoidable" and assessing how well the current regulatory framework protects public health.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
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  1. Assessing some indices of health risk assessment already determined by FDA and EPA for selected environmental pollutants that have an impact on fisheries, and recommending future research directions in this area as appropriate.

The tasks addressed by the committee are detailed in the various chapters and in its Executive Summary.

During the two-year duration of the study, the committee met nine times: five times the first year and four times the second year. The committee hosted a public meeting, which was part of its first meeting on January 31, 1989, to provide an opportunity for interested individuals and groups to express views or to present information to the committee for consideration. Eight speakers representing consumer groups, environmental and conservation foundations, trade organizations, and international and scientific organizations gave presentations. Some of these groups also provided the committee with additional data and information for consideration in carrying out its task.

The regulatory working group held group meetings and individual interviews with federal regulatory agencies, a variety of coastal state agencies, and industry representatives involved in seafood inspection and monitoring. Meetings with respective state regulatory representatives were conducted in Massachusetts, California, Hawaii, and the state of Washington. Additional state regulatory representation was ensured through numerous meetings and conversations with individuals from Arkansas, Wisconsin, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and Guam. Results from meetings in Texas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Puerto Rico were referenced from project work conducted in conjunction with the Southeastern Fisheries Association, Tallahassee, Florida. This endeavor was directed toward assessing the intermingling roles of the federal and state governments in seafood regulation.

In addition to its meetings, the committee also visited several seafood processing plants in various regions of the country *Seattle, Washington; Houma, Louisiana; and Hampton, Virginia) to observe food safety issues related to production, preparation, and processing methodologies employed in the seafood industry.

The committee held a workshop in the third quarter of the study on July 26, 1989, focusing on assessing and controlling health hazards from fishery products. Seven invited speakers gave presentations, and four guests from academia and government agencies participated in the discussion.

A summary of the committee's findings, conclusions, and recommendations appears in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 describes the demographics of the seafood industry, fishery resources, aquaculture, and consumption trends. It also elaborates on activities in other countries. Chapters 3 and 4 outline health effects due to microbiological and parasitic infections and to exposure to natural toxins. Chapter 5 details the risks from exposure to environmental chemicals in aquatic organisms. Chapter 6 critiques existing risk assessment practices and suggests recommendations for improvement. Statistical sampling methods used in control of seafood hazards and suggestions for improvement are outlined in Chapter 7. Federal, state, and international programs with impact on seafood are described in Chapter 8, as well as causes of illness in targeted states, and comparative risks for consumers from different seafood products. A glossary of terms and acronyms is presented in Appendix A. The affiliation and major research interests of committee members and staff may be found in Appendix B.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
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The committee thanks the following individuals for public presentations: Ellen Haas of Public Voice for Food and Health Policy; Lee Weddig of National Fisheries Institute; John Farquhar of the Food Marketing Institute; Robert Murchelano of NMFS; Eleanor Dorsey of Conservation Law Foundation of New England; Carlos Fetterolf, Jr., of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission; Mary Uva of the Natural Resources Defense Council; and Theodora Colborn of the Conservation Foundation.

The committee is grateful to the following NOAA/NMFS staff who provided it with data and information: Thomas Billy, Richard Cano, Paul Comar, Ford Cross, Melvin Eklund, Peter Eldridge, E. Spencer Garrett, Amor Lane, G. Malcolm Meaburn, Bruce Morehead, and John Pearce. The committee appreciates the help of FDA representatives (George Hoskin, Richard Ronk, Alvin Shroff, Mary Snyder, and John Taylor) and USDA representatives (Catherine Adams and Lester Crawford) for the material they provided.

The committee values and benefited from the information presented at its workshop by Harold Humphrey, Joseph Rodricks, Yoshitsugi Hokama, David Weber, John Kvenberg, David Bevan, and E. Spencer Garrett.

The committee appreciates the assistance of the following seafood plant personnel who facilitated its visits to their operations: Richard Pace of Unisea, Inc., in Redmond, Washington; Ray Clark of Sea Freeze Cold Storage in Seattle, Washington; Michael and Elgin Voisin of Motivatit Seafoods in Houma, Louisiana; Harold La Peyer of Indian Ridge Shrimp Co. in Houma, Louisiana; and Daniel Kauffman of Amory Seafood, Inc., in Hampton, Virginia.

The committee is also grateful to the numerous state regulatory officials, particularly Robert Price and Robert Ross from California; Richard Delaney and Nancy Ridley from Massachusetts; Kathryn Kendrick-Vanderpool, John Crobin, and Howard Deese from Hawaii; and John Daly and Roger deCamp from Washington State, who assisted in arrangement and participation in state regulatory meetings, and the project liaison provided by Robert P. Jones of Southeastern Fisheries Association, Inc. In addition, the committee is indebted to the the following people who provided invaluable written and oral material: G. Burton Ayles, Carl Baker, Carin Bisland, David Borgeson, Daniel Brazo, Robert Burgess, James Colquhoun, Floyd Cornelius, John Farrington, Barbara Glenn, David Goldthwaite, Robert Haddock, Richard Hassinger, Diane Heiman, Daniel Helwig, Richard Hess, John Hesse, Kimberly Hummel, Roger Kenyon, Lee Kernen, Susan M. Krebs-Smith, Thomas Lauer, Gerry LeTendre, Lee Liebenstein, Donald Lollick, James Maclean, Sally Cole-Misch, Douglas Morrisette, Dale Morse, Steve Plakas, Gerald Pollack, Judy Pratt, Ronald Preston, Gilbert Radonski, Alvin Rainosek, Aaron Rosenfield, Rosalie Schnick, Lawrence Skinner, Mitsuto Sugi, Maurice Tamura, Paulette Thompson, Alan White, Asa Wright, and Chester Zawacki.

Moreover, the committee commends the assistance, hard work, and support of FNB staff: Farid E. Ahmed for the organizational and administrative support of the committee's work, and for editing the report; Barbara Matos for typing and finalizing the documents; Robert Earl for finalizing some chapters; and Catherine Woteki, Enriqueta Bond, and Samuel Thier for their support of the committee's work. Florence Poillon and Sally Stanfield are to be commended for final manuscript editing and report preparation, and Francesca Moghari for designing the cover to the report.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
×

The Chair also wishes to thank the committee and its consultants, who volunteered countless hours and effort to produce an objective and timely report on a controversial subject that is a small part of a major national issue, the safety of the food supply.

JOHN LISTON

Chairman

Committee on Evaluation of Safety of Fishery Products

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
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Contents

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
×
   

Processing, Distribution, and Preparation-Related Public Health Hazards,

 

53

   

Bacterial Pathogens,

 

53

   

Viral Pathogens,

 

62

   

Impact of Processing Technology,

 

62

   

Public Health Risk Assessment,

 

64

   

Risk Assessment,

 

65

   

Risk Management,

 

67

   

Conclusions and Recommendations,

 

76

   

Conclusions,

 

76

   

Recommendations,

 

77

   

Notes,

 

79

   

References,

 

79

4

 

NATURALLY OCCURRING FISH AND SHELLFISH POISONS

 

87

   

Abstract,

 

87

   

Introduction,

 

88

   

Specific Intoxications,

 

89

   

Ciguatera,

 

89

   

Scombroid (Histamine) Fish Poisoning,

 

93

   

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP),

 

96

   

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP),

 

99

   

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP),

 

99

   

Puffer Fish Poisoning (PFP),

 

100

   

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP),

 

101

   

Other Toxins,

 

102

   

Conclusions and Recommendations,

 

102

   

Note,

 

107

   

References,

 

107

5

 

OCCURRENCE OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN SEAFOOD AND VARIABILITY OF CONTAMINANT LEVELS

 

111

   

Abstract,

 

111

   

Introduction,

 

112

   

Toxic Agents and Potential Types of Health Effects,

 

113

   

Metals and Other Inorganics,

 

113

   

Organic Compounds,

 

118

   

Data on the Distribution of Chemical Contamination,

 

126

   

Introduction,

 

126

   

National Status and Trends Program,

 

126

   

Federal Survey of PCBs in Atlantic Coast Bluefish,

 

127

   

National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program,

 

127

   

Regional Reports,

 

128

   

Evidence for Trace-Metal and Organic Contamination,

 

128

   

Molluscan Shellfish,

 

128

   

Finfish,

 

139

   

Conclusions,

 

150

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
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Potential Opportunities for Reducing Exposures,

 

150

   

Analysis of Potential Benefits from Geographic Restrictions on Harvesting/Marketing,

 

151

   

Analysis of Potential for Reducing Population Exposure to Mercury from Swordfish and PCBs from Bluefish via Size Restrictions,

 

154

   

Notes,

 

155

   

Appendix to Chapter 5,

 

157

   

Present Status of Dose-Response Data for Trace Metals of Greatest Potential Toxicity,

 

157

   

References,

 

164

6

 

CHEMICAL HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT – CRITIQUE OF EXISTING PRACTICES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT

 

172

   

Abstract,

 

172

   

Introduction,

 

173

   

Broad Categorization of Mechanisms of Different Adverse Effects and Implications for Dose-Response Relationships,

 

174

   

Traditional Acute Toxicity,

 

176

   

Traditional Chronic Toxicity,

 

180

   

Molecular Biological (Stochastic Process) Diseases,

 

181

   

Chronic Cumulative Conditions,

 

184

   

Critique of Risk Assessments Used in Formulating Contaminant Guidelines/Tolerances for Specific Chemicals and Suggestions for Improvement,

 

186

   

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs),

 

188

   

Methylmercury,

 

196

   

Conclusions and Recommendations for Changes in Risk Assessment Practices,

 

219

   

Estimating Human Intake of Contaminants from Seafood and Some Associated Risks,

 

222

   

Review of Data Bases Available for Estimating Exposures,

 

222

   

Exposures from Commercial Seafood,

 

225

   

Exposures from Sport, Subsistence, and Tribal Fishing,

 

245

   

Consumer Information and Labeling Programs, and Fishing Advisories,

 

251

   

Probable Health Risks from Fish and Shellfish Consumption – Recommendations for Research,

 

252

   

Classic Acute and Chronic Toxic Effects,

 

252

   

Reproductive Effects,

 

252

   

Carcinogenesis,

 

252

   

Chronic Cumulative Toxic Effects,

 

252

   

Conclusions and Recommendations,

 

253

   

Significance of the Risk,

 

253

   

Potential for Control,

 

253

   

Performance of Current Federal Regulatory Authorities in Assessing and Managing Risks,

 

254

   

Notes,

 

256

   

References,

 

260

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1612.
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7

 

STATISTICAL SAMPLING ISSUES IN THE CONTROL OF SEAFOOD HAZARDS

 

267

   

Abstract,

 

267

   

Introduction,

 

267

   

Surveillance and Compliance Sampling,

 

268

   

Attributes and Variables Sampling Plans,

 

269

   

Two-Class Attributes Plans,

 

269

   

Three-Class Attributes Plans,

 

271

   

Most Probable Number (MPN),

 

272

   

Survey of Current Sampling Plans,

 

274

   

Salmonella Sampling Plans,

 

274

   

Staphylococcus aureus Plans,

 

275

   

Plans for Fish, Fresh or Frozen,

 

275

   

Fish – Adulteration by Parasites,

 

276

   

Crabmeat – Adulteration with Filth Containing Escherichia coli,

 

277

   

Langostinos – Adulteration by Bacterial Contamination,

 

278

   

Canned Salmon – Adulteration Involving Decomposition,

 

278

   

Shrimp – Adulteration Involving Decomposition,

 

281

   

Conclusions and Recommendations,

 

283

   

Notes,

 

284

   

References,

 

284

8

 

SEAFOOD SURVEILLANCE AND CONTROL PROGRAMS

 

286

   

Abstract,

 

286

   

Introduction,

 

286

   

Responsibilities and Programs of the Federal Government,

 

287

   

Standards and Guidelines,

 

288

   

Inspection and Enforcement,

 

294

   

Training and Educational Programs,

 

301

   

Public Health Monitoring,

 

301

   

Responsibilities and Programs of State Agencies,

 

304

   

Harvest,

 

305

   

Processing,

 

308

   

Distribution and Marketing,

 

310

   

Additional State Considerations,

 

311

   

Cause of Illness in Targeted States and Territories,

 

314

   

Allergies and Intolerances,

 

317

   

State-Federal Regulatory Liaison,

 

319

   

State and Industry Initiatives,

 

321

   

Health Advisories,

 

324

   

Seafood Safety in the International Environment,

 

325

   

Comparative Risks for Consumers of Various Seafood Products,

 

328

   

Conclusions and Recommendations,

 

331

   

Microbial and Natural Toxin Contaminants,

 

332

   

Residual Chemical Contaminants,

 

332

   

Monitoring and Inspection,

 

333

   

Recreational Fishing,

 

334

   

Public Health Monitoring,

 

334

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Can Americans continue to add more seafood to their diets without fear of illness or even death? Seafood-caused health problems are not widespread, but consumers are at risk from seafood-borne microbes and toxins--with consequences that can range from mild enteritis to fatal illness.

At a time when legislators and consumer groups are seeking a sound regulatory approach, Seafood Safety presents a comprehensive set of practical recommendations for ensuring the safety of the seafood supply.

This volume presents the first-ever overview of the field, covering seafood consumption patterns, where and how seafood contamination occurs, and the effectiveness of regulation.

A wealth of technical information is presented on the sources of contamination--microbes, natural toxins, and chemical pollutants--and their effects on human health. The volume evaluates methods used for risk assessment and inspection sampling.

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