Biographies of Panel Members
ROLAND W. SCHMITT (chairman), president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, brings to his role as panel chairman decades of experience in industry, academia, and government-related policy organizations. Before becoming the president of Rensselaer in March 1988, he worked for more than 37 years in R&D at General Electric, retiring as senior vice president of science and technology. He is a member and former chairman of the National Science Board, the policymaking body of the National Science Foundation; chairman of CORETECH, the lobbying voice of research and development in Washington, D.C.; a member of the National Academy of Engineering and former member of its council; past president and former board member of the Industrial Research Institute; and a member of the executive committee of the Council on Competitiveness. His activities related to export controls began a decade ago, when he served on a panel of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board that examined these issues.
WILLIAM F. BURNS (vice chairman) retired from the U.S. Army as a major general on March 31, 1988. He subsequently served as the ninth director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (1988). During his 34 years in the U.S. Army, General Burns held a variety of important command and staff positions. From the inception of the talks in 1981 until November 1986, he represented the Joint Chiefs of Staff on the U.S. delegation to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces negotiations. He also served as principal deputy assistant secretary of state in the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs.
ARDEN L. BEMENT, Jr. was appointed vice president of technical resources at TRW in 1980 and was named vice president of science and technology in 1989. Prior to that, Dr. Bement became director of the Materials Sciences Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1976, and in 1979 he was appointed deputy under secretary of defense for research and engineering. In 1990, the U.S. Senate confirmed Dr. Bement's appointment to the National Science Board for a term expiring in 1994. He is also chairman of the Commission for Engineering and Technical Systems of the National Research Council and the Statutory Visiting Committee for the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
ASHTON B. CARTER is Ford Foundation professor of science and international affairs and director of the Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government. He has worked at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the Pentagon's systems analysis branch, his responsibilities included ballistic missile defense, MX missile basing, and various space activities. He coedited and coauthored Ballistic Missile Defense (1984) and Managing Nuclear Operations (1987) for The Brookings Institution and authored OTA's Directed Energy Missile Defense in Space (1984). He serves on advisory bodies to OTA, the Defense Science Board, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
KENNETH W. DAM is vice president, law and external relations, International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation. Before joining IBM, Mr. Dam served as deputy secretary of state from 1982 to 1985. From 1980 to 1982, he was provost of the University of Chicago. During the early 1970s, he served in several government positions concerned with national security and economic issues. Mr. Dam serves on the boards of a number of nonprofit organizations, including the Asia Society, the Japan Society, The Brookings Institution, and the Foreign Policy Association. He has written a number of books, including The Rules of the Game: Reform and Evolution in the International Monetary System (1982) and Economic Policy Beyond the Headlines (coauthored with George P. Shultz) (1978).
HERBERT M. DWIGHT, Jr. was the cofounder of Spectra Physics and served as its chief executive officer (CEO) from 1961 to 1988. He is currently CEO of Superconductor Technologies, as well as a member of the board of Applied Materials Inc., Applied Magnetics Corp., Trans Ocean Limited. Mr. Dwight received his BSEE and MSEE from Stanford University and is currently a member of the Stanford Board of Trustees.
JOHN LEMOYNE ELLICOTT is a partner in the law firm of Covington and Burling, where he has served (from 1986 through 1990) as chairman of the firm's Management Committee. He holds an LL.B. from Harvard Law School and an A.B. from Princeton University. Mr. Ellicott's law practice is pre-dominantly in the field of export control regulation. He has served on the faculty of the Salzburg Seminar in Austria and as a professorial lecturer on law at The George Washington University Graduate School of Public Law.
LINCOLN D. FAURER is the president and chief executive officer of the Corporation for Open Systems. He retired from the U.S. Air Force as a lieutenant general after a 35-year career. General Faurer was a rated pilot and also served in the missiles and space field, but he spent most of his last 20 years of military service in intelligence. He retired in 1985 from the position of director of the National Security Agency, to which he had gone from successive assignments in Europe at U.S. European Command and NATO headquarters.
CHARLES GATI is a specialist on Central and Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. He is a professor of political science at Union College and a consultant on Eastern Europe to the Policy Planning Staff of the Department of State. His latest book is The Bloc That Failed: Soviet-East European Relations in Transition (1990).
SEYMOUR E. GOODMAN is professor of management information systems and policy and director of the Mosaic Group at The University of Arizona. He served as chairman of the Committee to Study International Developments in Computer Science and Technology of the Computer Science and Technology Board of the National Research Council. This committee produced the 1988 National Research Council report Global Trends in Computer Technology and Their Impact on Export Control. Dr. Goodman has also served on advisory and study committees concerned with export controls and technology transfer under the Departments of Commerce and Defense and the Office of Technology Assessment of the Congress.
RUTH L. GREENSTEIN is the vice president for administration and finance of the Institute for Defense Analyses. Until May 1990, she served as vice president and general counsel for Genex Corporation. From 1981 until February 1984, Ms. Greenstein acted as deputy general counsel for the National Science Foundation. She is currently a member of the Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Advisory Board, Special Report Series on Biotechnology, Bureau of National Affairs, Inc.
BENJAMIN HUBERMAN is a consultant on technology issues. He has served as deputy director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the White House and in senior positions on the National Security Council staff, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the Naval Reactors Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission.
RAY KLINE has been president of the National Academy of Public Administration since 1985. Prior to that he served as acting administrator of the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) from 1984 to 1985 and as deputy administrator of GSA from 1979 to 1985. He went to GSA from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, where he had been associate administrator for management operations since 1977.
ROBERT LEGVOLD is the director of the W. Averell Harriman Institute for Advanced Study of the Soviet Union at Columbia University, where he is also professor of political science. Prior to joining the Harriman Institute in 1984, he served for six years as senior fellow and director of the Soviet Studies Project at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York. For most of the preceding decade, he was an assistant, then associate, professor of political science at Tufts University. In recent years, he has appeared regularly on national network news programs, and for each of the past four U.S.-Soviet summit conferences he joined ABC's Peter Jennings in live commentary.
BOYD J. McKELVAIN is broadly experienced in the development and management of technology in both private industry and government. He has corporate responsibility for General Electric's export administration and previously was a member of the corporate staff with responsibility for science and technology policy and planning. Mr. McKelvain is chairman of the Department of Commerce's Technical Advisory Committee on Implementation of the Militarily Critical Technologies List. He formerly was a member of the Subcommittee on Export Administration of the President's Export Council, and was cofounder and chairman of the Industry Coalition on Technology Transfer.
JOHN L. McLUCAS, an aerospace consultant, is currently chairman of NASA's Advisory Council, and the NRC Air Force Studies Board. He is a member of the Stafford Committee on the Moon-Mars Initiative and the National Academy of Engineering Council. He also served as chairman of the board for QuesTech, Inc., from 1986 to 1990. Dr. McLucas was executive vice president for COMSAT from 1983 to 1985 and president of COMSAT's World Systems Division from 1980 to 1983. In addition, he served as an administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration from 1975 to 1977 and as secretary of the U.S. Air Force from 1973 to 1975.
M. GRANGER MORGAN is head of the Department of Engineering and Public Policy and professor of engineering and public policy, electrical and computer engineering, and urban and public affairs at Carnegie Mellon. He holds a BS from Harvard, an MS from Cornell, and a Ph.D. in applied physics from the University of California at San Diego. Since 1970, Dr. Morgan has been involved in research and teaching on a variety of problems related to technology and public policy, focusing on that subset in which technical issues play a central role. Much of his work has focused on risk analysis and on the problems of dealing with uncertainty in quantitative policy analysis.
WILLIAM J. PERRY is chairman of Technology Strategies & Alliances and a professor in the School of Engineering and codirector of the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University. He was under secretary of defense for research and engineering from 1977 to 1981 and president of ESL, Inc., from 1964 to 1977. He is a trustee of the MITRE Corporation and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and a member of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on International Security and Arms Control, the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government, the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, and the Defense Science Board. Mr. Perry is also a director of FMC Corporation, Science Applications International Corporation, and several private companies.
O. M. ''Rusty" ROETMAN recently retired after a 47-year career in aviation, 22 of which were spent on active duty in the U.S. Navy as an officer and aviator. On retiring from the Navy, Mr. Roetman spent a year in Washington, D.C., working in a law and engineering consulting role. He joined the Boeing Company in early 1966 and, during his 24-year career with Boeing, served in a number of senior positions. Assignments within the Commercial Airplane Group included vice president for international sales and vice president for contracts. At the time of his retirement from Boeing, he was serving as corporate vice president of government and international affairs. Mr. Roetman's extensive international experience involved him in a variety of activities associated with the export of high-technology products. His formal education includes an undergraduate degree from the University of Minnesota, an aeronautical degree from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, a law degree from The George Washington University, and a year of study at the U.S. Naval War College.
GASTON J. SIGUR is currently distinguished professor of East Asian studies at The George Washington University. His government service includes positions as assistant secretary of state for East Asian and Pacific affairs from
1986 to 1989 and special assistant to the President for national security affairs from 1982 to 1984. He served as director of the Institute for Sino-Soviet Studies at The George Washington University from 1972 to 1982, and he held numerous positions in the Asia Society throughout the 1960s. He received a Ph.D. in history in 1957 from the University of Michigan.
JOHN D. STEINBRUNER has been director of foreign policy studies at The Brookings Institution since 1978. His areas of expertise include East-West relations, national security policy, the strategic balance, and foreign policy in general. Prior to joining Brookings, Dr. Steinbruner was an associate professor in the School of Organization and Management and in the Department of Political Science at Yale University from 1976 to 1978. From 1973 to 1976, he served as associate professor of public policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, where he also was assistant director of the Program for Science and International Affairs. He has held the positions of executive director of the Research Seminar on Bureaucracy, Politics, and Policy at Harvard's Institute of Politics, and assistant professor of political science at the Center for International Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Steinbruner is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the International Institute of Strategic Studies, and the Committee on International Security and Arms Control at the National Academy of Sciences. He received his A.B. from Stanford University in 1963 and his Ph.D. in International Relations from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1968.
PAULA STERN is president of The Stern Group, an international trade advisory firm; a fellow at The Johns Hopkins School for Advanced International Studies; and a speaker and media commentator on U.S. trade policy and global competitive challenges facing American firms. From 1984 to 1986, Dr. Stern chaired the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC), and she served as a member of the ITC from 1978 to 1986. She is the author of Water's Edge—Domestic Politics and the Making of Foreign Policy (1979), a study of the politics of U.S.-Soviet trade that summarized the congressional-executive debate over the Jackson-Vanik amendment. East-West trade and U.S. attempts to apply economic leverage on other nations are two policy arenas about which she has written extensively and delivered congressional testimony.
MITCHEL B. WALLERSTEIN, who directed the study, is also the deputy executive officer of the National Research Council, which is the research and action arm of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine. In 1987, he directed the previous National Academies' study on national security export controls, the report of which was
entitled Balancing the National Interest: U.S. National Security Export Controls and Global Economic Competition (also known as the Allen report). Previously, in 1982, he played a principal role in another related Academies' study on Scientific Communication and National Security, often referred to as the Corson report. Dr. Wallerstein holds a Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he served on the faculty for five years. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the author or editor of numerous books, articles, and monographs dealing with various aspects of science, technology, and international affairs.