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Biographical Memoirs N AT I O N A L A CADEMY OF SCIENCES
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 58 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1989
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its cor- porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-03938-X ElBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2 101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
C^1~TTp1~T l PREFACE PERCIVAL BAILEY BY PAUL C. BUCY ERIC GLENDINNING BALL BY]OHN M. BUCHANAN AND A. BAIRD HASTINGS JENS CHRISTIAN CLAUSEN BY C. STACY FRENCH CARLETON STEVENS COON BY W. W. HOWELLS RENE JULES DUBOS BY]AMES G. HIRSCH AND CAROL L. MOBERG JOHN RAY DUNNING BY HERBERT L. ANDERSON ARIE JAN HAAGEN-SMIT BY JAMES BONNER v . . V11 3 49 75 109 133 163 189
V1 CONTENTS HARRY FREDERICK HARLOW BY]OSEPH B. SIDOWSKI AND DONALD B. LINDSLEY CHARLES HEIDELBERGER BY ELIZABETH C. MILLER AND JAMES A. MILLER MOSES KUNITZ BY ROGER M. HERRIOTT ROBERT HELMER MACARTHUR BY EDWARD O. WILSON AND EVELYN G. HUTCHINSON MARGARET MEAD BY CLIFFORD GEERTZ DAVID NACHMANSOHN BY SEVERO OCHOA HARRY F. OLSON BY CYRIL M. HARRIS OSCAR KNEELER RICE BY BENJAMIN WIDOM AND RUDOLPH A. MARCUS DICKINSON WOODRUFF RICHARDS BY ANDRE COURNAND CHARLES DONALD SHANK BY S. VASILEVSKIS AND D. E. OSTERBROCK WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER STADIE BY ISSAC STARR CUMULATIVE INDEX 219 259 305 319 329 357 407 425 459 489 513 529
PREFACE The Biographical Memoirs is a series of volumes, beginning in ~ 877, containing the biographies of cleceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published scientific contributions. The goal of the Acaclemy is to have these memoirs serve as a contribution toward the history of American science. Each biographical essay is writ- ten by an incliviclual familiar with the discipline and the scien- tific career of the cleceased. These volumes, therefore, pro- vide a record of the lives anct works of some of the most clistinguished leaders of American science as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. Though the pri- mary concern is the members' professional lives and contri- butions, these memoirs also include those aspects of their lives in their home, school, college, or later life that led them . . . ~ to t near scenic career. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, honorary organization of scientists ant] engineers electecl on the basis of outstanding contributions to knowledge. EstablishecI by a Congressional Act of Incorporation on March 3, 1863, the Acaclemy works to further science and its use for the general welfare by bringing together the most qualified individuals to clear with scientific and technological problems of broach . · ~ slgnlucance. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary ELIZAB ETH ]. S HERMAN Associate Editor . . V11