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HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE December 22, 1903-March 1S, 1983 BY FLOYD RATLIFF FOR MORE THAN HALF A CENTURY Haldan Keffer Hartline, Keffer to friends and close colleagues, conduc- ted biophysical research on vision and the retina. He stucl- iec] retinas from arthropods, vertebrates, and molluscs the three major phyla with well-developec! eyes and his investi- gations extended into many ant! diverse branches of the field. During this long career Hartline elucidated numerous funcia- mental principles of retinal physiology, laying the foundations for the present-clay study of the neurophysiology of vision. Hartline's four major accomplishments were all "firsts" in their respective fields: With Clarence H. Graham he re- corded the activity of single optic nerve fibers. He mapped the activity of the visual receptive field to reveal a system of many convergent pathways from many photoreceptors (the foundation for modern concepts of parallel processing by specialized channels). He recorded with Wagner ant! NIacNicho!intracellular generator potentials. And finally, he discovered lateral inhibition in the retina and describecl the integrative activity of neural networks with the Hartline- Ratliff equations. EDUCATION AND EARLY LIFE Keffer Hartline was born on December 22, 1903, in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, to Daniel Schollenberger 197
198 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Hartline and Harriet Franklin Keffer Hartline. His father taught science and his mother English at the Bloomsburg State Normal School (now Bloomsburg State College) where the young Hartline receiver! his early formal education. Per- haps more significant to the young Kepler was the informal but intensive training he received at home as an only chilcI. Both of his parents hacI a strong interest in the natural world around them, an interest that deeply affected the young Kef- fer. Indeed, he was later to refer to his father as "my first ant! best teacher," and the love of nature his parents instiller! surely influenced his choice of experimental research in biol- ogy as his lifelong career. Upon completion of his studies at Bloomsburg in 1920, Hartline spent the summer at the marine laboratory in Cold Spring Harbor, I,ong Island, taking a six-week course in com- parative anatomy. That fall he enterer} Lafayette College to study biology and was encouraged by Professor B. W. Kunke! to do research. Hartline was much impressed by Jacques Loeb's quantitative work on tropisms, and his very first ex- . percents p ~ototropic responses of lancl isopods were along the same lines. At Woods Hole in the summer of 1923 he showed the results of his experiments to Loeb, who en- couraged him to publish the work in the journal of General Physiology. Loeb also introduced Hartline to the biophysicist Selig Hecht, who was just coming into prominence in the field of vision research. That fall, Hartline entered the Johns Hop- kins University School of Medicine. Fincling time at Hopkins to continue his research, he came under the influence of E. K. Marshall, head of the Depart- ment of Physiology, anti, even more strongly, of Charles D. Snyder. Snyder taught Hartline how to use and replace the inevitable broken strings on a string galvanometer, then gave him free access to that clelicate instrument. Hartline bore out his confidence and soon thereafter published pioneering
HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE 199 work on the retinal action potential he hac! recorded from a variety of species, including humans. His early research helped lay the groundwork for modern electroretinography. In 1927, Hartline received the M.D. degree from Hopkins butclearly more interested in research never went on to · · ~ practice mec lclne. Remaining at Hopkins for two years as a National Re- search Council Fellow, Hartline ctecided, after a brief expo- sure to quantitative experimental biology, to study mathe- matics and physics. Drawn to these disciplines, he went so far as to consider a career in either one or the other. On a ~ohn- son Research Scholarship from the Elciridge Reeves Johnson Foundation, he went to Germany to study uncler Arnold Sommerfelct at Munich and uncler Werner Heisenberg at Leipzig. It soon became evident, however, that Hartline lacked the background! for these advanced courses and lec- tures, and disappointed! with the outcome of this venture- he returnee! to the United States after one year to take up his first appointment in biology. Hartline's interest in mathemat- ics and physics never waned, ant! his approach to experi- mental biology remained! rigorously quantitative and based on sound physical principles. PROFESSIONAL CAREER Detlev W. Bronk, director of the Elciridge Reeves Johnson Foundation at the University of Pennsylvania from 1929, was quick to recognize genius and soon offered Hartline a posi- tion as a fellow in medical physics. This proved ideal for the frustrated theoretical physicist, ant! Hartline remained at the Johnson Foundation from 1931 until 1949 (except for a brief and unsuccessful move, with Bronk, to Cornell University Medical College from 1940 to 1941~. While at the Johnson Foundation, Hartline met a number of investigators who later became prominent in vision re-
200 . . BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS search. Among these were psychologists Clarence H. Graham and Lorrin A. Riggs, who became his research collaborators, ant} physiologist William A. H. Rushton, who turned to vision research in his later years. It was also at the Johnson Foun- clation that Hartline first met the neurophysiologist Ragnar Granit. While at Woods Hole he became acquainted with the biochemist George Wald. Hartline, Granit, and Walt! each went his inclependent way in vision research, following the work of the other two closely ant! admiring it, but never working together in collaboration. They little dreamed that a quarter of a century laterthey wouIc! share the No- be! Prize. In 1949, Bronk accepted the presidency of the Johns Hopkins University on the condition (among others) that a biophysics department be established on the Homewoocl campus. He appointed Hartline the first professor of bio- physics and chairman of the new Thomas C. Jenkins Labo- ratory of Biophysics. There Hartline continued his earlier close association with Henry G. Wagner and E. F. (Ted) MacNichol, Jr., while electronics engineer John P. Hervey and instrument maker Walter Biclerlich provided valuable sup- port services. ~ first met Hartline in 1950 when ~ joined his laboratory on a one-year National Research Council fellow- ship. We felt an instant rapport and would work together in close collaboration for the next twenty-five years. In September of 1953, Bronk became president of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (later The Rocke- feller University) and immediately appointed Hartline a member and head of the Institute's Laboratory of Biophysics. Within the year, Hartline invites! me to leave Harvard for The Rockefeller, and ~ immediately accepted. Over the next few years we were joined by William H. Miller, Bruce W. Knight, fir., Frederick A. Docige, fir., and electronics engineer Norman Milkman. When the Rockefeller Institute became
HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE 201 The Rockefeller University, Hartline was appointed profes- sor ant! heat! of laboratory. He never left The University thereafter for any extended period, except for a sabbatical leave as George C. Eccles Professor at the University of Utah in 1972. That same year, he was named DetIev W. Bronk Professor at The Rockefeller, the post he held until his re- tirement until 1974. MAJOR SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS Single Optic Nerve Fibers In 1927, Ecigar D. Acirian and Rachel Matthews success- fully recorder! electrical activity in an optic nerve, though in this early work (on the eye of the eel)they were only able to recorc! the massive discharge of the whole nerve trunk. Adrian ant! Bronk later managed to dissect and isolate a single fiber of the phrenic nerve ant! record its activity. Inspired by their success, Hartline and Graham under- took similar studies on the optic nerve of the horseshoe "crab," Limulus. The compound eye of this venerable animal, with its large photoreceptors and long optic nerve, was ideally suited for this study, and in 1932 they were able to record the activity of single optic nerve fibers for the first time. Their research showed that impulses transmitted by an optic nerve fiber are essentially iclentical and that information about the intensity of light incident on the photoreceptor is coaled in terms of the rate of discharge of impulses rather than the shape or amplitucle of incliviclual impulses. Here began the direct, quantitative, experimental investigation of informa- · · · . tlon-processlng in t he vlsua system. The techniques used by Hartline and Graham also pro- vided an indirect but proximate method for studying the physical and chemical events in the photoreceptor that give rise to nerve impulses. In 1935, for example, the two re-
202 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS searchers usect it to determine the spectral sensitivity of the Limulus photoreceptor. Later, with P. R. McDonald, they mea- surec! light ant! dark adaptation. Twenty-five years later Ruth Hubbard and George WalcI confirmed the precision and re- liability of Hartline's early spectral measurements by extract- ing the photopigment from the eye of L,imulus to determine its spectral absorption by direct methocis. The two curves agreed almost point for point. The Receptive Field In his early research at the Johnson Foundation and later at Johns Hopkins and Rockefeller, Hartline nearly always worked in collaboration with other investigators. In all of these collaborations, however, there was never a question in anyone's minct about who was the master and who the ap- prentice. Though unquestionably a brilliant collaborator, Hartline's extraordinary ability and unique talents produce the most startling results cluring the period of his thirties ant! forties when he worked alone. The single-handed investiga- tions, mainly on the vertebrate retina, of those years are per- ~ · · - ~aps nits most s~gn~hcant contra button to science. With his exquisite microctissection technique, Hartline was able to isolate single optic nerve fibers of the vertebrate retina and, for the first time, record their activity. He found that the response of the whole nerve resulted! from the sum- mated activity of fibers whose individual responses differed markedly. Some fibers discharged steadily in response to steady illumination, some in response to the onset ant! ces- sation of illumination, others only to its cessation. Many fibers showed extreme sensitivity to moving patterns of light and shade. Mapping the "receptive fielcls" of some of them in detail showed that a retinal ganglion cell can receive excita- tory and inhibitory influences over many convergent path- ways from many photoreceptors. The optic nerve fiber
HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE 203 arising from the retinal ganglion cell is simply the final com- mon pathway. Hartline fount! that the processing of visual information begins in the retina with the specialized activity of diverse types of ganglion cells, thereby laying the foundation for modern concepts of parallel processing by specialized chan- nels. "The study of these retinal neurons has emphasized the necessity for considering patterns of activity in the nervous system," he remarked in his 1942 Harvey Lecture. "Individ- ual nerve cells never act independently; it is the integrated action of all the units of the visual system that gives rise to vision" ~ ~ 942, ~ ). The Generator Potential As early as 1935 Hartline, using external electrodes, had recorded the local "action current" of a single photoreceptor unit in the compound eye of Limulus. Simultaneous records of the propagated impulses in the optic nerve suggested that this retinal action potential might be the generator of the impulses. When micropipette electrocles with tips small enough to penetrate cells were developed, opening the gen- erator potential to direct stucly, Hartline's earlier interest in this hypothesis was rekinclled. Using the new micropipettes, Hartline, Wagner, and MacNichol recorder! intracellular generator potentials for the first time anct were able to study the photoreceptor as a biological transducer relating nerve impulses to a genera- tor potential, and generator potential to the light incident on the photoreceptor. MacNichol, Wagner, and Hartline further observed that the rate of discharge of impulses was approximately linear with depolarization of the cell whether incluced by light or by current passed through the electrodeand that sponta- neous activity was suppressed by hyperpolarizing current.
204 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Hartline's colleague, Tsuneo Tomita, soon demonstrated that the clepolarization resulted! from an increase in membrane conductance short-circuiting the resting potential of the cell. The way was now open to a proper biophysical understand- ing of the generation of impulses by sensory receptor cells. The Harttine-Ratli~Equations One of Hartline's most important contributions to the physiology of vision was his discovery of lateral inhibition in the retina of the compound eye of Limulus. It is uncertain when the discovery of this "lateral effect" (as it was first called) was actually made, although according to Hartline's best recollection it was the late 1930s. The first published report (1949,1) on this pattern of central excitation and surround! inhibition was long delayed, but even so it predated the dis- covery of the analogous center-surround organization of the vertebrate retina. In our first studies carried out at Rockefeller, Hartline and ~ focused on a quantitative account of the inhibitory in- teractions in the eye of L`imulus. We were able with a pair of simultaneous equations to express the reciprocal inter- actions between two photoreceptor units in the steady state. Although these equations were strongly nonlinear overall, they were, as Hartline put it, "mercifully, piece-wise linear, to a good approximation." These so-called "Hartline-Ratliff equations" actually based upon, and testable by, direct elec- trophysiological measurements provided the first mathe- matical description of the integrative activity of a real neural network. Our subsequent discovery of the phenomenon of "inhi- bition of inhibition" enabled us to extend the mathematical description to any number of interacting units. This inhibi- tion of inhibition or Inhibition as we preferred (following
HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE 205 PavIov) to call it confirmed! the notion we had already ex- pressed in our pair of simultaneous equations describing the interaction of two elements: the interaction was both mutual and recurrent. With this knowledge, Hartline and ~ could now express the interactions among not just two units, but any number n either with a set of n simultaneous equations, or, if the number was large enough, with integral equations. The phenomenon of disinhibition first thought to be unique to the Limulus retina has since turned out to be a general principle of neural organization, widespread in the other species and neural systems. Our earliest studies of the dynamics of lateral inhibition with William H. Miller and G. Davis! Lange were purely empirical, but quantitative, theoretical approaches to the dy- namics of neural mechanisms were in the air. Attractec! by the symmetry of responses of the Limulus eye to equal incre- ments and decrements, Bruce W. Knight, fir., a physicist and appliecl mathematician, joined the I.aboratory in 1961. Knight realized that the Limulus eye appeared to be a "time- invariant linear system" that could be treated as a system of linear transducers, and that the several transductions could all be characterizes! by transfer functions. The transduction from light to generator potential, gen- erator potential to impulses, and impulses to self- and lateral- inhibitory potentials were directly measured and character- izec! as transfer functions, enabling the Laboratory to make successful theoretical predictions of responses to a wide va- riety of stimuli. These experimentsperformed mainly in collaboration with Bruce Knight, Jun-ichi Toyoda, and Fred Docige showed the appropriateness of treating the Limulus eye as a system of linear transducers over a wale range of experimental conditions. But Hartline remained wary. "The trouble with theories," he once said, "is that after a while one begins to believe them."
206 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ~ SENSE OF HUMOR l:lartline's wry humor often produced unexpected and telling remarks. Capping a discussion of a new laboratory building on campus much criticizer! by the scientists who hac! to use it, he said drily that "it must have been designed by an architect." He was also given to telling tall tales with a straight face, many of which were taken for truth. His often repeated assertion that he was "awarded the M.D. on the condition that he never practice medicine," for instance, was widely be- lieved. But Hartline's humor was a two-way street, and he often quoted my own description of his untidy laboratory as "a slightly disorganized, but extremely fertile, chaos." HONORS AND AWARDS While still in medical school Hartline receiver! the William H. Howell Awarcl in Physiology. I:xperimental and physio- logical psychologists were among the first to recognize the importance of his later work to an understanding of human visual perception, and the Society of Experimental Psychol- ogists awarcled him the Howard Crosby Warren Medal in 1948. That same year saw his election to the National Acad- emy of Sciences. He was elected to the American Philosoph- ical Society in 1962, receiver! Case Institute of Technology's Albert A. Michelson Awarc} in 1964, became a foreign mem- ber of the Royal Society in 1966, anti, in 1969, received the Lighthouse Award for Distinguished Service. In 1967 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarcled jointly to Ragnar Granit (Karolinska Institute), Hal- cian Keffer Hartline (The Rockefeller University), and George Wald (Harvard University) "for their discoveries con- cerning the primary physiological and chemical visual pro- cesses in the eye." Ironically, the Nobel Prize for Hartline's contributions to
HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE 207 vision research coincicled with a decline in his direct partici- pat~on in such research. Slowly failing eyesight, a result of senile macular degeneration, made it increasingly difficult for Hartline to react and write, to use a microscope, ant! to perform the highly skilled manual techniques for which he was noted. "The loss of central vision is bad enough in itself," he once remarked, "but to be prematurely labeled senile only adds insult to injury." HOPE AND FAMILY In 1936 Hartline married Elizabeth Kraus, daughter of the eminent chemist C. A. Kraus, and, at that time, instructor in comparative psychology at Bryn Mawr College. Mrs. Hart- line shared her husband's interest in nature and later became a cleclicatect conservationist. Their three sons Daniel Kepler, Peter Halcian, and Frederick Flanders tutored by their fa- ther as he had been by his all became biologists. When Hartline accepted a position at Johns Hopkins in 1949, the family purchased a house near Hydes, Maryland, about twenty miles from Baltimore. This country house, which they called TurtIewood, is still the family home. In 1953, Hartline became a member of the Rockefeller Institute and moves] to an apartment in New York City. Leaving Mrs. Hartline and their three sons in Maryland, Hartline returnee! home for long weekends ant] holidays, viewing the New York apartment as little more than a "winter camp" in the city. The family's "summer camp" was the Kraus family place on 01d Point, just across Frenchman Bay, northwest of Bar Harbor, Maine. CONCLUDING REMARKS Hartline enjoyed god health throughout most of his life anti, despite his slight stature and rather frail appearance, was an active out~loorsman. When young he enjoyed moun-
208 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS tain climbing and had some first ascents to his credit in the Wyoming Rockies. He pilotecl his own open-cockpit plane arounc! the country. He enjoyed sailing with Bronk near their summer home in Maine and, on occasion, with Ragnar Granit in the Baltic. Continuing his outdoor activities even into oIc! age, Hart- line decicled in his seventies to take a long-postponec! rafting trip through the Grand Canyon. His carcliologist recom- mendecl against the trip, but Hartline decided that it was now or never, basing his decision (according to one of his apoc- ryphal stories) on a favorable second opinion from a der- matologist. In any event, he and Mrs. Hartline took the trip and- except for being too coIcl and wet on the raft in the rapids ant! too hot and ciry on the desert shore both en- joyecl it immensely. In his late seventies Hartline's chest pains became more frequent and severe, and on March I8, 1983 as he was en- tering his eightieth year he diec! of a heart attack at the FalIston General Hospital in Maryland. Keffer Hartline achieved great distinction in every phase of his half-century of research on the physiology of vision and was awarder! the highest of all honors in science. Yet he remainec! modest and unassuming throughout and was somewhat embarrassed by fame and public acclaim. He spe- cifically requested that there be no official memorial service or organized tribute to him at The Rockefeller University, suggesting rather that one of the University concertswhich he had enjoyed} so much over so many years would be an appropriate memorial, bringingjoy to others rather than sor- row. On March 7, 1984, the Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra, with Karl Munchinger conducting, played to a full house in a performance dedicated to Keffer Hartline's memory. Keffer Hartline and ~ worked together day after day, year after year, for more than a quarter of a century. The strong
HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE 209 bond of friendship between us transcended all time and place, and all human frailty. To such a friend, the truest trib- ute is one enshrined in memory and thought, unspoken. INFORMATION ABOUT HARTLINE S life and work during the pe- riod of 1903-1950 came from his own reminiscences dictated dur- ing the last years of his life and transcribed by his long-time secre- tary, Maria Lipski. The period of 1950-1983 is based primarily on my own records and firsthand knowledge. For other accounts, see: John E. Dowling and Floyd Ratliff, "Nobel Prize, Three Named for Medicine, Physiology Award," Science, 1 58( 1 976) :468-73; Ragnar Granit and Floyd Ratliff, "Haldan Keffer Hartline, 1903-1983," Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 31~1985~:262-92; and Floyd Rashly, "Haldan Keffer Hartline (1903-1983)," Year Book 1984 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society), pp. 111-120.
210 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1923 Influences of light of very low intensity on phototropic reactions of animals. I. Gen. Physiol., 6: 137-52. 1925 The electrical response to illumination of the eye in intact animals, including the human subject; and in decerebrate preparations. Am. J. Physiol., 73 :600-612. 1928 A quantitative and descriptive study of the electric response to il- lumination of the arthropod eye. Am. J. Physiol., 83:466-83. 1930 The dark adaptation of the eye of Limulus, as manifested by its electric response to illumination. I. Gen. Physiol., 13:379-89. With C. H. Graham. Nerve impulses from single receptors in the eye. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 1:277-95. 1934 Intensity and duration in the excitation of single photoreceptor units. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 5:229-47. With C. H. Graham. The response of single visual sense cells to lights of different wave lengths. I. Gen. Physiol., 18:917-31. 1938 The discharge of impulses in the optic nerve of Pecten in response to illumination of the eye. I Cell. Comp. Physiol., 11 :465-78. The response to single optic nerve fibers of the vertebrate eye to illumination of the retina. Am. J. Physiol., 121 :400-15. 1940 The receptive fields of optic nerve fibers. Am. l. Physiol.,130:690- 99. The effects of spatial summation in the retina on the excitation of the fibers of the optic nerve. Am. J. Physiol., 130:700-11.
HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE 211 The nerve messages in the fibers of the visual pathway. I. Opt. Soc. Am., 30:229-47. 1941-1942 The neural mechanisms of vision. Harvey Lect., 37:39-68. 1947 With P. R. McDonald. Light and dark adaptation of single photo- receptor elements in the eye of Limulus. ]. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 30:225-54. 1949 Inhibition of activity of visual receptors by illuminating nearby ret- inal areas in the Limulus eye. Fed. Proc., 8:69. With H. G. Wagner and E. F. MacNichol. The peripheral origin of nervous activity in the visual system. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 17: 125 -41. 1954 With F. Ratliff. Spatial summation of inhibitory influences in the eye of Limulus (Abstr.~. Science, 120:781. 1956 With H. G. Wagner and F. Ratliff. Inhibition in the eye of the Lim- ulus. ]. Gen. Physiol., 39:651-73. 1957 With F. Ratliff. Inhibitory interaction of receptor units in the eye of Limulus. ]. Gen. Physiol., 40: 357-76. 1958 With F. Ratliff. Spatial summation of inhibitory influences in the eye of Limulus, and the mutual interaction of receptor units. J. Gen. Physiol., 41: 1049-66. With F. Ratliff and W. H. Miller. Neural interaction in the eye and the integration of receptor activity. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 74:210-22.
212 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1959 With F. Ratliff. The responses of Limulus optic nerve fibers to pat- terns of illumination on the receptor mosaic. I. Gen. Physiol., 42: 1241-55. 1961 With F. Ratliff and W. H. Miller. Inhibitory interaction in the retina and its significance in vision. In: Nervous Inhibition, ed. E. Florey, New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 141-84. 1963 With F. Ratliff and W. H. Miller. Spatial and temporal aspects of retinal inhibitory interaction. I. Opt. Soc. Amer., 53: 110-20. 1966 With D. Lange and F. Ratliff. Inhibitory interaction in the retina: Techniques of experimental and theoretical analysis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 128:955-71. With F. Ratliff and D. Lange. The dynamics of lateral inhibition in the compound eye of Limulus I . In: Proceedings of an International Symposium on The Functional Organization of the Compound Eye, ed. C. G. Bernhard, Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 399-424. With D. Lange and F. Ratliff. The dynamics of lateral inhibition in the compound eye of Limulus II. In: Proceedings of an Interna- tional Symposium on The Functional Organization of the Compound Eye, ed. C. G. Bernhard, Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 425-49. 1967 With F. Ratliff, B. W. Knight, Jr., and J. Toyoda. Enhancement of flicker by lateral inhibition. Science, 158:392-93. 1968 With F. Ratliff and D. Lange. Variability of interspike intervals in optic nerve fibers of Limulus: Effect of light and dark adapta- tion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 60:464-69.
HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE 213 1969 Visual receptors and retinal interaction. In: Les Prix Nobel en 1967, The Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, pp.242-59. Also in: Rocke- feller Univ. Rev., 5(no. 5~:9-11, and Science, 164:270-78. 1972 With F. Ratliff. Inhibitory interaction in the retina of Limulus. In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology, VII/2, Heidelberg: Springer- Verlag, pp. 381-447. 1973 With N. Graham and F. Ratliff. Facilitation of inhibition in the compound lateral eye of Limulus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 70:894-98. 1974 With F. Ratliff, B. W. Knight, Jr., and F. A. Dodge, Jr. Fourier analysis of dynamics of excitation and inhibition in the eye of Limulus: Amplitude, phase, and distance. Vision Res., 14:1155- 68. Studies on Excitation and Inhibition in the Retina A Collection of Papers from the Laboratories of H. K. Hartline, ed. F. Ratliff, New York: The Rockefeller University Press, 668 pp.