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Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1981. Nutritional Energetics of Domestic Animals and Glossary of Energy Terms. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1670.
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Page 51
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1981. Nutritional Energetics of Domestic Animals and Glossary of Energy Terms. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1670.
×
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1981. Nutritional Energetics of Domestic Animals and Glossary of Energy Terms. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1670.
×
Page 53
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1981. Nutritional Energetics of Domestic Animals and Glossary of Energy Terms. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1670.
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Page 54

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APPENDIX Units of Measurement kJ Joule or work expressed in electrical units of measurement. One joule equals I- 07 ergs. Kilojoule, or joule X 103. M`1 Megajoule, or joule X 106. I Calorie or work expressed in temperature (heat) units of measurement. One calorie egual-s 4.184 ~ in nutritional terms. kcal Kilocalone, or calorie X 103. Mcal Megacalorie, or calorie X 106, also called "Thenn." Heat of combustion or gross energy content (Jig) of matter. Amount of food consumed in grams (or appropriate unit of weight). Combustible Energy Fractions IE FE Intake of Energy' or total gross energy consumed by art animal. Fecal Energy, or total gross energy contained in feces pro- duced by an animal. 51

52 UE GE SE RE TE LE OE YE VE DE ME Urine Energy, or total gross energy contained in urine pro- duced by an animal. Gaseous Energy, or total gross energy contained in com- bustible gases produced by an animal, mainly methane produced by ruminants. Gill Excretion Energy, or the total gross energy contained in combustible waste products excreted via the gill of fish. Surface Energy, or the total gross energy contained in waste products lost from the exterior surface of the ani- mal, such as hair, scurf, of} secretions, and similar non- useful energy losses. Recovered Energy, or total gross energy recovered as some useful product, such as body tissue, milk, egg, or wool. Tissue Energy, or the total gain (or loss) of gross energy contained in body tissue of an animal. I,actation Energy, or the total gross energy contained in the milk produced by a lactating animal. Ovum or Egg Energy, or the total gross energy contained in the egg produced by a laying hen. Conceptus Energy, the energy contained in conceptus, or the total gross energy contained in the embryo and tissues of the placenta. Wool Energy, or the total gross energy contained in the useful product harvested from the "surface" of an animal, such as wool, hair, or feathers. Digestible Energy, or apparently digested energy, is the total gross energy apparently absorbed from the digestive tract. DE = {E- FE. Metabolizable Energy' or apparently metabolized energy, is the total gross energy available for metabolism by an animal. ME = DE - GE - UE. Fm E Metabolic Fecal Energy, or energy contained in feces of nonfood origin. U" E Endogenous Urine Energy, or energy contained in urine of nonfood origin.

53 True Digestible Energy, or energy truly absorbed from the digestive tract. TDE = DE + Em E - GE - HfE. TME True Metabolizable Energy, or energy truly available for metabolism by the animal. TME = TDE - UE + Ue E. Mn E Nitrogen-Corrected Metabolizable Energy is metabolizable energy adjusted to zero retained nitrogen. TMn E Nitrogen-Corrected True Metabolizable Energy is TME ad- justed to zero retained nitrogen. Sources of Heat Production HE Heat Production, or the total energy Toss from an animal in any form other than as combustible matter. He E Basal Metabolic Rate, or heat produced by a resting, con- scious animal in a postabsorptive state; often called fasting metabolic rate, basal metabolic rate (BMR), or fasting metabolism. Hj E Heat of Voluntary Activity, or heat produced as a result of voluntary movement of an animal such as standing up or lying down, walking, eating, and similar activity. Heat of Thermal Regulation, or heat produced to maintain body temperature as a result of environmental tempera- tures outside the zone of thermal neutrality. H E Heat of Product Formation, or heat resulting from the bio- synthesis of useful products, such as body tissue, milk, egg, or wool. Hw E Heat of Waste Formation and Excretion, or heat resulting from the formation and excretion of metabolic waste. Heat of Digestion, or heat produced within the digestive tract as a result of digestive processes or associated with absorption of end products of digestion through the wall of the gut. Also included would be heat produced as a result of muscular activity required to move digesta through the digestive tract.

54 Hf E Heat of Fermentation, or heat produced by the fermenta- tion of food in the forestomach of ruminants; normally HjE would be included as a component of H<, E. Heat Increment, or heat produced as a result of the inges- tionoffood.HiE=H<,,E+HfE+HwE+HrE. Feed Evaluation Terminology TON Total Digestible Nutrients, computed as the apparent diges- tible intake of crude protein and carbohydrate plus 2.25 times digestible fat. NE Net Energy, defined in its broadest sense as ~RE/AI, or the net increase in useful product expressed per unit in- crease in food consumed. NEm Net Energy for Maintenance, or ARE/ measured be- NEg NE' k' tween ~ = 0 and ~ at RE = 0. Net Energy for Gain, or I\RE/~l measured using a growing animal consuming ~ in an amount that always results in RE > 0 Net Energy for Lactation, or ~LE/~} measured under con- ditions where TE, YE, and other forms of RE remain con- stant. PFV Physiological Fuel Values, estimates of calorie content of food computed from the chemical composition in terms of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Partial Efficiency of Metabolizable Energy Use for Gain, or NEg/(ME - MEm ~ Partial Efficiency of Metabolizable Energy Use for Main- tenance, or HeE/MEm. ENE Estimated Net Energy, or a "corn equivalent" measure of energy value proposed by Morrison (19561.

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