George Somero, Chair, the Associate Director of Stanford University’s Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove, California and the David and Lucile Packard Professor of Marine Science, is a physiologist who examines the mechanisms that marine organisms use to adapt to their environments. Because he was raised in the far northern corner of Minnesota, it was natural for him to move to McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to conduct his Ph.D. research while a graduate student at Stanford. In Antarctica, he determined the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable cold-adapted Antarctic fish to carry out their physiological activities in near-freezing temperatures (–1.9°C). Somero is fascinated by organisms’ abilities to cope with extremes of environmental stress and during his 42 years as a university professor, his research group has studied organisms’ responses to extremes of temperature, salinity, oxygen availability, and hydrostatic pressure. This research has been done in environments as different as deep-sea hot springs, tropical seas, the polar oceans and the temperate rocky intertidal zone. Following his doctoral work, Somero did postdoctoral studies at the University of British Columbia with Dr. Peter Hochachka. Together, over a period of almost 25 years, they published three volumes on the topic of biochemical adaptation. Following his post-doctoral studies, Somero served on the faculty of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego for 21 years. He then joined the faculty of Oregon State University for four years prior to his return to Stanford and Hopkins Marine Station in 1995. His laboratory currently is exploiting many of the new molecular biological tools
developed in biomedical research to examine the environmental biology and evolution of marine organisms. Their work not only examines basic evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation to the environment, but also supplies a foundation for predicting the effects of global climate change on marine ecosystems. Professor Somero received a Guggenheim Fellowship and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
James Barry, with a background in biological oceanography and marine ecology, is a Senior Scientist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). Jim’s research program focuses on the effects of climate-related changes in ocean conditions, including ocean warming, acidification, and hypoxia, on the physiology and ecology of marine life. Other areas of expertise and research include deep-sea biology, the ecology of chemosynthetic biological communities, polar marine ecology, and the biology of submarine canyon communities. In addition to publishing over 100 scientific papers, Dr. Barry has helped inform policy-makers on ocean acidification, ocean carbon sequestration, and climate change by speaking at congressional hearings, briefings, and meetings with members of Congress. He was a contributing author to the IPCC report on climate change in the oceans, and is an author of the National Academies of Sciences report on Ocean Acidification, a National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean.
Andrew Dickson is professor of marine chemistry at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California, San Diego. His research interests include ocean acidification, quality control of oceanic carbon dioxide measurements, biogeochemistry of the upper ocean, marine inorganic chemistry, thermodynamics of electrolyte solutions at high temperatures and pressures, and analytical chemistry of carbon dioxide in seawater. Dickson previously served on the NRC Committee on Oceanic Carbon and was the chair of the NRC Committee on Reference Materials for Ocean Science.
Jean-Pierre Gattuso is a biological oceanographer interested in the response of marine organisms to global environmental changes, including ocean acidification. His research has focused on the response of pelagic calcifying phytoplankton, but he has also done research on other calcifiers including corals and coralline algae. He is also interested in carbon and carbonate cycling in coastal ecosystems, including estuaries and the contribution of the microbial loop in the carbon cycling of pelagic systems. He is currently the coordinator of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) and committee member on numerous other international ocean acidification programs. Additionally, Dr. Gattuso is the founding
editor-in-chief (with J. Kesselmeier) of Biogeosciences, an innovative journal launched in 2004 by the European Geosciences Union (EGU). He received his Ph.D. in 1987 in Biological Oceanography from the University of Aix-Marseille II, France.
Marion Gehlen is a senior scientist at LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement). Her research interests include the evolution of marine biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems in response to climate change and ocean acidification, the biogeochemistry of marine carbonates, the contribution of coastal marine sediments to the global marine carbon cycle. Marion was a lead scientist in a major EU funded large-scale projects targeting the marine carbon cycle (CarboOcean, CarboChange) and ocean acidification (EPOCA). She is a member of the GODAE task team in ‘Marine Ecosystem Prediction.’
Joanie Kleypas is a Scientist III at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Dr. Kleypas earned a Ph.D. in tropical marine studies from James Cook University, Australia in 1991. Her research focuses on how coral reefs and other marine ecosystems are affected by environmental changes associated with global climate change. Dr. Kleypas has presented several testimonies and briefings to various subcommittees of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives on how increases in sea surface temperature and ocean acidification affect marine ecosystems. She has led several scientific workshops on ocean acidification, and served as founding co-chair of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program’s Subcommittee on Ocean Acidification. Dr. Kleypas was an essential member of the previous, related study on ocean acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean.
Chris Langdon is a biological oceanographer and professor in marine biology and fisheries at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami in Miami, Florida. He received his Ph.D. in biological oceanography from the University of Rhode Island. Dr. Langdon’s research focuses on coral and algae primary production, respiration and calcification, and the response of corals and coral reefs to global change and ocean acidification. He is the author of twenty-three journal articles and book chapters on the subject of corals and ocean acidification. He was a member of the Ocean Carbon Biogeochemical Program Ocean Acidification Committee for three years before rotating off in 2011. He was co-organizer of Workshop on the Impacts of Increasing Atmospheric CO2 on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifers, St. Petersburg, FL Apr. 18-20, 2005 and the OCB Scoping workshop on ocean acidification, San Diego, CA, Nov. 13-15, 2007. He is co-founder of the South Florida Coral Reef & Climate Change Lab. Langdon pioneered the use of mesocosms
and an experimental approach to study the impact of ocean acidification on coral reefs at Columbia University’s Biosphere 2 Center in Tucson, AZ. Langdon was also a reviewer for the NRC report Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean.
Cindy Lee received her Ph.D. in chemical oceanography in 1975 from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California in San Diego and then spent 11 years at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. She has been on the faculty of Stony Brook University’s Marine Sciences Research Center since 1986. She has participated in many national and international research programs and has sailed all the Seven Seas. Her research is concerned with the distribution and behavior of biogenic organic compounds in the marine environment, and the role of these compounds in the global carbon cycle. Understanding how organic compounds behave requires knowledge of the biological, geological, and physical processes in the sea. Dr. Lee is interested in organic compounds in all environments, particularly seawater, surface microlayer and sediments of open ocean and coastal areas. She has been a member of the NAS Ocean Studies Board, as well as the Committee on Reference Materials for Ocean Science.
Edward L. Miles has been a pioneer and innovator in the evaluation and design of environmental policy. His research was instrumental to the development of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a convention designed to restructure and significantly expand the legal regime for the world’s oceans. He is also a key leader in the study of policies for climate change assessments. Edward Miles serves on the faculty of the Evans School and the School of Marine Affairs in the University of Washington’s College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences. He teaches international science and technology policy and marine policy. Miles’ research focuses primarily on problems of international science and technology policy, management of world fisheries, nuclear waste disposal, the law of the sea, comparative national marine policy, and global climate change. He has been a Ford Foundation Fellow; a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow; a James P. Warburg Fellow at the Center for International Affairs, Harvard University; and a Senior Fellow at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. He is currently a senior fellow at the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Oceans (JISAO), Virginia and Prentice M. Bloedel Professor of Marine Studies and Public Affairs, and co-director of the Center for Science in the Earth System (CSES). Miles previously served as chairman of the Ocean Policy Committee, National Research Council; joint appointee and chief negotiator for the Micronesian Maritime Authority, Federated States of Micronesia; chairman of the Advisory Group on the International Implications
of Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste into the Seabed, Nuclear Energy Agency, OECD, Paris; and chairman of the Advisory Committee on International Programs, National Science Foundation. He has also been a member of the Advisory Committee on Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences for the National Science Foundation. He is the lead author of marine policy for the working Group II-B of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for the 2nd 1995 assessment. He was also a 2003 member of The National Academy of Sciences and fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Miles holds a Ph.D. in international relations from the University of Denver, and a BA in history from Howard University.
James N. Sanchirico received his Ph.D. in agricultural and resource economics from the University of California at Davis. After working nine years in Washington D.C. as a fellow and then a senior fellow with Resources for the Future (an independent, non-profit environmental policy think-tank), he returned to UC Davis, where he is currently a professor in the Department of Environmental Science and Policy.
His main research interests include the economic analysis of policy design and implementation for marine and terrestrial species conservation, the development of economic-ecological models for forecasting the effects of resource management policies on the economics and ecology, and the control and prevention of invasive species. Twice his research has been honored with Quality of Research Discovery awards from the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, and he was part of the team of researchers at Resources for the Future honored with FEEM’s 20th Anniversary Prize in Environmental Economics. He communicates his research in economic and natural science peer-reviewed journals, including Science, U.S. Proceedings of the National Academies of Science, Conservation Letters, Marine Policy, and the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. His research has been covered in the Wall Street Journal, Science News, National Public Radio Science Fridays, The Economist, Providence Journal, and Greenwire News Service. In addition to serving on NOAA’s Science Advisory Board, he is a member of the Science Advisory committee of the Marine Ecosystem Services program at Forest Trends, on the editorial boards of Ecology Letters and Journal of Theoretical Ecology, and a Nonresident Fellow at Resources for the Future.
Claudia Mengelt is a senior program officer with the Ocean Studies Board. After completing her B.S. in aquatic biology at the University of
California, Santa Barbara, she received her M.S. in biological oceanography from the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University. Her master’s degree research focused on how chemical and physical parameters in the surface ocean affect Antarctic phytoplankton species composition and consequently impact biogeochemical cycles. She obtained her Ph.D. in marine sciences from the University of California, Santa Barbara, where she conducted research on the photo-physiology of harmful algal species. She joined the full-time staff of the National Academies’ Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate in fall 2005, following a fellowship with the same group in winter 2005. She has been with the Ocean Studies Board since 2008. While with the Academies, she has worked on studies including the Analysis of Global Change Assessments (2007), Strategic Guidance for the NSF’s Support of Atmospheric Sciences (2007), Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements (2007), Tsunami Warning and Preparedness (2010), and Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change (2010).
Jessica Dutton received her B.A. from Mount Holyoke College, and her Ph.D. in marine biology from the University of California, Santa As an ecological physiologist, her doctoral research focused on understanding the relationship between species tolerances and coastal environmental conditions, and how such patterns relate to range distributions and climate change. She was a fellow in 2009 with the National Sea Grant Knauss Marine Policy Fellowship Program, and in 2012 with the Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellowship Program at the National Academy of Sciences. In the latter position, and subsequently as a research associate, she has worked with the Ocean Studies Board on several NRC studies including the “Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon-252 Oil Spill on Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico,” “Review of the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan,” and “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Stock Rebuilding Plans of the 2006 Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act.”
Heather Chiarello joined the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in July 2008. She graduated magna cum laude from Central Michigan University in 2007 with a B.S. in political science with a concentration in public administration. Ms. Chiarello is currently a senior program assistant with the Ocean Studies Board in the Division on Earth and Life Sciences, and also with the Committee on International Security and Arms Control in the Policy and Global Affairs Division of the National Academies. She is pursuing a Master’s degree in sociology and public policy analysis at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C.