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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
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Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions

Proceedings of a Symposium

Pamela Ebert Flattau, Editor

Working Group on Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions Kenneth Polse, Chair

Committee on Vision

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C. 1991

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

This work relates to Department of the Navy contract N0014-80-C-0159 issued by the Office of Naval Research under Contract Authority NR 201-204. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred.

The United States government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, dispose of, and to authorize others to do so, all or any portion of this work.

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International Standard Book Number 0-309-04438-3

Additional copies of this report are available from:

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
×

WORKING GROUP ON CONTACT LENS USE UNDER ADVERSE CONDITIONS

KENNETH POLSE (Chair),

School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley (optometry)

JOHN W. CHANDLER,

Clinical Science Center, University of Wisconsin (ophthalmology)

JAMES P. HUGHES

(IOM), Oakland, California (occupational medicine)

JAMES JENKINS,

Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University (engineering)

DONALD R. KORB,

Boston, Massachusetts (optometry)

GEORGE MERTZ,

Marietta, Georgia (optometry)

MIGUEL F. REFOJO,

The Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (engineering)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
×

COMMITTEE ON VISION

SUZANNE MCKEE (Chair),

Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Foundation, San Francisco

LYNN COOPER,

Department of Psychology, Columbia University

RUSSELL LEE DEVALOIS,

Department of Psychology and Physiological Optics, University of California, Berkeley

MERTON CLYDE FLOM,

College of Optometry, University of Houston

DAVID L. GUYTON,

Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins University

DONALD HOOD,

Department of Psychology, Columbia University

JAMES LACKNER,

Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation Laboratory, Brandeis University

GORDON E. LEGGE,

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota

PETER LENNIE,

Center for Visual Sciences, University of Rochester

LOUIS SILVERSTEIN,

VCD Sciences, Scottsdale, Ariz.

KENT A. STEVENS,

Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Oregon

ANDREW B. WATSON,

NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.

PAMELA EBERT FLATTAU, Staff Officer

JOANNE ALBANES, Research Assistant

CAROL METCALF, Administrative Secretary

ROSE WHITE, Secretary

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
×

CONTRIBUTORS

MATHEA R. ALLANSMITH,

Department of Immunology, Eye Research Institute, Boston, Mass., and Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School

LEO G. CARNEY,

College of Optometry, Ohio State University

RICHARD J. DENNIS,

U.S. Air Force, School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Tex.

ROBERT P. GREEN, JR.,

U.S. Air Force, School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Tex.

JAMES T. JENKINS,

Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University

JOSHUA E. JOSEPHSON,

Toronto, Ontario

STEPHEN D. KLYCE,

Louisiana State University Eye Center

MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.,

U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, Ala.

GERALD E. LOWTHER,

School of Optometry, Medical Center, University of Alabama, Birmingham

ROBERT B. MANDELL,

School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley

ANDREW A. MARKOVITS,

Department of Ophthalmology, Naval Aerospace Medical Institute, Pensacola, Fla.

GEORGE W. MERTZ,

Department of Clinical Research, Vistakon Inc. (a division of Johnson & Johnson Vision Product, Inc.), Jacksonville, Fla.

MELVIN R. O'NEAL,

Armstrong Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

MIGUEL F. REFOJO,

Eye Research Institute, Boston, Mass., and Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School

OLIVER D. SCHEIN,

Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Md.

JOHN P. SCHOESSLER,

College of Optometry, Ohio State University

JAMES F. SOCKS,

Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, Tex.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
×

Foreword

The Committee on Vision is a standing committee of the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The committee provides analysis and advice on scientific issues and applied problems involving vision. It also attempts to stimulate the further development of visual science and to provide a forum in which basic and applied scientists, engineers, and clinicians can interact. Working groups of the committee study questions that may involve engineering and equipment, physiological and physical optics, neurophysiology, psychophysics, perception, environmental effects on vision, and treatment of visual disorders.

In order for the committee to perform its role effectively, it draws on experts from a wide range of scientific, engineering, and clinical disciplines. The members of this working group were chosen for their expertise in research related to ocular response to contemporary contact lenses and for their familiarity with the application of those research findings to the use of contact lenses in extreme environments.

This report summarizes present understanding of the scientific, clinical, and technological issues surrounding the use of contact lenses. Symposium participants discussed the special occupational conditions experienced by military personnel in the aerospace environment that give rise to the question of whether contact lenses should or should not be used. The proceedings of the symposium will serve as the basis for further deliberations by the working group.

The results of this symposium will be of particular interest to those involved in the design of contact lenses and those responsible for occupational safety and health matters in the private sector.

Suzanne McKee, Chair

Committee on Vision

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
×

Preface

In response to a request from the Triservice Aeromedical Research Panel (TARP), the Committee on Vision established the Working Group on Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions. The working group was asked to: (1) summarize current scientific, clinical, and technological issues in the use of contact lenses, (2) review the operational requirements of military personnel relative to the use of contact lenses, and (3) identify the critical factors to be taken into account by TARP in adopting a formal position on the use of contact lenses by U.S. military personnel.

To accomplish these goals, the working group convened a symposium to review what is known about the design and use of contemporary contact lenses. Special emphasis was given to the use of lenses in extreme environmental conditions. Twenty-five specialists from the fields of optometry, ophthalmology, visual psychophysics, and engineering met for two days in November 1988 at Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, in conjunction with the fall meeting of the Triservice Aeromedical Research Panel. Participants essentially provided a tutorial on recent developments in the design and use of contact lenses.

The two-day symposium was organized around scientific and clinical considerations in the use of contact lenses. Following a series of briefings by military personnel, members of the first session were asked to address environmental effects on contact lens wear, including the effects of low oxygen and low humidity. The second panel considered environmental conditions and tear chemistry, corneal topography, and biochemical aspects of contact lens wear. The third panel explored preventive measures relative to lens design, including blink rate and mechanical aspects of contact lens performance. The fourth panel addressed issues related to ocular risks, such as infection, inflammation, and endothelial effects. The fifth panel

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
×

reviewed limitations of contemporary materials with respect to selection criteria and task performance, including follow-up care. The program offered ample opportunity for formal and informal group discussion. The edited proceedings of the discussion together with the formal papers of the participants are the contents of this report.

In addition to the specialists who participated in the symposium, a number of people contributed in important ways to this project. Robert Miller of the Brooks Air Force Base staff facilitated arrangements for the symposium. Roger Wiley and his staff at the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory assisted the working group in arranging for presentations by U.S. military personnel both at the symposium and at meetings of the working group. Pamela Ebert Flattau, the committee's study director, provided valuable assistance in organizing the symposium and preparing the proceedings report. As always, Carol Metcalf, the committee's administrative secretary, provided efficient and skillful support.

Kenneth Polse, Chair

Working Group on Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1773.
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This book summarizes current understanding of the scientific, clinical, and technical issues surrounding the use of contact lenses. It discusses the special occupational conditions experienced by military personnel, particularly in extreme environments, that give rise to the question of whether or not to use contact lenses.

Experts in optometry, ophthalmology, visual psychophysics, and engineering describe recent developments in design and use; and representatives of the military services provide examples of actual situations in aerospace settings. Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions will be of particular interest to those involved in the design of contact lenses and those responsible for occupational safety and health matters in the private sector.

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