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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

Index

A

Acid rain, 26, 155, 247-248

Adaptation, 107, 108, 138, 140-142, 165nn.4 and 5

Adjustment, 107-108, 165nn.4 and 5, 241

Aerosol spray cans, 57, 117, 133

Africa, 18, 79, 127

Aggregate analysis, 96

Agrarian reform, 70

Agriculture, 168, 171, 175, 177, 179, 202

adaptive strategies, 107, 108, 140-142

biological diversity effects, 17

climate change and, 35, 107, 127, 136, 246

deforestation effects, 20, 33, 72, 74, 83, 107

greenhouse gas emissions, 18, 40, 108, 153

management systems, 97

polyculture, 4, 108, 141

population growth and, 94

productivity data, 204

Sahelian drought, 127, 128, 162

Air conditioning, 56-57, 58, 107, 118

Airlines, 122

Air pollution, 26, 66, 88, 97, 139, 152, 153, 169

Albedo, 26, 27, 179, 212

Amazon Basin, 87-88, 98

agriculture, 70, 72, 74, 140, 141

deforestation, 20-21, 36, 67-75, 99n.2, 99-100n.3, 158, 162

American bison, 99-100n.3

Ammonia, 18, 56

Analytical data and accounting, 218-219

Antarctica, 113

ozone hole, 19, 28, 54, 58, 117-118

Anthropology, 176, 238

Aral Sea, 87, 158

Arctic ozone, 28

Argentina, 82

Arms control, 252

Asia, 79

Atmosphere, 1, 26, 32

uniform law of, 21, 155

Attitudes and beliefs, 3, 75, 89-92, 95

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

Australia, 82

Automobiles

fuel consumption, 48-49, 104-105, 122, 124, 133, 163

greenhouse gas emissions, 106-107

U.S. dependency, 88, 144, 175-176

B

Bangladesh, 18, 64

Beef production, 55, 71

Behavioral analysis, 21, 134

Behavioral decision research, 131-132

Behavioral science, 10, 25, 168, 171, 176, 236

Benefit-cost analysis, 192-193

Bias, 213, 215

Biological diversity, 24, 26

conflict over, 155, 247-248

data needs, 202-203

deforestation and, 17, 20-21, 25, 67-68, 99n.1, 99-100n.3

international cooperation, 248

mass extinctions, 29-30

mitigation of species loss, 107, 109, 112

research priorities, 40, 245-246

Biological sciences, 212, 216

Biomass burning, 46

Biomedical research, 224

Biosphere, 1, 26, 32

Bollen, K A., 215

Boom town development, 190

Brazil

data sampling, 219, 249

economic development policies, 20-21, 69, 70-71, 75, 93, 98, 241

energy consumption, 63

foreign debt, 71-72

land tenure, 70, 74, 93

resource use, 141

tropical deforestation, 67-75, 94, 109, 153, 155, 240

British Antarctic Survey, 54

C

California, 55, 57

Canada, 27, 36, 82

Cancer, 35, 151

skin cancer, 4, 28, 107, 117, 119, 201-202

''war on cancer,'' 224

Capitalism, 86-87, 89, 91, 94, 158, 177>

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

data availability, 215

deforestation and, 17, 18, 48

emission modeling, 182, 184

emissions, China, 53, 60, 61, 64-65, 66, 155

emissions, Europe, 82

environmental effects, 27, 35

fossil fuel emissions, 17, 48, 60, 96, 245

greenhouse effect contribution, 18, 25, 28, 33, 45-46, 47, 50, 60, 64, 200, 245

human consequences, 31

human responses, 30, 105, 106-107, 110, 155, 163

Carbon tax, 21

Carbon tetrachloride, 19, 118

Carrier, Willis H., 56

Case studies, 186, 196, 215

Cataracts, 28

Cattle raising, 36, 69, 71, 72, 128

Catton, W. R., Jr., 90

Charleston, S.C., 54

Chemical industry, 119

Chicago, Ill., 55

China

agricultural land use, 74

carbon dioxide emissions, 53, 60, 61, 64-65, 66, 155

and CFC regulations, 19, 118-119, 153

coal burning, 60-67, 86, 87, 93, 94, 155-156

data sampling, 219, 249

energy intensity, 61-64, 65, 67, 95, 126, 174

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

Cholorofluorocarbons (CFC), 35, 94-95, 98, 99

aerosol spray ban, 57, 117, 133

developing countries and, 153, 155-156

economic models and, 137, 168

greenhouse gas contribution, 18, 19, 27, 28, 45-46, 47, 49, 58

invention of, 19, 56, 59-60, 93, 159

mitigation of effects, 107, 199

Montreal Protocol, 19, 58, 116-117, 118-119

ozone depletion, 17, 19-20, 28, 31-32, 54, 57-58

research issues, 174, 180, 186, 200, 202

Cities, 37, 58, 72

Climate change, 20, 24

agricultural effects, 35, 107, 127, 136, 246

carbon dioxide contribution, 18, 25, 28, 33, 45-46, 47, 50, 60, 64 , 200, 245

CFC contribution, 18, 19, 27, 28, 45-46, 47, 49, 58

deforestation and, 18, 68, 245-246

forest migration, 31

greenhouse gas emission, 18, 28, 29, 33, 66-67, 165n.3, 239

human consequences of, 26-27, 28-29

human responses to, 22, 104-105, 106-107, 113, 120, 132, 136, 143, 152-153, 163

mitigation controversy, 109-113

modeling of, 29, 32, 182, 189, 236

research issues, 170-171, 200-201, 218, 230-231, 239, 245-246, 248

tree-structured account, 45-52

Cloud patterns, 27, 29, 165n.3

Coal combustion, 87, 137

China, 60-67, 86, 87, 93, 95, 155-156

Collective action, 37, 41, 154, 156, 229-230

Command economies, 61-62, 64, 66, 67, 97-98, 157

Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES), 10, 233, 237

Communication technology, 158

Communities, 6, 142-145

Comparative analysis, 96-97

Comparative politics, 212

Comparative studies, 6, 95-97, 164, 186, 240

Computer simulation, 188

Conflict management, 14, 115-116, 150-151, 161, 242-243, 247

Conservation of matter, 80

Contraception, 214

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1973), 154

Corporations, 6, 70-71, 143, 145, 146-147, 148, 156

Costa Rica, 88

Costs

benefit-cost analysis, 192-193

data collection, 7-8, 206, 210-211, 212-213, 248

environmental protection, 85, 148

international organizations, 156

market externalities, 85-86, 136-137, 139

national research program, 15-16, 254-256

social costs, 80, 246

Cretaceous period, 30

Critical zones, 221-222

Cultural ecology, 37-39

Cultural factors, 36

Cultural identity, 159

D

Data, 42, 200-203, 234

analytical data and accounting, 218-219

availability, 7-8, 75, 127, 204-206

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

costs of, 7-8, 206, 210-211, 212-213, 248

data needs, 7-8, 216-218, 248-251

information network, 206-210

local data collection, 220-222

national data center, 14, 210, 253

quality of, 8, 211-213

recommendations, 14, 16, 210, 211, 217, 219, 222, 235, 249, 255

reliability and validity, 213-214, 215, 216

remote-sensing information, 8, 209, 210, 212, 250-251

sampling nations, 219-220, 249

Data Resources, Inc., 210-211

Decision making, 22, 36-37, 153

democratization and, 158-159

environmental policy, 151-152

models, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196

research needs, 13, 152, 229-230, 242-243, 247

Decision theory, 131

Deforestation

Amazon Basin, 20-21, 67-75, 94, 162

carbon dioxide effects, 17, 18, 48

environmental effects of, 18, 31, 68, 99n.2, 245-246

human causes of, 3, 20-21, 36, 69-75, 93, 94

human responses to, 107

market valuation, 137

research needs, 36, 96, 97, 142, 152, 179, 180, 211

Sahel region, 128, 129

and species extinction, 17, 20-21, 25, 67-68, 99n.1, 99-100n.3

Democratization, 82, 158-159

Demographic Yearbooks (UN), 205

Demography, 36, 77, 176, 205, 212, 214, 227, 252

Dependency theory, 87-88, 89

Desertification, 25, 26, 127

Developing countries

data availability, 213, 219

environmental damage in economic growth, 81, 82, 87, 94, 155, 158

and Montreal Protocol, 19, 118, 153

population growth, 79, 157

Directed case comparisons, 186

Discount rates, 111, 112, 137, 139

Drought, 4, 69, 127-30, 140, 142, 162, 163-164, 242

Dunlap, R. E., Jr., 90

DuPont de Nemours & Company, Inc., 19, 58, 118, 119

Dust Bowl, 142

E

Earth

albedo, 26, 27

gene pool, 37

radiative balance, 44, 47, 106

"Earth as Transformed by Human Action," 39

Earth Observing System (EOS), 8, 209, 210, 211, 250, 251

Econometrics, 196, 215

Economic development

data availability, 204, 217

and energy intensity, 18, 61, 94, 126

and environmental conflict, 113-114, 144, 155, 162

and greenhouse gas emissions, 18, 53, 64-65, 66, 97-98

as human cause of change, 2, 75, 79-83

public policy, 20, 61-62, 66, 70-72, 82, 88

research needs, 93, 95, 200, 201, 240

resource exploitation, 80-81, 88, 90, 157

technology and, 94

Economics, 36, 91, 176, 212, 214, 238

Economic Surveys (OECD), 205

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

Economic theory, 85-86, 136, 137, 139

Ecosystem diversity, 67, 68

Educational levels, 177

Ehrlich, Paul R., 76

Electricity production, 57, 63, 66, 69

Electrification, 60

Energy conservation and efficiency

automobiles and transportation, 37, 51-52, 104-105, 122, 124, 133

data availability, 211

global warming mitigation, 104-105, 113, 120, 126, 133-134, 143, 242

policy evaluation, 189, 191, 199

United States, 37, 51-52, 63, 120-127, 133

Energy consumption

air conditioning, 57

China, 61-64, 95

data availability, 204, 216-217

and economic development, 18, 61, 64-65, 126

national variations in, 1, 18, 36, 78, 240, 245

United States, 18, 35-36, 37, 63, 109, 120, 122, 126, 174

Energy demand, 53, 59, 201

Energy intensity

China, 61-64, 65, 67, 95, 126, 174

national variations in, 13, 62, 245

research needs, 245

United States, 37, 120-121, 126, 245

Energy prices, 122-124, 125, 126, 137, 218

Enlightenment, 90

Environmental change, 25-33

Environmental change, human causes of, 17, 18, 44-45, 53-54

attitudes and beliefs, 3, 75, 89-92, 95

economic growth, 2, 75, 79-83

human and environmental system interaction, 1, 33-34, 42-43

mitigation of, 4, 105-107, 163, 165n.2

political-economic institutions, 3, 75, 85-89, 197

population growth, 2, 75, 76-79

research and research needs, 3, 40-42, 92-93, 95-99, 167, 239-241

social driving forces, 75-76, 93-95

social sciences and, 21-22, 24, 35-37, 40-42, 236-237

technological change, 2-3, 75, 77, 83-85

tree-structured accounting system for, 45-53, 92

Environmental change, human consequences of, 1-2, 4, 22, 27, 28, 31, 33, 34-35, 101, 102-104, 116

conflict, 4-5, 109-116

research and research needs, 4, 37, 160-162, 167, 237

valuation of, 13, 161, 192-194, 246

Environmental change, human responses to, 2, 5, 17, 101, 104-109, 116

adaptation, 107-108, 138, 140-142, 165nn.4, 5

assessment of consequences and, 28, 103-104, 160-161, 187

decision making, 151-152, 242-243, 247

feedback to driving forces, 22-23, 24, 164, 168

global social change, 6, 130-131, 156-60, 177

individual perception, judgment, and action, 5, 130-136, 142

international cooperation, 5-6, 14, 19, 130-131, 152-156, 158, 177 , 180, 181, 248

markets, 5, 104, 130-131, 136-139, 157-158, 162

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

mitigation, 4, 105-107, 109-113, 163-164, 241

national policies, 5, 130-131, 147-152, 179

post hoc analysis of, 7, 104, 190-191, 198-199

research and research needs, 4, 6, 103-104, 160-161, 162-164, 237, 238, 241-244

social system robustness, 4, 108, 162-163, 166n.6, 241, 242

sociocultural systems, 5, 130-131, 140-143, 158, 162-163

subnational-level organizations, 5, 130-131, 143-147

Environmental conflict, 13-14, 109, 114-115, 116

conflict management, 14, 115-116, 150-151, 161, 242-243, 247

economic development and environmental protection, 113-114, 144, 155, 162

global warming mitigation, 109-113

reflexivity and, 180-181

research needs, 4-5, 160, 161, 247-248

Environmental degradation, 76-77, 80, 90, 130

Environmental ethics, 90

Environmental history, 37-39

Environmental impact statements, 199

Environmental management, 177

Environmental movement organizations, 117, 118, 134-135, 145-146, 147, 148, 150, 156

Environmental paradigm, 90

Environmental perception, 37-38, 171

Environmental psychology, 38

Environmental quality, 81, 88, 124, 157-158, 216-217

Environmental regulations, 148, 149, 150, 179, 242

Environmental sociology, 38

Environmental spillovers, 153, 218, 219

Environmental systems, 1, 26, 30-34, 102, 164, 168, 169, 181, 241

Ethnography, 190

Europe, 27

energy consumption, 36, 240

environmental movement in, 146, 147

environmental policies, 147-48, 149

gasoline taxes, 104-105

pollutant emissions, 82, 153

resource use, 81-82

sampling nations, 219, 249

social and political transformations, 175, 177

European settlement in America, 104

Expert judgments, 132, 151

F

Famine, 4, 127, 128, 129

Farman, Joseph, 54

Feedback mechanisms, 22-23, 24, 26, 35, 94, 168-169

Fellowships, 9, 14-15, 16, 228, 229, 235, 251, 252, 255

Fertility rates, 77-78, 111, 176, 179-180, 211, 214

Fertilizers, 18, 106-107

Florida, 55, 57

Food and Agriculture Organization, 204-205

Food production, 13, 55-56, 94, 217, 245-246

Forest migration, 31, 111-112, 166n.8

Fossil fuels, 35, 71, 74, 83

carbon dioxide emission, 17, 18, 46, 96, 245

Chinese consumption, 60-61, 65, 94

consumption trends, 41-42, 174, 178, 186

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

dependency on, 108

economic development and, 64-65, 94, 97, 113

energy conservation and, 122, 126

global warming effects, 33, 60, 239

replacement technologies, 81, 107, 110, 112

research needs, 152, 178

taxes, 104-105, 163-164

France, 148, 149

Frankfurt school, 89

Freon gas, 56-57

Funding

national research program, 15-16, 235, 254-256

program evaluation, 199

research, 11, 12, 224-225, 231-232, 238, 244-245

training fellowships, 14, 227-228, 229, 255

G

Gasoline taxes, 104-105, 163-164

General circulation models (GCM), 32, 172, 181, 182, 236

General Motors Frigidaire division, 56

Genetic diversity, 67

Geography, 36, 38, 176, 212

Geopolitical shifts, 158

Geosphere, 1, 26

Germany, 147-148, 149, 218

Global-scale analysis, 95-96

Global social change, 6, 130-131, 156-60, 177

Global warming. See Climate change

Gran Carajas, Brazil, 69

Grand Canyon, 80

Great Britain, 147-148, 149

Great Plains, 141-142, 179

Greece, 126

Greenhouse effect. See Climate change

Greenhouse gases, 25, 26

Chinese emissions, 60, 64, 67

climate change effects, 18, 28, 29, 33, 66-67, 165n.3

deforestation effects, 67

economic growth and, 18, 53, 64-65, 66, 97-98

human contributions, 27, 45-46, 47, 49-51, 59, 60, 92, 239

human mitigation responses, 104, 108, 113, 126

international cooperation, 153

market effects, 97

models, 178, 181, 236

research priorities, 40, 200

U.S. emissions, 50, 60, 64, 88

Gross national product, 79, 211, 215, 218, 219

H

Haas, P.M., 119

Halocarbons, 49, 99

Halons, 19

Hardin, R., 90

Harvard University, 252

Hazardous waste, 169

History, 176

Home energy rating systems, 125

Homer-Dixon, T. F., 115

Human behavior, 17

projection of, 21-22, 32-33

reflexivity of, 167, 174, 180-181, 182, 194

unanticipated consequences of, 31

Human ecology, 37-39, 171

Human health, 28, 217

Humanism, 90

Human systems, 1, 26, 30, 173-174

and conflict management, 161

environmental system interaction, 33-34, 101, 106, 164, 181, 241

global social change, 6, 130-131, 156-60, 177

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

individual perception, judgment, and action, 5, 130-136, 142

international cooperation, 5-6, 130-131, 152-156

interventions in, 106, 107

irreversibility, 175

markets, 5, 130-131, 136-139

national policies, 5, 130-131, 147-152, 179

research priorities, 97, 109, 239-240, 241

responses of, 103, 110, 116, 126, 187

robustness of systems, 108, 242

sociocultural systems, 5, 130-131, 140-143

subnational-level organizations, 5, 130-131, 143-147

theory of, 197

Hungary, 62, 177-178

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), 19, 47, 49

Hydroelectric power, 20, 61, 69

Hydrohalocarbons, 19

Hydrosphere, 1, 26

I

Immune system response, 28

Income, 79, 178, 204, 218

India

data sampling, 219, 249

energy consumption, 18, 62, 63, 64, 78

greenhouse gas emissions, 153, 155

and Montreal Protocol, 19, 118-119

population growth, 111

Individual perception, judgment, and action, 5, 130-136, 142

Indonesia, 63, 64, 75, 155, 218, 240

Industrialization, 60, 61, 64-65, 88, 126, 179

Industrial Revolution, 17, 18, 177, 241

Industry, 175

deforestation, 68, 69, 72

energy consumption, 61-62, 63, 65, 97, 126, 159

and environmental protection, 146, 150

pollutant emissions, 17, 169

Information network, 206-210

Institutional structures, 9, 36, 223, 224-226

Integrated circuit manufacture, 57

Integrative models, 7, 181-182, 185, 198

Inter-American Development Bank, 69

Interdependencies, 30-31, 32, 167, 173, 174, 180, 182, 186

Interdisciplinary collaboration, 25, 37-38, 77, 164, 167, 168, 193-194.

See also Social and natural science collaboration

barriers to, 10-11

data collection, 212

national research program, 9, 226, 253

necessity of, 6, 95, 186, 196-197

recommendations, 225-226

research priorities, 32, 42, 93, 174-175, 229, 230-232, 243

in social sciences, 171-172

Interest groups, 148-149, 150

Interest rates, 137

Intergovernmental organizations, 156

International agreements, 19, 58, 59, 116-120, 138, 147, 168

International Atomic Energy Agency, 177

International collaboration, research, 42, 243-244

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (1946), 154

International cooperation, environmental, 5-6, 14, 19, 130-131, 152-156, 158, 177, 180, 181, 248

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

International Council of Scientific Unions, 24

International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies, 25

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), 24

International Labor Organization, 204-205

International Monetary Fund, 204-205, 210-211

International Social Science Council, 25

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), 205, 207

Investment, 163, 177, 179

Iron, 30, 110

Irreversible changes, 31, 92, 167, 173, 175-176, 182

Irrigation, 87, 127, 130

Islam, 159

J

Jamaica, 62

Japan, 218

energy consumption, 18, 36, 126

environmental policies, 147, 148, 149

gasoline taxes, 104-105

and Montreal Protocol, 118

Java, 74

Judeo-Christian tradition, 89

K

Korea, 63

L

Labor, 87, 162, 188

Labor force participation, 53, 177

Lag times, 31-32, 167, 173, 177

Land degradation, 142

Land distribution, 74, 218

Land speculation, 70

Land tenure, 70, 107, 152

Land use

agricultural, 179

data needs, 201, 203, 217

and deforestation, 71, 72-75, 129

research priorities, 13, 36, 142, 182, 212, 245-246

Land values, 216

Latin America, 79, 88

Law of the atmosphere, 21, 155

Law of the sea, 155

Leisure time budgets, 216

Lesotho, 18

Levins, R., 183

Library of Congress, 211

Local data collection, 220-222

Logging industry, 69, 71, 72

Louis Harris Data Center, 205

M

Mahar, D., 70

Malthus, Thomas R., 39, 76

"Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth," 39

Manufacturing, 69, 81, 120-121, 152

Manufacturing solvents, 57, 58

Market economies, 86-87, 175

Markets, 3, 130-131, 177, 179

data sources, 203

as expression of individual attitudes, 91, 135

externalities, 85-86, 136-137, 139

failure to prevent environmental damage, 80-81, 85-87, 124, 136-137, 157

governmental intervention, 86, 124

as human response, 5, 104, 136-139, 157-158, 162

oil, 96

research priorities, 89, 97, 139, 162-163, 242

and technological change, 83-84

valuation of consequences, 86, 139, 192, 246

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

Marsh, George Perkins, 39

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 252

Materialism, 89, 90, 94, 97

Mathematical models, 31, 182, 183

Media, mass communications, 151

Methane (CH4)

atmospheric concentrations, 27, 200

global warming effects, 18, 28, 33

human contributions, 18, 33, 45-46, 47, 48, 52, 153

Methodology, 6, 167, 214-216, 223, 234

data interpretation, 211, 212, 213

experimental methods, 185-186

global models, 181-185, 188-190, 194-196

methodological pluralism, 7, 186, 198

social impact assessment, 187-192

valuation of consequences, 192-194

Methyl chloride, 56

Methyl chloroform, 19, 118

Midgely, Thomas, Jr., 56, 59

Mining, 68, 87

"Mission to Planet Earth," 211

Mitigation, 4, 105-107, 138, 165n.2, 241

energy conservation, 104-105, 113, 120, 126, 133-134, 143, 242

global warming, 109-113, 120, 126, 163

international cooperation and, 153, 180

ozone depletion, 107, 180

policy evaluation, 189-190

species extinction, 107, 112

Mitigation and Adaptation Research Strategies, 16, 237, 256

Modeling, 7, 32-33, 172-173, 174-175, 181-185, 188-190, 194-196, 198

Modernization, 128

Molina, Mario, 57

"Monitoring of Population Trends" (UN), 205

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987) , 19, 58, 59, 116-117, 118

London Amendments (1990), 19, 58, 116-117, 118

Mortality, 204

Multivariate analysis, 186

N

National Accounts (OECD), 205

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 117, 209, 211, 232, 233, 250

National Bureau of Economic Research, 252

National Center for Atmospheric Research, 227, 253

National centers for research, 9, 15, 16, 226-227, 252-254

National data center, 14, 210, 253

National Environmental Policy Act (1970), 187

National income accounts, 204, 218

National Institutes of the Environment, 227, 254-256

National Institutes of Health, 227, 232-233, 253-254

National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, 232

National policies, 5, 130-131, 147-152, 179.

See also Public policy

National Research Council (NRC), 16, 78, 255-256

Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, 24, 208, 221

National research program, 10-16, 40, 235, 249, 254-256

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

National Science Foundation (NSF), 10, 232-233, 237

funding recommendations, 11, 12, 15, 235, 238-239, 244-245, 254-255

National security, 158

Native Americans, 72, 141

Natural disasters, 142-143, 170-171

Natural hazards, 37-38, 165n.5, 171

Natural sciences, 35, 41, 170-171, 192, 196, 249.

See also Social and natural science collaboration

Nigeria, 64, 128, 162

Nitrogen oxides, 28, 213

Nitrous oxide (N2O), 18, 28, 45-46, 47, 48, 106-107

Nongovernmental organizations, 142-143, 148, 151

Nonlinearity, 31, 167, 173, 175, 182

Nonmarket activity, 219

Nonmarket use of time, 218

Nonmarket valuation, 216

Normative forecasting, 195

Nuclear power, 61, 83, 132, 169, 188

O

Oceans, 26, 30, 106, 110

Oil, 96, 137

Oil shocks, 121, 122-123, 126

Oil spills, 218

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 7-8, 201, 205, 210-211, 218

Overgrazing, 127, 128, 130

Ozone layer depletion, 24, 26, 99

Antarctica, 19, 28, 54, 58, 117-118

chlorofluorocarbon accumulation in, 17, 19, 28, 32, 54, 57-60

externalities costs, 85-86

human consequences of, 28, 35, 201-202

human responses to, 37, 107, 108, 133, 199 202, 236

international cooperation, 19-20, 59, 116-120, 152-153, 154, 155, 168, 248

Montreal Protocol, 19, 58, 59, 116-117, 118

research priorities, 119-120, 168, 180, 248

time scales, 27, 32

P

Pakistan, 18, 64

Pará, Brazil, 74

Permian period, 30

Pesticides, 169

Physical science, 32, 212, 216

Phytoplankton, 30, 110

Poland, 62, 177-178

Policy analysis, 192, 194

Policy evaluation, 22, 164, 189-190, 191, 199

Political-economic institutions, 3, 75, 85-89, 197

Political factors, 36

Political process, 192, 193, 195

Political science, 38, 156, 176, 238

Pollution

air pollution, 26, 66, 88, 97, 139, 152, 153, 169

international cooperation and, 153, 169, 248

markets and, 97

national policies and, 66, 82, 88, 179

oceans, 26

population growth and, 157

research priorities, 139, 152, 182

and species extinction, 31

technological development and, 59, 83

Polyculture, 4, 108, 141

Population growth, 111, 157, 179-180, 191, 227

as cause of environmental change, 2, 75, 76-79

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

data availability, 204, 209, 214, 215, 217

and deforestation, 20, 36, 72

and economic growth, 79

and energy consumption, 60, 61, 65, 126

feedback mechanisms, 94

and global warming, 18, 200, 201

research priorities, 95, 97, 240

and technological development, 83-84

Portugal, 126

Post hoc analysis, 7, 104, 190-191, 198-199

Postmaterialism, 135

Poverty, 74, 87, 108

Princeton University, 226, 252, 253

Professional associations, 10, 231

Property rights, 81, 86, 137, 152, 241

Protestant theology, 89

Psychology, 38, 45, 132, 215, 238

Public opinion, 19, 38, 150, 211, 219, 241

Public policy, 21, 147-152, 161, 179

capitalism and, 86-87, 148

China, 61-62, 63, 65-66, 67

and deforestation, 20-21, 69-72, 75, 96

economic development, 20, 61-62, 66, 70-72, 82, 88

and energy consumption, 36, 63, 67

environmental movement and, 145, 148, 150

evaluation of, 22, 164, 191, 192, 193, 194, 199

and global warming, 126, 164, 200

indigenous response systems and, 129-130

individual reactions and, 135

markets and, 138

ozone depletion, 202

research priorities, 89, 95, 96, 149-151, 195, 196, 241

technological development, 84

U.S. energy conservation, 88, 123-124

Public transportation, 37, 144

Q

Quasi-experimentation, 185-186

R

Rainfall

adaptation to, 141-142

deforestation and, 68, 99n.2

global warming and, 26, 29, 34, 127, 165n.3

models of, 171, 181, 189

Sahel region, 128, 129

Rand Corporation, 253-254

Randomized experiments, 185

Rationalism, 89

Reagan, Ronald, 177-178

Recommendations, 235

data, 14, 211, 217, 219, 222, 248-251

fellowships, 9-10, 14-15, 228, 251-252

funding, 15-16, 254-256

information network, 209-210

interdisciplinary research, 225-226

national centers for research, 9, 15, 226, 252-254

national research program, 10-16, 235-256

program evaluation, 199

research grants, 11-14, 231, 233-234, 237-248

Recycling, 82, 97

Reflexivity, 167, 174, 180-181, 182, 194

Refrigeration industry, 54-60, 83, 94, 98, 117, 118, 159

Remote-sensing information, 8, 209, 210, 212, 250-251

Renewable energy, 112

Research

data needs, 7-8, 14, 42, 209,

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

210, 211, 216, 219, 222, 248-251

environmental conflict, 5, 114-116, 242-243, 247-248

federal organizational barriers to, 10, 232-234

fellowships, 14-15, 227-230, 251-252

focused, 12-14, 244-248

funding, 15-16, 254-256

institutional structures of, 9, 224-226

interdisciplinary collaboration in, 10, 42, 168-172, 196-197, 223, 230-232, 243

investigator-initiated, 11, 238-244

methodology issues, 7, 167, 181-182, 185-186, 191-192, 193, 194, 196, 198, 214-215, 223

national centers for research, 9, 15, 226-227, 252-254

national research program, 10-16, 235, 254-256

priorities for, 13-14, 40-42, 95-99, 237-248

theory issues, 41, 167, 174-175, 176, 178, 180-181, 197-198

Research, human causes of global change, 3, 40-42, 92-93, 95-99, 167, 239-241

attitudes and beliefs, 91-92

economic growth, 82-83

political-economic institutions, 89

population growth, 77-79

social driving forces, 75, 93-95, 237-238, 239-240

technological change, 84-85, 246-247

Research, human responses to global change, 4, 6, 103-104, 160-161, 162-164, 237, 238, 241-244

communities, 144-145

corporations and trade associations, 147

individual perception and action, 132-133, 134, 135-136

international cooperation, 155-156, 248

markets, 138, 139

national policies, 149-151, 152

post hoc program analysis, 7, 104, 190-191, 198-199

social movements, 146

sociocultural systems, 142, 143, 242

Research Strategies for the U.S. Global Change Research Program (NRC), 221

Resource depletion

data collection, 217, 218, 219

economic development and, 80-81, 88, 90, 157

global-scale analysis, 179

population growth and, 39

sustainable zones, 222

technology and, 83

Resource economics, 37-38, 39-40

Resource management, 37-38, 40, 81, 171

Resources for the Future, 227, 253-254

Respiration, animal and plant, 46

Rice paddies, 18, 153

Risk analysis, 193

Road building, 20, 36, 68, 69-70

Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, 205

Rosewood, 99n.1, 99-100n.3

Rowland, Sherwood, 57

Rubber tappers, 72

S

Sahel region, Africa, 127-30, 140, 141, 162-163, 179

Sample surveys, 204

Sampling, 219-220, 249

Scripps Oceanographic Institution, 226, 253

Sea levels, 27, 102, 157, 216

Slash-and-burn cultivation, 140

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

Social and natural science collaboration, 24-25.

See also Interdisciplinary collaboration

accounting systems, 52

data collection, 222

incentives for, 9-10, 230, 236-237, 243, 251-252

national research program, 10-11, 226, 253

necessity of, 21-22, 42-43, 168, 169, 170-171, 223, 234

Social change, global, 6, 130-131, 156-60, 177

Social conflict, 229-230, 238, 247.

See also Conflict management

Social costs, 80, 246

Social discount rates, 111, 112, 137, 139

Social driving forces, 75-76, 93-95

Social impact assessment (SIA), 187-188, 189-190, 191, 192, 193

Socialization, 177

Social models, 196

Social movements, 6, 143, 145-146, 211

Social paradigm, 90

Social revolutions, 175

Social science, 25, 35-40

applied and basic research, 41, 192, 233-234

and behavioral science, 171-172

data availability, 204, 209, 210, 212, 216, 249, 250

and decision making, 153

and environmental conflict, 114, 115

environmental social science, 9, 37-40, 43, 95, 171, 180, 227, 232-233

federal agencies and, 10, 232-234

and global change research, 35-40, 168-170, 236

levels of analysis and time scales, 99, 176, 179, 240

modeling, 174-175, 185, 188-189, 196

national research centers, 252

and nonlinearities, 175

policy evaluation, 164, 190-191

population growth in, 76, 77

professional associations, 231

and reflexivity, 181

research priorities, 40-42, 237-238

research techniques, 97, 185-186

social impact assessment methodology, 187-188, 189-190

theoretical tools, 6, 41

valuation methods, 192-193

Social science theory, 6, 197, 204

Social systems, 102

robustness of, 4, 108, 162-163, 166n.6, 241, 242

Social transformations, 177-178

Social traps, 37

Sociocultural systems, 5, 130-131, 140-143, 158, 162-163

Socioeconomic marginalization, 158

Socioeconomic organization, 179

Sociology, 45, 215, 238

Soils, 25, 26, 31, 68, 80, 140, 141, 169

Soil scientists, 169

Solar energy, 110, 163

South Africa, 62

South Korea, 53

Soviet Union, 159, 178

Aral Sea, 87, 158

carbon dioxide emissions, 60

coal production, 60-61

data sampling, 219, 249

energy consumption, 63

environmental movement in, 135

and Montreal Protocol, 118

Spatial scales, 178-180

Species diversity, 29-30, 44, 67-68, 99n.2

Species extinction, 20, 30, 31, 34, 99n.1, 99-100n.3, 107, 109, 112, 240

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

Stalin, Josef V., 61-62

Statistical analysis, 213, 216

Statistical Yearbooks (UN), 205

Steel industry, 124

Suburbanization, 144, 176

SUDAM, 71

Sulfur dioxide, 56

Sulfur oxide, 66

Sun Belt, 57, 60

Supersonic transport, 57, 117

Survey data, 216-217

Survey research, 186

Sustainable zones, 222

Systemic analysis, 96

T

Taiwan, 53

Technology, 90

conflicts over, 114, 116

and deforestation, 36

and energy use, 120-121, 122, 123-124

and environmental change, 2-3, 13, 75, 77, 83-85, 93, 94-95, 97, 159, 177, 246-247

and environmental policies, 148, 159

fossil fuel replacement, 81, 107, 110, 112

and global warming, 18, 200, 201

unanticipated consequences, 60, 92, 98

Texas, 57

Theory construction, 6, 32, 167, 172-174, 182, 190, 197-198, 212, 217, 234

time scales, 41, 99, 172-173, 176

Third World, 3, 87, 88, 113, 144, 209

Time lags, 31-32, 167, 173, 177

Time scales, 27, 41, 98, 99, 164, 172-173, 176-178, 240-241

Time-series data, 200, 201, 209, 217

Toxic Substances Control Act (1976), 117

Trade associations, 6, 143, 145, 146-147

Training programs, 9-10, 223, 227-230

Transportation, 59, 64, 88, 107, 126

Tree-structured accounting system, 45-53, 92

Trinidad and Tobago, 62

Tropical forest destruction.

See also Deforestation

greenhouse gas contribution, 18, 35, 153, 240

land use in, 71, 72-75, 140

restriction of, 107, 113

species extinction, 17, 20, 21, 30, 67-69, 240

U

Ultraviolet radiation, 44, 246

data collection, 201, 202

human responses to, 4, 133, 236

ozone depletion and, 28, 54, 57, 107

Unanticipated consequences, 31, 60, 163, 167, 173, 174, 199

United Nations, 79, 204-205

United Nations Environment Programme, 117, 156, 205

United States

air pollution, 153

attitudes and beliefs in, 135

automobile dependency, 88, 144, 175-176

carbon dioxide emissions, 50, 60, 64

CFC regulations, 57, 117, 118, 119

coal production and use, 60-61, 63

and data availability, 7-8, 14, 210, 211, 219, 249-250

data sampling, 219, 249

deregulation, 177-178

economic development, 82

energy conservation, 37, 51-52, 63, 120-127, 133

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
×

energy consumption, 18, 35-36, 37, 63, 109, 120, 122, 126, 174

energy policies, 84, 123-124

environmental movement in, 145, 146

environmental policies, 147-148, 149

fellowship programs, 14, 251

government barriers to research, 10-11, 232-234

national forests, 86

national research program, 11, 15-16, 235, 252, 254-256

and population growth, 77

water allocation, 137

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 88

U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 88

U.S. Census Bureau, 205, 232-233

U.S. Congress, 117

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 233

U.S. Department of Commerce, 218-219

U.S. Department of Education, 232-233

U.S. Department of Energy, 233

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 232-233

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 232-233

U.S. Department of Interior, 88

U.S. Department of Labor, 232-233

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 117, 118, 232, 233

U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 16, 232-233, 237, 250 , 254, 255-256

Universities, 9, 225, 226-227, 228, 229, 251, 254

University of Chicago, 225

University of Connecticut, 205

University of Michigan, 205

University of North Carolina, 205

Urbanization, 157, 176, 240, 241

Utility companies, 125

V

Valuation of consequences, 13, 161, 192-194, 246

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985), 116 -117, 118

W

Warfare, 158, 175

Waste disposal, 80-81

Waste management, 82, 89

Water allocation, 137, 138, 142

Water resource management, 132

Women, 53, 177

World Bank, 69, 72, 79, 177, 204-205

World Health Organization, 204-205

World Meteorological Organization, 117

World Population Trends and Policies (UN), 205

World Tables (World Bank), 205

Y

Yemen, 62

Z

Zaire, 75, 153, 240

Zambia, 18, 62

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1792.
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Global environmental change often seems to be the most carefully examined issue of our time. Yet understanding the human side—human causes of and responses to environmental change—has not yet received sustained attention. Global Environmental Change offers a strategy for combining the efforts of natural and social scientists to better understand how our actions influence global change and how global change influences us.

The volume is accessible to the nonscientist and provides a wide range of examples and case studies. It explores how the attitudes and actions of individuals, governments, and organizations intertwine to leave their mark on the health of the planet.

The book focuses on establishing a framework for this new field of study, identifying problems that must be overcome if we are to deepen our understanding of the human dimensions of global change, presenting conclusions and recommendations.

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