National Academies Press: OpenBook

Biomedical Politics (1991)

Chapter: Index

« Previous: Appendix B: Biographical Notes on the Authors and Commentators
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

Index

Abortion, 3, 53, 60, 64, 68

in China, 76

in Eastern Europe, 75

French law, 44, 52, 65

morality and fetal tissue research, 7, 215, 220–223, 233–234, 241–243, 251, 252–253, 310, 318

mortality, 71

number of, fetal tissue research and, 223–228, 235–236, 241, 256, 314

other abortifacients, 52, 59, 68–69

RU-486 procedure, 43, 73, 78–79, 310

societal legitimation of, fetal tissue use and, 216, 228–229, 239

U.S. law, 55, 69, 72, 288 n.29

U.S. rates, 52, 82, 217, 236, 237

women's decision, 56, 220–221, 223, 224, 229, 230, 232–233, 235, 236, 239, 241

Abortion controversy

and fetal tissue research, 221, 232, 253

and RU-486, 43, 47, 57, 62, 72–73, 74, 86, 97, 316

Abortion opponents, 68–69, 72

and fetal tissue research, 218, 237, 239

Roussel-Uclaf and, 46, 58–59, 65, 74–75, 78

RU-486 boycott threats, 54–55, 58, 67, 69–71, 85, 86

RU-486 opposition, 43–44, 47, 48–49, 53, 54–58, 61, 79, 310, 317

Abortion-rights advocates, 64, 68, 72–73

Accident victims, 222, 225, 229, 233

Adams, Arlin, 218, 219, 236

Adenoviruses, 267

Africa, 71

Agence France Presse, 62–63

Agent Orange, 113

Agrigenetics Company, 160

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), 19, 34, 35 n.1,

decision-making process and, 9, 10, 32, 41

research, 15, 20, 135, 137, 142

AIDS activists, 35 n.1

and Bristol-Myers officials, 24–25, 29, 32–33

and early release of ddI, 10, 14–15, 18, 22–23, 24–27, 31–33, 40, 42, 313–314, 316

and public health officials, 10, 17, 19, 20, 32, 34, 36 n.8

AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG)n.11

AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP), 15, 22, 24, 25, 36 n.8

AIDS drugs, 15, 34, 35–36 n.4,

AZT, 10, 20, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 32

clinical trials, 10, 12, 15–16, 20, 23, 24, 26, 35 n.1,

early release of dideoxyinosine (ddI), 6, 14, 23, 24–28, 29, 42, 310, 318

Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award, 75

Alberts, Bruce, 128–129, 130, 138, 154

Alliance for Aging Research, 152, 155

Alliance for Life, 70

ALZA Corporation, 84

Alzheimer's disease, 137

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

American Academy of Pediatrics, 237

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 121

American Civil Liberties Union, 72

American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 240

American Fertility Society, 240

American Hospital Association, 328

American Medical Association (AMA), 73, 155, 237, 238

American Psychiatric Association, 9–10

American Society for Artificial Internal Organs, 180

American Society of Law and Medicine, 81

American Society of Nephrology, 180, 181

Amino acids, 105, 107

Anderson, Ephraim S., 276, 278, 290n.44

Anderson, Norman, 109, 134, 138–139, 159

Anderson, W. French, 149–150

André, Michèle, 63, 64

Animal research, 5, 50

fetal tissue transplantation, 216, 217, 234, 242

RU-486, 54, 94–95

Animal rights movement, 300

Antibiotics, 263, 300

Apollo space program, 159

Arabidopsis thaliana,

Ashby Working Party, 274

Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA Molecules, 124, 274–283, 284, 301, 331

decision-making process, 7, 277, 281–282, 290n.44, 292n.58,

participants, 274, 293–298, 291n.55

safety guidelines, 258–259, 268–269, 277–281, 283, 299, 302, 306, 314, 317–318

Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS), 272, 273–274, 283, 288 n.31, 289 n.40

Association of American Medical Colleges, 237

Atomic bomb, 113, 119

Avery, Oswald T., 104, 259

AZT, 10, 20, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 32

Bacteria

DNA research, 264, 265, 276

genetic structure, 106–107, 262

hazards in research, 263, 280, 302

viral infection of, 105, 259, 264

Bacteriophages, 105, 259, 264

Baltimore, David, 286n.8

and Asilomar conference, 272, 274, 275, 283, 289n.38

and genome project, 140–141, 142, 144, 154

Banta, H. D., 5–6

Barnhart, Ben, 151, 152

Barrell, Bart, 108, 111

Baulieu, Etienne-Emile, 49–50, 51, 52, 53, 58, 61, 62, 63–64, 66, 75

Beadle, George W., 261–262, 286n.8

Becker, E. Lovell, 191, 193

Beckman Foundation, 111

Beckwith, Jonathan, 279–280, 291n.52

Berg, Paul

and Asilomar conference, 269, 272–273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 281, 282, 283, 291n.52,

and genome project, 112, 124, 125, 127–128, 140–141, 154, 161

recombinant DNA research, 265, 266–267, 268, 286n.8, 289nn.37,38

Berkeley National Laboratory, 120–121, 131

Bioethics Board, 253, 254n.13

Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee, 253

Biomedical research, 2, 3, 5, 157, 158, 259–261, 287n.25

Biotechnology, 157, 158, 303, 304, 306

Biotechnology Science Coordinating Committee, 136, 284

Birth control pill, 49

controversy over, 43, 46, 48, 52, 59, 60

market for, 52, 82

Birth defects, 55, 83, 84, 95

Bitensky, Mark, 114, 115

Black, Francis, 287n.25,

Bleich, J. David, 219, 226, 228

Bodmer, Walter F., 108, 112, 123, 125, 127, 154

Bopp, James, 218, 219, 222, 223, 230–231

Bostock, Judy, 116, 121

Boston,

Boston Globe,

Botstein, David, 108, 111, 124–125, 129, 140–141, 161

Bowen, Otis R., 219

Boyer, Herbert, 269, 270, 271, 276, 289n.38

Bread molds (neurospora), 261–262

Breast cancer, 46, 77, 86–87

Brenner, Sydney, 127, 129, 274, 278, 282, 283, 285 n.7

Bristol-Myers Company, 18, 24–25, 27, 28–30, 32–33, 36n.11

British Society for the Protection of the Unborn, 74

Broder, Samuel, 24

Brookhaven National Laboratories, 155

Brown, Donald D., 274, 280

Bureau of the Budget, 178, 179, 210, 315

Burkitt's lymphoma, 263

Burris, John, 128, 129

Burroughs Wellcome Company, 29

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

Burtchaell, James T., 218, 219, 221–222, 230–231

Bush, George, 13, 45, 80, 235

Bush, Vannevar, 259

Business Week,

Byrd, David, 62, 66

Byrnes, John, 184, 206n.5

Cahill, George, 125, 127, 130, 147

California, 173

drug regulation, 35–36n.4,

California Association for Research in Astronomy, 110

California Institute of Technology, 108, 110

California Right to Life, 79

Cancer, 191, 196, 283–284

breast cancer, 46, 77, 86–87

contraceptive carcinogenicity, 50, 51, 56

drugs, 12, 14, 41–42

oncogenes, 105, 263, 279

research, 108, 122–123, 287n.25,

viruses and, 263, 265, 266, 268–269, 278

Cantor, Charles R., 106, 113, 121, 128, 129, 154, 160–161, 169–170

Capron, Alexander Morgan, 250, 254n.9,

Carey, James, 188–189

Case studies, 3–5, 309

Catastrophic health insurance, 193, 194, 202

Cell,

Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 39, 137

Cervical dilation, 54, 86–87

Cesarean section, 54, 86–87

Children's Hospital (San Francisco), 80

Chiles, Lawton, 133, 137–138, 151, 170

China, 45, 61, 64–65, 73, 74, 76, 78

Chronic granulomatous disease, 104

Church, George, 111, 113

Civil rights movement, 309–310, 327

Clinical trials

AIDS drugs, 10, 12, 15–16, 20, 23, 24, 26, 35n.1,

birth control pill, 48, 59

dideoxyinosine (ddI), 10, 21–22, 26, 27, 28, 31, 35, 36n.11,

drugs, 11, 12–14, 36n.6

fetal tissue transplantation, 234

RU-486, 46, 50, 51–52, 54, 73, 76, 80, 83, 94–95

Cohen, Stanley, 270, 271, 276, 282, 289n.38,

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 100, 266, 267

human genome conference, 123–125, 126, 127–128, 131, 174

Collaborative Research, Inc., 108–109

Color blindness, 102

Comings, David, 115

Committee to Save Unborn Children, 61

Compassionate use, 24, 25, 38

Conable, Barber, 119, 188

Congressional Budget Office, 183, 198

Congressional Budget Reform Act (1974), 183, 198

Congressional Research Service, 183, 314–315

Constantine, Jay, 185, 191, 192, 193, 203, 205–206n.1, 206n.1

Consumer interests, 23–24, 55

Conte, Silvio, 142

Contraceptives, 49, 52, 68, 75, 85

carcinogenicity, 50, 51, 56

innovation, 48, 50, 57

liability, 55, 83–84, 95

regulation, 47–48, 51, 54, 55

research, 51, 55, 60, 83, 85, 86, 96

side effects, 84

Cooper, Ellen, 19, 25–26, 28, 30, 34

Cost-benefit analysis, 96, 253

Costs, 321

abortion, 44–45

FDA approval procedure, 82–83

human genome project, 112–113, 114, 116, 124, 140, 141, 142–145, 159–162, 163–164, 316, 319

Medicare ESRD program, 195–201, 202–203, 204, 206nn.8 and 9,

risk events, 305

RU-486, 45, 52–53, 76

Cowan, Max, 127

Cranston, Alan, 191

Crick, Francis H. C., 104, 127, 260, 285n.7,n.8, 286n.8

Crossen, David, 52–53

Curtiss, Roy, 276, 279

Cushing's syndrome, 46, 70, 77, 86–87

Cyanide gas, 59, 70

Cystic fibrosis, 104

Cytotec, 68–69

Dalkon shield, 48, 56, 83

Davis, Ronald W., 111, 269

Decision making, 2–3, 5, 6, 8, 308–317, 318, 319, 320, 321–322, 329–330

Asilomar conference, 7, 277, 281–282, 299–300, 311, 313, 315–316

early release of ddI, 9, 10, 33–35, 39, 41–42

fetal tissue research, 215–216, 219–220, 251–252, 255–257

human genome project, 99–100, 169

kidney disease entitlement, 201–203, 210, 211, 213–214

RU-486 availability, 46–47, 58–60, 63–64, 96, 97–98

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
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Decorum (Hippocrates), 327

de Gaulle, Charles, 49

Deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill, 5

Delbrück, Max, 105, 285n.7 286n.8

Delegation for Biomedical Research, 118

DeLisi, Charles, 138

and establishment of genome project, 114, 115–117, 119, 121, 128, 134, 147, 149, 153, 160, 169–170, 174–175, 313

and genome project funding, 116, 118, 132

Democracy, 3, 4, 308, 309–310, 321, 326

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

and cancer, 122

gene mapping, 102–103, 151–152

gene splicing, 105–106, 264, 269, 271, 273

fragment analysis, 111

sequencing, 106–108, 110–111, 113, 114, 115, 123–124, 128, 134, 140, 163–164, 170–171

structure, 104–105, 260

viral, 259, 263

Department of Agriculture, 156

Department of Energy (DOE), 100

genome project budget, 99, 101, 116, 118, 119, 132, 134, 139, 145, 147, 159–160, 172

genome project initiative, 113–123, 130, 131–132, 137, 149, 155, 156, 162, 170, 173, 174

genome project of, opposition to, 125, 127, 128, 134, 136, 138, 155

joint genome project with NIH, 133, 141, 151, 152, 153, 154, 164, 171

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)

and fetal tissue panel, 215–216, 217, 218, 255, 256

fetal tissue research funding ban, 235–238, 241–242, 251

NIH funding, 136, 144, 145

Depo-Provera, 48, 50–51, 59, 82

Deregulation, 11, 313

DeVita, Vincent, 121

Diabetes, 216, 227, 234

Dialysis.

See Hemodialysis

Dideoxyinosine (ddI)

AIDS activists and, 10, 15, 23, 24, 31–33, 310, 313–314, 318

Bristol-Myers and, 24–25, 27, 28–30

clinical trials, 10, 21–22, 26, 27, 28, 31, 35, 36n.11,

early release decision, 6, 7, 10–11, 24–28, 33–35, 38–40, 41–42, 311, 316–317, 320

FDA and, 6, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25–26, 27–28, 30, 33–34, 38, 39, 42, 313

Diethyl stilbestrol (DES), 56

Diffusion-adoption continuum, 5–6

Dingell, John D., 132

Dinkins, David N., 80

Disease

fetal tissue research and, 43, 216, 217, 234, 238

genetic, 104, 105, 150, 157

germ theory of, 262

pathogens and, 263, 278

RU-486 treatment applications, 46, 72, 77–78, 86–87

Domenici, Pete V., 118, 119–120, 133, 137, 138, 139–140, 170

Domestic Policy Council, 136

Donis-Keller, Helen, 109, 111, 129

Dor, Xavier, 57–58

Dornan, Robert, 53, 70, 77, 78, 81

Double Helix (Watson), 148

Drosophila,

Drugs.

See also AIDS drugs

cancer, 12, 14, 41–42

clinical trials, 11, 12–14, 36n.6

experimental, 12, 15, 17, 19–20, 21, 23, 35n.1,

regulation, 10–15, 18–19, 23, 30, 32, 35–36n.4,

Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, 104

Dulbecco, Renato, 122–123, 124, 153, 154, 169–170, 265, 289n.37

Dupin, Kenneth, 69, 71

DuPont de Nemours, E.I., & Co., Inc., 155

Dupree, A. Hunter, 259–260

Dworkin, Roger, 281

Eastern Virginia Medical School CONRAD program, 83, 86

Economic development, 157, 158

EcoRI,

Edgar, Robert, 110, 111

Efficacy

ddI, 26, 38, 39

drugs, 11, 12, 15, 18–19, 22, 23

RU-486, 44, 45, 50, 54, 55, 73, 78–79, 81, 84, 95

Eigo, Jim, 15

Eisenhower, Dwight D., 47

Eisenhower, Mamie, 191

Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972), 48

Elderly, 200

Electrophoretic separation, 106, 113

Endometriosis, 46, 72, 86–87

End-stage renal disease (ESRD), 180–181

Congressional entitlement, 7, 185, 187–195, 228, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 319

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

costs of treatment, 195–201, 202–203, 204, 210–211, 213, 313, 319

Gottschalk Committee report on, 178, 179, 181, 197, 206n.4, 212–213, 315

Engelhardt, Tristram, 310

Environmental Protection Agency, 284

Epostane, 51–52, 59

Epstein-Barr virus, 263

Ervin, Sam, 193

Escherichia coli

DNA recombination, 262, 268, 269, 270, 273, 276, 277, 278, 280

DNA sequencing, 108

mutation studies, 264, 265

Ethics Advisory Board, 43

Etzioni, Amitai, 272

Eugenics, 147, 150

Eukaryotic cells, 262, 265, 279, 280

Europe, 119

abortion laws, 239

contraceptive research in, 85

human genome mapping in, 129, 147

RU-486 in, 74, 75, 83

European Economic Community, 284

European Medical Research Council, 134

European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBO), 108, 264

“Every Child a Wanted Child,”

Evin, Claude, 58, 59, 62, 68

Evolution, 300

Experimental drugs, 12, 15, 17, 19–20, 21, 23, 35,n.1 40, 314

Falkow, Stanley, 276, 279

Falmouth conference, 277

Falwell, Jerry, 53

Family Health International, 86

Farben, I.G., 59, 70, 75

Fauci, Anthony, 15–17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 27–28, 31, 32, 33–34, 36,n.7 313

Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), 198, 200–201

Feinstein, Diane, 79

Feminists, 48, 68, 72

Fetal tissue research, 78, 251–252, 315, 320

animal studies, 216, 217, 234, 242

donation decision, 225, 226, 227–228, 230–231, 232, 233–234, 236, 252

federal funding ban, 43, 78, 216, 218–219, 226–227, 235–238, 239–240, 288n.29

information to women, 225, 231–233

morality of abortion and, 7, 215–223, 233–234, 251, 252–253, 256, 310, 318

and number of abortions, 223–228, 235–236, 241, 256, 314

public policy and, 234–240, 241–243, 255–257, 310, 311

and societal legitimation of abortion, 216, 228–229, 239

tissue dispositional authority, 229–231

Fetus, definition of, 53, 220

Florida, 137–138, 173

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 9, 36n.5

Anti-Infectives Advisory Committee, 17, 21, 22, 23

Anti-Viral Products Division, 19

contraceptive approval process, 50, 51, 54, 68–69, 82–83

drug regulation, 10, 11, 12–13, 14, 18, 19, 79

early release of ddI, 6, 24, 25–26, 28, 29–30, 33–34, 38, 39, 42, 313

parallel track protocol, 15, 16, 17, 18–20, 23, 25, 31, 40

and RU-486, 45, 46–47, 53, 54, 70, 73, 76–78, 81, 83, 86, 94

Food and Drugs Act (1906), 11

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938), 11

Kefauver amendments (1962), 11, 36n.5

Ford, Wendell H., 118

Ford Foundation, 49

France, 264, 290n.41

abortion controversy in, 62, 63

abortion law, 44, 52, 65

coercion of Roussel, 46, 65–67

contraceptive law, 49

and development of RU-486, 50, 52, 57

RU-486 approval, 60, 64–65, 69, 70, 83, 94, 98

RU-486 availability in, 43, 44, 45, 61, 68, 73, 76

Fredrickson, Donald, 111, 119, 125, 126

French Family Planning Association, 64

French Movement for Family Planning, 63

Friends of the National Library of Medicine, 143

Froelich, Edwin, 149–150

Fruit fly (Drosophila), 171, 261, 273

Fuji Photo Film Company, Ltd., 108

Fullerton, William D., 185, 188, 190, 191, 195, 205–206n.1

Fund for the Feminist Majority, 76

Funding

abortion research, 70, 72, 78, 288n.29

contraceptive research, 60

fetal tissue research, 217, 221, 228–229, 231, 232, 235, 236, 238, 256–257, 288n.29

fetal tissue research, federal funding ban, 43, 216, 218–219, 226–227, 235–238, 239–240, 288n.29

human genome project, 99, 101, 112–113, 118, 119, 121, 126, 140, 141, 142–147, 171–172

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

kidney research and treatment, 180–181

scientific research, 169, 259–260

Gabelnick, Henry, 83, 86

GenBank, 120, 134

General Accounting Office (GAO), 183

“General altruism,”

Genetic discrimination, 148, 159

Genetic disease, 104, 105, 150, 157

Genome Corporation, 129

Germ theory of disease, 262

Giglio, Camille, 79–80

Gilbert, Walter

DNA research, 106–107, 111

and genome project, 111–112, 124, 127–128, 129, 130, 140–141, 147, 154, 169–170

Glasow, Richard, 43–44, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 69, 74–75, 79

Glazer, Shep, 187–189, 194, 313

Gordon Conferences, 107, 112, 114, 289n.37

on nucleic acids, 270–272

Gore, Albert, 147, 148, 149

Gottschalk, Carl W., 177, 179, 205–206n.1

Gottschalk Committee, 180, 182

Report of the Committee on Chronic Kidney Disease, n.4,

Gough, Mike, 113–114

Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit targets, 143

Great Instauration of 1940, 259–260

Greenhouse, Steven, 58

Greenslade, Forrest, 85, 87

Grimes, David, 56, 81, 87

Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), 48

Group C drugs, 14, 42

Guyer, Mark, 141, 151, 152

GynoPharma, Inc., 59–60, 83, 85, 86

Handler, Philip, 272, 283, 289n.40

Harkin, Tom, 142

Hartke, Vance, 191, 192, 193, 195, 196–199, 201, 203

Harvard Medical School, 300

Harvard University, 182

Hatch, Orrin G., 149

HCG vaccine, 86

Health care technology, 3

Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC), 114–115, 116, 117, 121, 160

Heart Disease, Cancer, and Stroke Amendments (1965), 181

Hemodialysis, 177–178, 180, 190, 197, 319

cost of, 196, 204

demonstration in Congress, 187–189

Gottschalk Committee and, 179, 181–182, 206n.4

Medicare coverage, 198–199, 200, 205, 209–210, 211, 212–213, 214

Hemoglobin, 103, 105, 157

Hennepin County Hospital (Minneapolis), 182

Herrington, John S., 114

Hinton, Diane, 127, 151

Hippocratic oath, 326–327

Hiroshima, Japan, 113, 119

Hoben, Patricia, 132, 138

Hoechst A.G., 46, 57, 58–59, 61, 63, 64, 66–67, 69–70, 71, 75–76

Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (HRPI), 68, 94

Hoffman, Max, 109–110

Hoffman Foundation, 109–110, 112–113

Holland, 177

Homicide victims, 222, 225, 228, 229, 233

Homosexuality, 9–10

Homosexuals, 9–10, 35n.1,

Hood, Leroy, 111, 112, 118–119, 126, 128, 129, 140–141, 154, 160, 162, 169–170

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), 3, 101, 108–109, 111, 125–126, 127, 128, 130, 156

Hughes, Howard, 126

Human Cell Biology Steering Committee (HCBSC), 265, 268, 274, 286n.15

Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research (NIH), 234–235

Human Gene Mapping Library (HHMI), 126

Human genetics, 102, 104, 107, 150

Human genome project, 6–7, 99–102, 152–155, 157–159, 169–172, 173–175, 312, 313, 315

costs of, 112–113, 114, 116, 124, 140, 141, 142–145, 159–162, 163–164, 316, 319

DOE plan, 113–123, 130, 131–132, 137, 149, 155, 156, 162, 170, 173, 174

DOE plan, opposition to, 125, 127, 128, 134, 136, 138, 155

ethical and social issues, 147–151, 164, 171, 174, 318

genetic linkage mapping, 103–104, 108, 111, 121–122, 123–124, 126, 127, 130, 140, 162

NIH-DOE joint project, 133, 138, 140–141, 142–147, 151–152, 153, 154, 164, 170, 171

NIH plan, 108, 125, 130, 134–137, 156, 173

NRC report on, 128–31, 133, 141, 144, 145, 152, 154, 161, 170

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

OTA report on, 131–133, 159, 162, 170

physical mapping, 107, 111, 113, 114, 115, 123–124, 128, 130, 162, 170

public and, 152, 154–155, 171, 174–175, 316, 317, 331

Santa Cruz plan, 109–113

scientific community and, 123–128, 154–155, 171–172, 174

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 10, 22

Humphrey, Hubert H., 143

Huntington's disease, 104, 106, 150

Hyde Amendment, 242

Ice-minus bacteria, 138

Immigration, 9–10

Immunosuppressive drugs, 178

Incest, 230, 231

Incrementalism, 312–313

India, 75

Industrial Biotechnology Association, 138

Infertility, 86–87

Institute of Medicine (IOM), 3, 94, 174, 177, 193, 271, 288n.31

Institutional review boards, 231, 234, 288n.29

Insurance costs, 95, 96

Internal Revenue Code, 183

International AIDS Conference, 16, 24

International Convention on Patents, 74

International Right to Life Federation (IRLF), 70–71

Intrauterine device (IUD), 52, 82, 83, 84, 85, 95

Dalkon shield, 48, 56, 83

ParaGard, 85, 86

Investigational new drug (IND) application, 12, 13–14, 54, 94–95

treatment IND, 14, 19, 24, 26, 27, 30, 33

In vitro fertilization, 43

Ireland, 68

Issues in Science and Technology,

Italy, 74

Jackson, Henry M., 181, 206n.2

Jacob, François, 264, 286n.8

Japan, 96, 108, 148

Ministry of Education, 156–157

Science and Technology Agency, 108, 156–157

Johnson, Lyndon B., 47, 186

Johnson & Johnson Products, Inc., 86

Joly, Pierre, 61–62, 65

Jordan, Elke, 141, 152

Judson, Horace Freeland, 285n.7

Karølinska Hospital (Stockholm), 74

Karyotyping, 102–103

Kass, Leon, 266–267

Katz, Jay, 254n.10

Keck Foundation, 110

Keck telescope, 109–110, 313

Kefauver amendments (1962, Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act), 11, 36n.5

Kennedy, Edward M., 137, 138, 185, 186

Kerry, John, 149

Kidney disease, 177–178, 182

costs of treatment, 195–201, 204, 210–211, 213–214

Gottschalk report on, 178, 179–180, 181, 197, 206n.4,

Medicare coverage, 176, 178, 179, 187–195, 201–202, 205, 206n.6,

research, 178, 180–181, 201–202

Kidney Disease Control Program (KDCP), 178, 180

Kidney transplantation, 177, 178, 182, 189

costs of, 196, 197, 204, 211

Gottschalk Committee and, 179, 181, 206n.4

Medicare coverage, 198–199, 200, 205, 209–210, 212–213

King, Martin Luther, Jr., 327

Kingsbury, David, 128, 136–137

Kirschstein, Ruth, 128, 131, 134, 135, 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 147, 149–150

Kissinger, Henry A., 174

Kolff, Willem, 177, 180

Korean War, 177

Kornberg, Arthur, 286n.8

Kountz, Samuel, 193, 196, 197, 201, 206n.7

Kourilsky, Philippe, 258, 282, 284n.1

Krimsky, Sheldon, 265, 271, 292n.58

Lac operon, 279–280

Laetrile, 23, 40

Landers, Ann, 60

Lear, John, 266, 271, 289n.38

Lederberg, Joshua, 262, 278, 282, 286n.8

Leonard, Victoria, 67, 68

Levinson, Rachel, 135, 140

Lewin, Roger, 125, 126

Lewis, Andrew M., 267–268, 269, 278, 279, 287n.24

Lewis, Herman, 265, 268, 272, 274

Liability

and contraceptive development, 55, 83–84, 95

and recombinant DNA research, 281, 306

and RU-486, 55–56, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 96

Library of Congress, 183

Lincoln, Abraham, 135

Litigation, 55, 320

Livermore National Laboratory, 120, 121

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

Long, Russell B., 184–185, 186, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 199, 200, 203–204

Los Alamos National Laboratory, 114, 115, 120, 174–175

Los Angeles Times,

Lujan, Manuel, 118

Luria, Salvatore, 105, 285n.7, 286n.8

Lustinger, Jean-Marie (archbishop of Paris), 59

Lwoff, André, 264, 286n.8

McCarty, Maclyn, 104, 259

McClintock, Barbara, 261, 286n.8

McConnell, Jack, 119–120, 137

McCusick, David, 205–206n.1, 206n.8

McDonnell Foundation, 128

McGovern, George, 176, 201

McKusick, Victor A., 123–124, 126, 129, 131

MacLeod, Colin M., 104, 259

Magnuson, Warren G., 181

Manchester Guardian,

Mason, James O., 16, 17, 18, 225–226, 236–237

Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein test, 5

Matsui Knowledge Industries, 108

Maxam, A. M., 106–107

Media, 318, 320

Medicaid, 176, 180, 183, 186, 189, 214, 329

Medical Advisory Board, 126

Medical innovation, 5–6

Medical Research Council (U.K.), 264, 274

Medicare, 329

Congress and, 183, 186, 190, 192, 202

kidney disease coverage, 176, 178, 179–180, 189, 193, 200, 202, 204, 205n.6,

kidney treatment costs, 195, 197, 203, 210–211, 214

Medicare and Medicaid: Problems, Prospects, and Alternatives (Constantine and Fullerton), 185

Meningioma, 46

Mendel, Gregor, 259

Mendelian Inheritance in Man, 123, 126

Mendelsohn, Mortimer, 113, 117

Mertz, Janet E., 265, 266, 269

Metheny, Bradie, 118, 142

Methodology, 3

Michelin, 69

Mifepristone, 44

Mikulski, Barbara A., 150

Mills, Wilbur, 183, 184, 188, 189, 190, 194, 195, 199, 200, 206n.7

Mishell, Daniel, Jr., 51–52

Molecular biology, 112, 123, 125, 127, 143

development of, 104–105, 259–260, 261

and gene mapping, 102, 103, 106, 107

and recombinant DNA research, 263–265, 267, 279, 291n.55

Mondale, Walter F., 206n.3

Mongan, James J., 185, 191–192, 193, 198–199, 203, 205–206, 206n.8

Monod, Jacques, 264, 286n.8

Moral Majority, 71

Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 261, 286n.8

Mortality

abortion and pregnancy, 71

ddI, 40

kidney disease, 196

Mouse genome, 171

Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 185

Mutations, 113, 136

Nagasaki, Japan, 113, 119

Najarian, John S., 182, 206n.3

Natcher, William, 142, 144

Nathans, Daniel, 129, 267, 271, 272, 286n.8

National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL), 64, 72

National Academy of Engineering, 288n.31

National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 177, 288n.31

and human genome project, 112, 127

and recombinant DNA research, 271, 272, 273–274, 276, 281, 289n.38

National AIDS Program Office (NAPO), 17–18, 26

National Association of Patients on Hemodialysis (NAPH), 187

National Cancer Institute (NCI), 14, 137, 265, 268, 279, 287n.25

National Center for Biotechnology Information, 143

National Center for Human Genome Research, 100, 150, 152

National Center for Nursing Research, 150

National Committee to Review Current Procedures for Approval of New Drugs for Cancer and AIDS, 24

National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 222

National health insurance, 185, 189, 194, 202, 312

National Health Insurance Partnership Act (1971), 186

National Heart Institute, 178

National Institute on Aging, 137

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), 15, 17, 20, 137, 178

National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, 178, 179

National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 112, 121, 140, 141, 142, 143, 145

National Institute of Mental Health, 137

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, 137, 216

National Institutes of Health (NIH)

abortion controversy and, 43

AIDS drug clinical trials, 16, 36n.11

AIDS research, 15, 20

Biohazards Committee, 287n.24

Director's Advisory Committee, 134–135, 140, 218, 234–235

and DOE genome project, 117, 119, 121, 126–127, 131–132, 134, 137, 153, 155

and drug parallel track, 16, 17, 19

and early access to ddI, 25, 26, 27–28, 31

and fetal tissue research, 215–216, 217, 218, 222, 234–235, 236

genome project budget, 99, 101, 112, 132, 139, 140, 141, 142–147, 158, 172

genome project development, 108, 125, 130, 134–135, 156, 173

and genome research ethics, 149–151, 171

joint genome project with DOE, 133, 138, 140–141, 151–152, 164, 170

kidney disease research, 178, 180–181, 201–202

Office of Human Genome Research, 148

and recombinant DNA, 264–265, 267–268, 274, 302

Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, 277, 283

research funding, 260, 270, 288n.29

and RU-486 research, 77

National Kidney Foundation, 179, 180, 182, 188, 189, 191, 193, 196, 197, 201, 210

National Library of Medicine (NLM), 143

National Medical Care, Inc., 182

National Organization for Women (NOW), 72–73

National Organ Transplant Act (1984), 218, 227

National Policy Board on the Human Genome, 137

National Research Council (NRC), 100, 128, 162, 273–274, 288n.31

Committee on Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome report, 128–131, 133, 141, 144, 145, 152, 154, 161, 170

National Right to Life Committee (NRLC), 47, 54–56, 57, 60, 61, 62, 67, 76, 78

National Right to Life News,

National Science Foundation (NSF), 108, 119, 136–137, 156, 170, 265, 268

Nature,

Nazi Germany, 58–59, 70, 75, 177, 223, 327

Nematodes, 106, 162, 164, 171

Nephrology, 180, 181

Netherlands, 74

New drug application (NDA), 12, 13, 14, 30, 94, 95

New England Journal of Medicine,

New Mexico, 119, 173, 174–175

New Republic,

New Scientist,

Newsweek,

New York City, 80–81

New York Times,

Nixon, Richard M., 176, 185–186, 187, 195, 201, 210

Nobel Prize, 75, 286n.8

Noller, Harry, 110, 111

Norplant, 81

Nouvel Observateur,

Novick, Richard P., 274, 275, 277

Nuclear power, 303, 304, 305–306

Nuclear weapons, 119

Nucleic acids, Gordon Conference on, 270–272

Nuremberg Code, 327–328

Obesity, 46

Obey, David R., 135, 136, 150

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 281

O'Connor, Sandra Day, 47

Office of the Assistant Secretary of Health (OASH), 201

Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 116, 119, 121, 136, 139, 144, 156, 164, 170, 174

Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 136, 155–157, 178, 210

Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 100, 183, 314–315

and genome project costs, 141, 143, 159, 161, 162

and genome project establishment, 113–114, 118, 129–130, 152, 154, 173, 174

report on genome project policy, 131–133, 159, 162, 170

Olson, Maynard V., 106, 113, 130, 151–152, 154

Oncogenes, 105, 263, 279

Operation Rescue, 70, 71

Operon, 264

Oregon, 81

Organ transplantation, 222, 225, 227, 228

Orphan drugs, 96

Ortho-Novum, 52

Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, 52, 84, 86

Ovral, 52

Oxman, Michael N., 268, 287n.25

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

Pancreatitis, 40

ParaGard, 85, 86

Parallel track protocol, 14–18, 313, 316

AIDS activists and, 14–15, 22–23, 31–32

and clinical trials, 10, 15–16, 21–22, 27–28, 38, 39–40

early release of ddI and, 6, 10, 18, 24–25, 26, 30

evaluation of, 28, 34–35, 40, 42

FDA and, 15, 16, 17, 18–20, 23, 25, 31, 33–34, 40

research community and, 20–22, 31

Parkinson's disease, 43, 216, 217, 234, 238

Pasteur, Louis, 262

Pasteur Institute, 264

Patent protection, RU-486, 46, 64–65, 74, 76, 82, 87

Pathogens, 263, 264, 268, 278, 280, 290n.44,

Patients, 328–329

Pauling, Linus, 105, 285n.7

Peer review, 234

Penicillin, 213

Pentamidine, 20

Pepper, Claude, 143

Perrier, 69

Perutz, Max, 285n.7

Peter Bent Brigham Hospital (Boston), 180, 182

Phage research, 105, 265, 273, 276, 278

Pharmaceutical industry

constraints on RU-486 development, 47, 59–60, 81–86, 317

and early release of ddI, 36n.8

and Medicare drug coverage, 194

regulation and, 10–11, 12–13

Physicians

and early release of ddI, 25, 27, 29, 34, 39

and human genetics, 150

and kidney disease treatment, 182

in policy decisions, 326–327, 328–329, 330

and RU-486 marketing, 46, 54, 64, 76, 77, 84

Planned Parenthood, 47, 56, 57, 60, 64, 87

Plante, Charles L., 180, 182, 188, 191, 193, 205–206n.1

Plasmids, 269–270, 271, 273, 276, 278

Pluralism, 309–310

Pneumococcus, 259

Policymaking, 2, 312, 319

early release of ddI, 32, 34

ESRD program, 177, 202, 203, 212–214

fetal tissue transplantation research, 215, 221, 223, 234–238, 239, 249–250, 251, 252–253, 255–256

human genome project, 153–155, 159, 162, 163, 169, 174, 316

public and, 2, 5, 8, 309–310, 312, 315, 316, 317–318, 320, 321–322, 325–331

recombinant DNA research, 277, 284, 315

Poliomyelitis vaccine, 217, 265–266, 268

Politics, 314, 318–319, 320

Polkinghorne Committee (U.K.), 232–233, 239

Pollack, Robert, 266, 268

Polycystic kidney disease, 104

Population Council, 46, 54, 55, 57, 78, 86

Porton Company, 136–137

Postmarketing studies, 13

Pregnancy, 53, 71

Premarketing approval, drugs, 12–13

President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 250

President's Task Force on Regulatory Relief, 13

Press, Frank, 128

Privacy rights, 48, 300

Private funding, 236, 238

Progesterone, 49, 51–52

Project Inform, 22

Prokaryotic cells, 262, 278, 279, 280

Prostaglandin, 44, 45, 68, 73, 78, 94

and RU-486 effectiveness, 50, 51, 52, 54, 95

and U.S. trials of RU-486, 46, 79, 83

Proteins, 104, 262, 271

sequencing, 106

synthesis, 105, 107, 265

Psychotropic drugs, 300

Public

and ESRD program, 210

and human genome project, 152, 154–155, 171, 174–175, 316, 317, 331

involvement in policymaking, 2, 5, 8, 309–310, 312, 315, 316, 317–318, 320, 321–322, 325–331

and recombinant DNA research, 257, 279, 280–281, 300–301, 302–307, 311

and RU-486, 45–46, 56, 60, 61, 62, 66, 71–72, 318

and scientific research, 270, 272, 279, 300, 306

Public Health Service (PHS), 137, 260

and AIDS, 9–10

and early release of ddI, 16, 17–18

and fetal tissue research, 241

and human genome project, 142

and kidney disease treatment, 178, 180, 181, 201–202, 210

Public Health Service Act (1944), 181, 191

Puerto Rico, 48

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, 106, 113

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

Racism, 148, 150, 159

Radiation effects, 119

Rape, 230, 231

Raub, William F., 235

RCR Alliance, 69–70, 71

Reagan, Ronald, 134, 227, 235

and deregulation, 11, 313

and genome research budget, 117, 119, 132, 141, 143–144

Recombinant DNA research, 103, 260

Asilomar Conference on, 7, 258–259, 268–269, 274–283, 284, 292n.58,

development of, 261–264, 273

potential hazards of, 267–268, 271–272, 280, 299, 304, 305–306

public and, 257, 279, 280–281, 300–301, 302–307, 311

safety guidelines, 279, 281, 283–284, 288n.29,

Regional Medical Program, 178, 180–181

Regulation

contraceptive development, 47–48, 51, 54, 55

drugs, 10–15, 18–19, 23, 30, 32, 35–36n.4,

fetal tissue research, 53, 78, 217, 230, 234, 235

recombinant DNA, 281, 284, 302, 306, 318

“Reproductive Health Technologies Project,”

Research, 270, 327–328

AIDS, 15, 20, 135, 137, 142

cancer, 108, 122–123, 287n.25,

contraceptive, 51, 55, 60, 83, 85, 86, 96

fetal tissue, federal funding ban, 43, 216, 218–219, 226–227, 235–238, 239–240, 288n.29

human genome, 99, 171–172

kidney disease, 178, 180–181, 201–202

on policymaking, 317–320

public and, 270, 272, 279, 300, 306

recombinant DNA, 279, 281, 302, 306

RU-486, 77–78

Restriction enzymes, 103, 264, 269, 271

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 170

Retinoblastoma, 104

Retroviruses, 263

Rettig, Paul, 185, 206n.6

Rhône-Poulenc, Inc., 67

Ribicoff, Abraham, 185, 186

Ribonucleic acid (RNA), 105, 106, 263, 271, 273

Risk-benefit analysis, 13, 234

Risk perception, 302–307, 317–318

Robertson, John A., 219, 225, 227, 230–231, 253

Robins, A. H., Company, Inc., 48, 83

Robinson, Daniel N., 218, 219, 229

Roblin, Richard O., III, 272–273, 274, 283, 289nn.37,

Rockefeller Foundation, 58

Roe v. Wade (1973), 56, 217

Rogers, Michael, 277–278

Rolling Stone,

Roman Catholic Church, 49, 63, 64, 65, 67

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 135, 259

Roussel Uclaf, 45, 49

development of RU-486, 50, 52, 94

and international market, 73–75, 76

return of RU-486 to market, 65–66, 67

threats against, 46, 57–60, 61, 62–63, 64, 65, 69–70, 71

and U.S. market, 46, 68, 73, 75, 76, 78, 80, 87, 98

Ruddle, Francis, 114, 126, 128, 129

RU-486, 7–8, 94–96, 97–98, 316

anti-abortion opposition to, 43, 54–58, 76, 310–311, 317, 318

black market, 68

boycott threats against, 54–55, 69–71, 74, 96

commercial interest in, 51–53

corporate withdrawal of, 58–63, 76

cost of, 45, 52–53, 76

development of, 48, 49–51

efficacy, 44, 45, 50, 54, 55, 78–79, 84, 95

French government's coercion of Roussel, 63–67

industry constraints, 47, 59–60, 81–86, 317

international availability, 73–75

non-abortion treatment applications, 46, 72, 77–78, 86–87

public and, 45–46, 56, 60, 61, 62, 66, 71–72, 318

safety, 44–45, 59, 73, 81, 95

side effects, 44, 52, 54, 56, 61, 72, 77, 78, 79

U.S. market and, 6, 43, 71–73, 75–81, 86–87, 97

Sachs, Linda, 80–81

Safety

contraceptives, 48

ddI, 26, 38, 39

drugs, 11, 12, 18–19, 22, 23

RU-486, 44–45, 59, 73, 81, 95

Sakiz, Edouard, 49, 50, 57–58, 59, 61, 63–64, 66, 67, 73, 81

San Francisco General Hospital, 80

Sanger, Frederick, 106, 108, 111

San Jose Mercury,

Santa Fe Workshop, 115, 123, 124, 159,160

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

Sarcoma, 263

Scandinavia, 45, 61, 74

Schering A. G., 52

Scheuer, James, 51

Schneider, Claudine, 118, 119

Schreiner, George E., 179, 180, 182, 188, 189, 191, 192, 193, 205–206n.1

Schroeder, Patricia, 72

Schwartz, David C., 106, 111, 113

Science

politics and, 314, 315–316, 317, 320, 322

public and, 300–301, 309–311, 325–326, 329–331

Science,

Science and Babies (IOM), 94

Science for the People, 279, 306

Scientific community

and early release of ddI, 20–22, 31

and human genome project, 123–128, 154–155, 171–172, 174

and recombinant DNA, 299–300, 302, 317–318

Scientist,

Scorsese, Martin, 63

Scribner, Belding, 177, 180, 181, 197, 201, 206n.2

Scriver, Charles, 111, 125, 126

Searle, G. D., & Company, 59, 60, 68–69, 83, 84

Seattle Artificial Kidney Center, 181–182

Segal, Sheldon, 58, 63, 67

Seiko Instruments, Inc., 108

Sexually transmitted diseases, 9

Shatkin, Aaron J., 274, 275, 278–279

Shaw, George Bernard, 290n.44

Shultze, Charles L., 179

Shumway, Norman Edward, 193

Sickle cell anemia, 105, 150, 157

Side effects

contraceptives, 84

RU-486, 44, 52, 54, 56, 61, 72, 77, 78, 79

Sikorsky, Gerry, 55–56

Simian virus 40 (SV40), 265–266, 267, 268, 269, 278

Singer, Daniel, 277, 280

Singer, Maxine F., 125, 266, 271, 272, 274, 278, 283, 288nn.31,

Sinsheimer, Robert L., 109, 110, 111, 122, 124, 153, 169–170, 279

Sloane, Kay, 206n.2

Sloan Foundation, 100

Smeal, Eleanor, 72, 73

Smith, David, 113, 114, 117, 118, 121, 125, 127, 313

Snell, Rand, 138, 151

Social Security Act (1935), 183, 187

Social Security Administration (SSA), 192, 210

Bureau of Health Insurance, 179–180, 185, 200, 201

Office of the Actuary, 198, 199

Social Security Amendments (1972), 198

Congressional deliberation, 187–195, 201–202, 210, 213

cost estimates, 195–201, 202–203, 204, 210–211, 213–214

Section 299I (kidney disease provision), 7, 176, 178, 182–187, 205, 206n.6,

Söll, Dieter, 271, 288n.31

Somatic cell hybridization, 102, 103

Soviet Union, 75, 115, 291n.55

Spain, 61

Special interest groups, 6, 306

“Specific altruism,”

Speidel, Joseph, 68, 82, 87

Spitz, Irving, 55

Stanford University, 238, 265

“Statement on a Patient's Bill of Rights” (AHA), 328

States

drug regulation, 11, 35–36n.4,

fetal tissue research restrictions, 217, 231, 242

kidney programs, 181

Sterling Drug, Inc., 51–52

Suicide, 225

Sulfanilamide, 11

Sullivan, Louis W., 70, 152, 235–236, 237, 238, 239–240

Sulston, John, 106, 111

Sununu, John H., 70

Superior Oil Company, Inc., 110

Suramin, 40

Sweden, 51

Sweig, Neil, 84–85

Syntex Corporation, 83

Szilard, Leo, 285n.7

Szybalski, Waclaw, 282

Talmadge, Herman E., 184, 191

Tatum, Edward L., 261–262, 286n.8

Tay-Sachs disease, 150

Thalidomide, 11, 36n.5,

Third World, 51, 57, 69

Three Mile Island, 305

Time,

Tinoco, Ignacio, 116, 117

Tocqueville, Alexis de, 310

Toulmin, Stephen, 250–251

Tower, John G., 181

Toxicity, drug, 20, 24, 39, 40

Trapnell, Gordon R., 198–200, 205–206n.1, 206n.9

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

Treatment IND, 14, 19, 24, 26, 27, 30, 33

Trivelpiece, Alvin, 114–115

Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA), 217, 230, 231, 232, 242

United Kingdom, 213

and Depo-Provera, 51

and fetal tissue research, 232–233, 239

and recombinant DNA research, 264, 274, 284

and RU-486, 45, 61, 73–74, 76

United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 73

United States, 11, 83, 108, 148

abortion rate, 52, 82, 217, 236, 237

and contraceptive innovation, 47–48, 50, 51, 55

fetal tissue research ban, 43, 78, 216, 218–219, 226–227, 235–238, 239–240, 288n.29

and human genome project, 156, 157, 158–159

RU-486 import ban, 6, 43, 59, 77–78, 97–98

RU-486 market, 52–53, 61, 62, 85, 86

RU-486 potential availability, 45–47, 62, 68, 71–73, 75–81, 85, 86–87, 94

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 50, 86

U.S. Congress, 51

and early drug release, 17, 19, 29

and fetal tissue research, 219, 227, 235, 239–240

House Ways and Means Committee, 187–190, 194–195, 198, 213, 313

and human genome project, 6–7, 114, 117–120, 128, 130, 131, 137–138, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 164, 316

human genome project funding, 101, 112, 133, 139–140, 142–143, 146–147, 172

and kidney disease, 179, 181

kidney disease Medicare entitlement, 176–177, 178, 182–185, 186–195, 198–199, 200–201, 202, 203, 210, 213, 315, 319

and NIH budget, 132, 135–136

and recombinant DNA research, 259

and RU-486, 47, 54, 55–56, 70, 73, 77, 78, 96

and science, 148, 260, 314–315

Senate Finance Committee, 190–194, 198, 204

U.S. Constitution, 48, 72, 117, 183, 260, 310

U.S. News and World Report,

U.S. Supreme Court, 48, 72, 217, 228

University of California, 112–113, 114, 120

University of California at Los Angeles, 148

University of California at San Francisco, 80

University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC), 100, 109–110, 111, 112–113, 124

University of Colorado, 236

University of Minnesota, 182

University of Southern California (USC), 46, 54, 78–79

University of Washington, 181–182

Upjohn Company, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 82, 83

Vaccine development, 5

Valine, 105

Van Buren, Abigail, 60–61

Van de Kamp, John, 79, 80

Var, Le,

Veterans Administration (VA), 177–178, 181, 210

Village Voice,

Virology, 264–265

Viruses, 262–263

bacteriophages, 105, 259, 265

and cancer, 263, 265, 266, 268–269, 278–279

hazards in research, 263, 267–268, 278–279, 287n.25

Vocational Rehabilitation Program, 180–181

Walters, LeRoy, 218, 238, 249

Warner-Lambert Company, 83

Washington Post,

Washington Times,

Washington University, 106

Waterston, Robert, 106, 111

Watson, James D.

DNA research, 104, 112, 127, 260, 285n.7, 286n.8

and establishment of genome project, 118, 124, 126, 127–128, 129, 140–141, 142, 144, 147, 154, 170

and ethical implications of DNA manipulation, 148–149, 174, 175, 318

as head of genome project, 141–142, 151, 152, 153, 161

and recombinant DNA controversy, 267, 272–273, 278, 282, 287n.25

Wattleton, Faye, 68

Waxman, Henry, 17, 238

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989), 72, 74

Weicker, Lowell P., Jr., 142

Weingart Institute, 108

Weiss, Ted, 77, 81, 237

Weissman, Sherman, 272, 274

Welfare reform, 184–185, 186

West Germany, 51, 67

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
×

White, Ray, 109, 113, 125–126, 128, 129

Willke, John, 53, 62, 67, 76, 85

Windom, Robert E., 216, 218, 229, 234, 243

Wolfe, Sidney, 24

Wolkstein, Irwin, 185, 191, 205–206n.1

Women

abortion decision, 56, 220–221, 223, 224, 229, 230, 232–233, 235, 236, 241

abortion opponents and, 43, 57, 59, 63, 64

advocacy groups, 55, 57, 85, 87, 309–310, 327

contraceptive development and, 47, 48, 55–56, 59

fetal tissue donation decision, 225, 226–228, 229–230, 231, 232–233, 234, 236, 252, 253

pregnancy mortality, 71

in RU-486 studies, 44, 50, 74, 78–79, 80

RU-486 use, 45, 66, 68, 73, 75, 84, 94, 96

Women and Health,

Wood, Francis Aloysius, 137–138

World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 63

World Health Organization (WHO), 51, 54, 65, 71, 73, 83, 86, 94

World War II, 325, 327

Wyden, Ron, 46, 77–78, 81

Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., 52

Wyngaarden, James B., 216

and establishment of genome project, 112, 128, 129–130, 131, 142, 153, 170

and genome project funding, 134, 135–136, 139–140, 141, 144–145, 146–147

Yale University, 236

Yard, Molly, 72

Yeast, DNA mapping, 106, 109, 113, 162, 171

Young, Frank, 51

and ddI early release, 10, 13, 16, 18–19, 25, 26, 27–28, 30, 32, 33–34, 36n.8

and RU-486, 73, 77

Zinder, Norton D., 151, 153, 272–273, 274

ZK 98.299, 52

ZK 98.734, 52

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
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Page 346
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
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Page 347
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
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Page 348
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
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Page 349
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
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Page 350
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
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Page 351
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1991. Biomedical Politics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1793.
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Biomedical Politics Get This Book
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The abortifacient RU-486 was born in the laboratory, but its history has been shaped by legislators, corporate marketing executives, and protesters on both sides of the abortion debate.

This volume explores how society decides what to do when discoveries such as RU-486 raise complex and emotional policy issues. Six case studies with insightful commentary offer a revealing look at the interplay of scientists, interest groups, the U.S. Congress, federal agencies, and the public in determining biomedical public policy—and suggest how decision making might become more reasoned and productive in the future.

The studies are fascinating and highly readable accounts of the personal interactions behind the headlines. They cover dideoxyinosine (ddI), RU-486, Medicare coverage for victims of chronic kidney failure, the human genome project, fetal tissue transplantation, and the 1975 Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA.

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