David Korn, B.A., scl, M.D., cl, Harvard University, is presently Consultant in Pathology at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Professor of Pathology at Harvard Medical School. From November 15, 2008 to June 30, 2011, he was the inaugural Vice-Provost for Research at Harvard University. Prior to joining Harvard, Dr. Korn had served as the Chief Scientific Officer of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) in Washington, D.C. since January 15, 2007, and before that as the Senior Vice President for Biomedical and Health Sciences Research at the Association since September 1, 1997.
Dr. Korn served as Carl and Elizabeth Naumann Professor and Dean of the Stanford University School of Medicine from October 1984 to April 1995, and as Vice President of Stanford University from January 1986 to April 1995. Previously, he had served as Professor and Chairman of the Department of Pathology at Stanford, and Chief of the Pathology Service at the Stanford University Hospital, since June 1968. Dr. Korn has been Chairman of the Stanford University Committee on Research; President of the American Association of Pathologists (now the American Society for Investigative Pathology), from which he received the Gold-Headed Cane Award for lifetime achievement in 2004; President of the Association of Pathology Chairman, from which he received the Distinguished Service Award in 1999; a member of the Board of Directors and of the Executive Committee of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental
Biology; and a member of the Board of Directors of the Association of Academic Health Centers.
Dr. Korn was a founder and Chairman of the Board of Directors of the California Transplant Donor Network, one of the nation’s largest Organ Procurement Organizations. Later, he was a founder of the nonprofit Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs, created to enhance and standardize the protection of human research participants. He has been a member of National Academies’ Institute of Medicine (IOM) since 1989, has served on many National Academy of Sciences and IOM committees, was a founder of the IOM’s Clinical Research Roundtable, and is currently co-chair of the NAS Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. In 1996-1997 Dr. Korn chaired a Special Subcommittee of the Science Board of the Food and Drug Administration to Review the FDA’s Intramural Research Program, for which he received the Commissioner’s Special Citation and the Harvey W. Wiley Medal. From 1984 to 1991 he served as Chairman of the National Cancer Advisory Board, a position to which he was appointed by President Reagan. Dr. Korn is a Fellow of the AAAS and has served on its Council, and he was a member of the University Grants Committee of Hong Kong from 1998-2004, where he was Chairman of the Medical Subcommittee.
Dr. Korn served on the Boards of Directors of the Stanford University Hospital from October 1982 to April 1995, the Children’s Hospital at Stanford from October 1984 to its closure, and the Lucile Salter Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford from October 1984 to April 1995. He was a member of the Board of Directors of the California Society of Pathologists from 1983-1986.
Dr. Korn has been a member of the editorial boards of the American Journal of Pathology, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, and Human Pathology, and for many years was an Associate Editor of the latter. He has sat on many Society Councils and Boards. His more than 250 publications range from bacteriophage biochemistry and genetics to the biochemistry and molecular biology of DNA replication in human cells, and more recently, concern issues of academic values and integrity, research integrity, health and science policy, and financial conflicts of interest in academic medicine.
David A. Relman is the Thomas C. and Joan M. Merigan Professor in the Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University, and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System in Palo Alto, California. He received an S.B. (Biology) from MIT (1977) and M.D. (magna cum laude) from Harvard Medical School (1982), completed his clinical training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, served as a postdoctoral fellow in micro-
biology at Stanford University, and joined the faculty at Stanford in 1994. Dr. Relman’s current research focus is the human indigenous microbiota (microbiome), and in particular the nature and mechanisms of variation in patterns of microbial diversity in the human body as a function of time (microbial succession) and space (biogeography within the host landscape) and in response to perturbation, e.g., antibiotics (community robustness and resilience). One of the goals of this work is to define the role of the human microbiome in health and disease. This research integrates theory and methods from ecology, population biology, environmental microbiology, genomics, and clinical medicine. During the past few decades, his research directions have also included pathogen discovery and the development of new strategies for identifying previously unrecognized microbial agents of disease. This work helped to spearhead the application of molecular methods to the diagnosis of infectious diseases in the 1990s. His research has emphasized the use of genomic approaches for exploring host-microbe relationships. Past scientific achievements include the description of a novel approach for identifying previously unknown pathogens, the identification of a number of new human microbial pathogens, including the agent of Whipple’s disease, and some of the most extensive and revealing analyses to date of the human indigenous microbial ecosystem. Dr. Relman advises the U.S. government as well as nongovernmental organizations in matters pertaining to microbiology, emerging infectious diseases, and biosecurity. He currently serves as Chair of the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats, a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB), and a member of the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate Review Committee for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and advises several U.S. government departments and agencies on matters related to pathogen diversity, the future life sciences landscape, and the nature of present and future biological threats. Dr. Relman co-chaired a three-year National Research Council study that produced a widely cited report entitled Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences (2006). He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology, a member of the Association of American Physicians, and currently the President of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Dr. Relman was the recipient of both the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award and the Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation in 2006. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 2011.
Ruth Berkelman is Rollins Professor and Director, Center for Public Health Preparedness and Research at Emory University and the director of the Emory Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center. She began
her career in public health as an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). At CDC, she served as Deputy Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, and as a Senior Advisor to the Director; she retired from the U.S. Public Health Service in 2000 as Assistant Surgeon General. She is nationally and internationally recognized in infectious diseases and disease surveillance. She has taken leadership roles with national organizations and is currently serving as Chair of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board, American Society of Microbiology. She has been elected to the Institute of Medicine, and was appointed in 2007 to the National Biodefense Science Board.
Gail Cassell is Visiting Professor, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School and former vice president, Scientific Affairs and Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly and Company in Indianapolis. She is the former Charles H. McCauley Professor and chair of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department that ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health during the decade of her leadership. She obtained her bachelor’s from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa and in 1993 was selected as one of the top 31 female graduates of the 20th century. She obtained her doctorate in microbiology from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and was selected as its 2003 Distinguished Alumnus.
She is a past president of the American Society for Microbiology (the oldest and single largest life sciences organization with a membership of over 42,000). She was a member of the National Institutes of Health Director’s Advisory Committee and a member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of NIH. She was named to the original Board of Scientific Councilors of the Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and served as chair of the board. She recently served a three-year term on the Advisory Board of the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and as a member of the Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Council of Public Health Preparedness. Currently she is a member of the Science Board of the Federal Food and Drug Administration. Since 1996, she has been a member of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program responsible for advising the respective governments on joint research agendas (U.S. State Department/Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs). She has served on several editorial boards of scientific journals and has authored more than 250 articles and book chapters. Cassell has received national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research in infectious diseases. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and is currently serving a three-year term on the IOM Council, the governing board.
Cassell has been intimately involved in establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. For nine years she was chair of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society for Microbiology; has served as an adviser on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy; and has been an invited participant in numerous Congressional hearings and briefings related to infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, and biomedical research. She has served two terms on the LCME, the accrediting body for U.S. medical schools, as well as other national committees involved in establishing policies in training in the biomedical sciences. Currently she is a member of the Board of Directors of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the Leadership Council of the School of Public Health of Harvard University and the Advisory Council of the School of Nursing of Johns Hopkins.
Stanley Falkow is Professor Emeritus, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University. He formulated molecular Koch’s postulates, which have guided the study of the microbial determinants of infectious diseases since the late 1980s. Dr. Falkow received his B.S. from the University of Maine and went on to earn his Ph.D. from Brown University. He discovered that infectious microorganisms use genes that are activated only inside host cells. Dr. Falkow has published numerous articles and has served on the editorial boards of several professional publications. In addition, he has received numerous awards for his achievements in science, including the Bristol-Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Achievement in Infectious Disease Research, the Altemeier Medal from the Surgical Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Howard Taylor Ricketts Award Lecture at the University of Chicago, and the Paul Ehrlich–Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize. In 2003, he received the Abbott Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Society for Microbiology and the Selman A. Waksman Award in Microbiology from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). He received the Robert Koch Award in 2000. Dr. Falkow was president of the American Society for Microbiology in 1997-1998. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1997 and received the Maxwell-Finland Award from the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases in 1999. Also in 1999, he was named an honorary doctor of science by the University of Guelph, Canada, and received the University of Maine Alumni Career Award. He has received honorary doctorates in Europe and the United States. Dr. Falkow is a member of NAS and the National Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is also an elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a foreign member of the U.K. Royal Society. Dr. Falkow was nominated twice for a Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. In 2008, Dr. Falkow received the Lasker Award for medical research.
David P. Fidler is James Louis Calamaras Professor of Law at Indiana University. Professor Fidler specializes in international law. He is one of the world’s leading experts on international law and global health and is an internationally recognized expert on biosecurity threats posed by biological weapons and bioterrorism, the international legal and policy implications of “non-lethal” weapons, counterinsurgency and rule of law operations, and the globalization of baseball.
In addition to his teaching and scholarly activities, Professor Fidler has served as an international legal consultant to the World Bank (on foreign investment in Palestine), the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (on global health issues), the U.S. Department of Defense’s Defense Science Board (on bioterrorism), the Scientists Working Group on Biological and Chemical Weapons of the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, U.S. Joint Forces Command (on rule of law issues in complex operations), the Interagency Afghanistan Integrated Civilian-Military Pre-Deployment Training Course organized by the Departments of Defense, State, Agriculture, and the U.S. Agency for International Development, and various initiatives undertaken by non-governmental organizations in the areas of global health and arms control. He was also the editor for the Insights publication series of the American Society of International Law from 2007-2009.
Richard J. Roberts, F.R.S., is Chief Scientific Officer at New England Biolabs in Beverly, Massachusetts. He is the winner, with Phillip A. Sharp, of the 1993 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his independent discovery of “split genes.” Roberts attended the University of Sheffield where he obtained a B.Sc. in chemistry in 1965 and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 1968. His postdoctoral research was carried out in Professor J.L. Strominger’s laboratory at Harvard University, where he studied the RNAs that are involved in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls. After postdoctoral research at Harvard, he took a post at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York in 1972. In 1992, he joined New England Biolabs.
Anne-Marie Mazza is the Director of the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Dr. Mazza joined the National Academies in 1995. She has served as Senior Program Officer with both the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy and the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. In 1999 she was named the first director of the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law, a newly created activity designed to foster communication and analysis among scientists, engineers, and members of the legal community. Dr. Mazza has been the study director on
numerous Academy reports including, Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 3rd Edition (2011); Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Letters (2011); Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest (2010); Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009); Science and Security in A Post 9/11 World (2007); Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health (2005); and Intentional Human Dosing Studies for EPA Regulatory Purposes: Scientific and Ethical Issues (2004). Between October 1999 and October 2000, Dr. Mazza divided her time between the National Academies and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, where she served as a Senior Policy Analyst responsible for issues associated with a Presidential Review Directive on the government-university research partnership. Before joining the Academy, Dr. Mazza was a Senior Consultant with Resource Planning Corporation. Dr. Mazza was awarded a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D., from The George Washington University.
Eileen Choffnes is Scholar and Director of the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) Forum on Microbial Threats. Established in 1996, the Forum on Microbial Threats is the premier convening activity of the Institute of Medicine. Her work focuses on emerging, reemerging, and novel infectious disease threats of humans, plants, and animals—domestically and globally—and the interplay of host/environment/microorganism interactions on disease emergence, establishment, and spread. Her previous appointment was as the Study Director of a National Research Council/IOM Ad Hoc Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Applications to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats. The Committee’s reports—Globalization, Biosecurity and the Future of the Life Sciences and An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks were released in 2006 and 2005, respectively. Many of the findings and recommendations in these reports have now become official U.S. government policy in the USG National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats (November 2009). She is an internationally recognized expert on technological convergence in the life and physical sciences as well as the security challenges posed by emerging, reemerging, or novel diseases on health, ecological, and economic well-being. She has held senior technical and science policy positions within the Executive and Legislative branches of the United States government concerned with identification of and responses to infectious disease security concerns. She regularly advises governmental and non-governmental organizations on infectious disease policies and practices. She is a member of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and was elected to the Council on Foreign Relations in 2008.
Jo L. Husbands is a Scholar/Senior Project Director with the Board on Life Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), where she manages studies and projects to help mitigate the risks of the misuse of scientific research for biological weapons or bioterrorism. She represents the NAS on the Biosecurity Working Group of IAP: The Global Network of Science Academies, which also includes the academies of Australia, China, Cuba, Egypt, India, Nigeria, Poland (chair), Russia, and the United Kingdom. From 1991-2005 she was Director of the NAS Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) and its Working Group on Biological Weapons Control. Before joining the National Academies, she worked for several Washington, DC-based nongovernmental organizations focused on international security. Dr. Husbands is currently an adjunct professor in the Security Studies Program at Georgetown University. She is a member of the International Studies Association, the Honor Roll of Women in International Security, the Global Agenda Council on Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Weapons of the World Economic Forum, and the Temporary Working Group on Education and Outreach of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. She is also a Fellow of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. She holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Minnesota and a Masters in International Public Policy (International Economics) from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.
Steven Kendall is Associate Program Officer for the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Dr. Kendall has contributed to numerous Academy reports including the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 3rd Edition (2011), Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Mailings (2011), Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest (2010); and Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009). Dr. Kendall completed his Ph.D. in the Department of the History of Art and Architecture at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he wrote a dissertation on 19th century British painting. Dr. Kendall received his M.A. in Victorian Art and Architecture at the University of London. Prior to joining the National Research Council in 2007, he worked at the Smithsonian American Art Museum and the Huntington in San Marino, California.
Karin Matchett is a freelance writing consultant who works on topics in science, technology, and medicine; food and agriculture; and energy and climate. Her work spans all phases of documents’ development—from a sharp outline to the first draft to rounds of revision. Dr. Matchett has done developmental evaluations and substantive editing for well over 200 research grants in academic settings. She has written strategic visioning
documents, summaries of expert panels in academia, the occasional summary of the photovoltaics industry, and proposals for academic program development and research. She also works with nonprofit organizations to develop reports, proposals, and web content.
Dr. Matchett has a Ph.D. in the history of science from the University of Minnesota, with an emphasis on 20th century life sciences and agriculture in the United States and Mexico. She completed a postdoctoral fellowship under the mentorship of Daniel Kevles at Yale University in which she did research and writing on topics at the intersection of the life sciences and law. Her current research focus is in energy and climate issues as they relate to human psychology and American society and culture.