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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Timeline." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Inquiry, Communication, Controversy: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18255.
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Appendix A

Timeline

1918 Outbreak of “Spanish” flu (H1N1)
   
1957 Outbreak of “Asian” flu (H2N2)
   
1968 Outbreak of “Hong Kong” flu (H3N2)
   
1971 Seattle Crown Gall Group begins exploring bacterium-to-plant transmissible plasmid.
   
1972 Draft of Biological Weapons Convention text
   
1973 Recombinant DNA methodologies in place
   
1974 Moratorium on recombinant DNA
   
1975 Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA
   
1975 Biological Weapons Convention established
   
1976 National Institutes of Health (NIH) issues initial guidelines for research involving recombinant DNA.
   
1980 In Diamond v. Chakrabarty, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that “a live, human-made micro-organism is patentable subject matter.”
   
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Timeline." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Inquiry, Communication, Controversy: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18255.
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1981 Ability to reverse engineer a plus/positive-strand RNA virus (poliovirus)
   
1982 Publication of National Research Council (NRC) report Scientific Communication and National Security (aka the Corson Report)
   
1985 National Security Decision Directive-189 (NSDD-189) released
   
1990 Ability to reverse engineer a negative strand RNA animal virus
   
2004 Publication of NRC report Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism (aka the Fink Report)
   
2005 First meeting of the National Science Advisory Board on Biosecurity (NSABB)
   
2006 Publication of NRC report Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences
   
2006-2007 Ability to reverse engineer double-stranded RNA viruses
   
2007 Publication of NSABB’s “Proposed Framework for the Oversight of Dual Use Life Sciences Research: Strategies for Minimizing the Potential Misuse of Research”

Publication of NRC report Science and Security in a Post-9/11 World
   
2009 Outbreak of “swine” flu (H1N1)
   
2011 Publication of NSABB’s “Recommendations on Communications of Experimental Adaptation of Avian Influenza A/H5N1”

Publication of World Health Organization’s (WHO) “Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework”

7th Review Conference, Biological Weapons Convention
   
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Timeline." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Inquiry, Communication, Controversy: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18255.
×
December 20 Publication of National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) “Press Statement on the NSABB Review of H5N1 Research” (see Appendix B)
   
2012  
   
January 20 Publication of “NIH Statement on H5N1” (see Appendix B)
   
January 31 Publication of NSABB statement “Adaptations of Avian Flu Virus Are a Cause For Concern” (see Appendix B)
   
February Publication of WHO’s “Report on Technical Consultation on H5N1 Research Issues” (see Appendix B)
   
March 29 Publication of “United States Government Policy for Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern” (see Appendix B)
   
March 30 Publication of NSABB “Findings and Recommendations” (see Appendix B)
   
April 14 Publication of NIH’s “Statement on NSABB’s March 30, 2012 Recommendations to NIH on H5N1 Research” (see Appendix B)
   
April 20 Publication of NIH’s “Statement by NIH Director Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D., on the NSABB Review of Revised H5N1 Manuscripts” (See Appendix B)
   
May 2 Publication of the Kawaoka paper (see Appendix C)
   
June 22 Publication of the Fouchier paper (see Appendix C)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Timeline." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Inquiry, Communication, Controversy: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18255.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Timeline." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Inquiry, Communication, Controversy: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18255.
×
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Timeline." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Inquiry, Communication, Controversy: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18255.
×
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Timeline." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Inquiry, Communication, Controversy: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18255.
×
Page 53
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Timeline." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Inquiry, Communication, Controversy: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18255.
×
Page 54
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When, in late 2011, it became public knowledge that two research groups had submitted for publication manuscripts that reported on their work on mammalian transmissibility of a lethal H5N1 avian influenza strain, the information caused an international debate about the appropriateness and communication of the researchers' work, the risks associated with the work, partial or complete censorship of scientific publications, and dual-use research of concern in general.

Recognizing that the H5N1 research is only the most recent scientific activity subject to widespread attention due to safety and security concerns, on May 1, 2012, the National Research Council's Committee on Science, Technology and Law, in conjunction with the Board on Life Sciences and the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Microbial Threats, convened a one-day public workshop for the purposes of 1) discussing the H5N1 controversy; 2) considering responses by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which had funded this research, the World Health Organization, the U.S. National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB), scientific publishers, and members of the international research community; and 3) providing a forum wherein the concerns and interests of the broader community of stakeholders, including policy makers, biosafety and biosecurity experts, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, and the general public might be articulated.

Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Enquiry, Communication, Controversy summarizes the proceedings of the workshop.

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