Committee on the Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence
Board on Earth Sciences and Resources
Division on Earth and Life Studies
Board on Higher Education and Workforce
Policy and Global Affairs
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This study was supported by Contract No. HM1582-09-C-0014 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. The views, opinions, and findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of Defense position, policy, or decision unless so designated by other official documentation.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26864-6
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26864-8
Cover illustrations: Photo of a battlefield use of sensor input to a mobile display device, courtesy of DARPA (upper left); satellite image of Afghanistan, courtesy of USGS (upper right); Map of Science, courtesy of Richard Klavans, used with permission from SciTech (background map).
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Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
KEITH C. CLARKE, Chair, University of California, Santa Barbara
LUC E. ANSELIN, Arizona State University, Tempe
ALEXANDRE M. BAYEN, University of California, Berkeley
GRANT C. BLACK, University of Missouri, St. Louis
BARBARA P. BUTTENFIELD, University of Colorado, Boulder
KATHLEEN M. CARLEY, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
JOHN R. JENSEN, University of South Carolina, Columbia
RICHARD B. LANGLEY, University of New Brunswick, Canada
EDWARD M. MIKHAIL, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
SHASHI SHEKHAR, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
MICHAEL N. SOLEM, Association of American Geographers, Washington, D.C.
PAULA STEPHAN, Georgia State University, Atlanta
MAY YUAN, University of Oklahoma, Norman
MICHAEL J. ZYDA, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
National Research Council Staff
ANNE M. LINN, Study Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources
GAIL R. GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce
ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources
CORALE L. BRIERLEY, Chair, Brierley Consultancy LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colorado
WILLIAM E. DIETRICH, University of California, Berkeley
WILLIAM. L. GRAF, University of South Carolina, Columbia
RUSSELL J. HEMLEY, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.
MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden
EDWARD KAVAZANJIAN, JR., Arizona State University, Tempe
DAVID R. MAIDMENT, The University of Texas, Austin
ROBERT B. MCMASTER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
M. MEGHAN MILLER, UNAVCO, Inc., Boulder, Colorado
ISABEL P. MONTAÑEZ, University of California, Davis
CLAUDIA INÉS MORA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico
BRIJ M. MOUDGIL, University of Florida, Gainesville
CLAYTON R. NICHOLS, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (retired), Ocean Park, Washington
HENRY N. POLLACK, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
DAVID T. SANDWELL, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla
PETER M. SHEARER, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla
REGINAL SPILLER, Azimuth Investments LLC, Texas
TERRY C. WALLACE, JR., Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico
Natioal Research Council Staff
ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director
ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer
SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer
MARK D. LANGE, Program Officer
JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Financial and Administrative Associate (until August 2012)
NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate
COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate
JASON R. ORTEGO, Research Associate (until June 2012)
ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant
CHANDA IJAMES, Senior Program Assistant
WILLIAM E. KIRWAN, Chair, University System of Maryland, Adelphi
F. KING ALEXANDER, California State University, Long Beach
SUSAN K. AVERY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts
JEAN-LOU CHAMEAU, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena
CARLOS CASTILLO-CHAVEZ, Arizona State University, Tempe
RITA COLWELL, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
PETER EWELL, National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, Boulder, Colorado
SYLVIA HURTADO, University of California, Los Angeles
WILLIAM KELLEY, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia
EARL LEWIS, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
PAULA STEPHAN, Georgia State University, Atlanta
Natioal Research Council Staff
PETER HENDERSON, Director
GAIL GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer
SABRINA HALL, Program Associate
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:
Burt S. Barnow, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
Katy Börner, Indiana University, Bloomington
Gaetano Borriello, University of Washington, Seattle
Cynthia A. Brewer, Pennsylvania State University, University Park
Joseph Galaskiewicz, University of Arizona, Tucson
Ayman F. Habib, University of Calgary, Canada
Michael J. Jackson, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Annette J. Krygiel, Independent Consultant, Great Falls, Virginia
James Llinas, State University of New York at Buffalo
Marguerite Madden, University of Georgia, Athens
Leif E. Peterson, Advanced HR Concepts & Solutions, LLC, Beavercreek, Ohio
Chris Rizos, University of New South Wales, Australia
Scott A. Sandgathe, University of Washington, Seattle
Stephen M. Stigler, University of Chicago, Illinois
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by David R. Rain, George Washington University, and Stephen R. Berry, University of Chicago. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
The committee would like to thank the following individuals who gave briefings or provided data, figures, or other input: Max Baber, Richard Berg, Adam Chill, Denise Clayton Delahanty, David DiBiase, Michael Gibbons, Leila Gonzales, George Hepner, Susan Kalweit, Nirmala Kannankutty, Keith Krut, Keith Masback, Patricia Muth, Wendy Nelson, Mark Pahls, Jürgen Pfeffer, James Plasker, Mark Regets, Jack Sanders, H. Greg Smith, Marc Spraragen, George Stamus, Ed Waltz, and Michael Wolf.