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Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States (2013)

Chapter: VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES

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Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
×

NEXT GENERATION
SCIENCE
STANDARDS

For States, By States

Volume 2: Appendixes

NGSS Lead States

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

WASHINGTON, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 www.nap.edu

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-27227-8
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-27227-0
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013939525

Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States is published as a two-volume set:
Volume 1: The Standards—Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas and by Topics
Volume 2: Appendixes

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

© Copyright 2013 by Achieve, Inc. All rights reserved.

All sections entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” in Volume 1 are reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K–12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

images is a registered trademark of Achieve, Inc., on behalf of the lead states and partners.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this volume are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences or its affiliated institutions.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: NGSS Lead States. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Cover Photo Credits

Clockwise, from top right: Elementary school age boy with magnifying glass, ©iStock/fstop123; Tungurahua volcano eruption, ©iStock/Elena Kalistratova; High school students, ©iStock/Christopher Futcher; Sunrise, ©iStock/alxpin; Students in biology lab, ©iStock/fstop123; Buttercup stem, ©iStock/Oliver Sun Kim

Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
×

CONTENTS

VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES

Preface

National Research Council Review of the Next Generation Science Standards

Glossary

Appendixes

A Conceptual Shifts in the Next Generation Science Standards

B Responses to the Public Drafts

C College and Career Readiness

D “All Standards, All Students”: Making the Next Generation Science Standards Accessible to All Students

E Disciplinary Core Idea Progressions in the Next Generation Science Standards

F Science and Engineering Practices in the Next Generation Science Standards

G Crosscutting Concepts in the Next Generation Science Standards

H Understanding the Scientific Enterprise: The Nature of Science in the Next Generation Science Standards

I Engineering Design in the Next Generation Science Standards

J Science, Technology, Society, and the Environment

K Model Course Mapping in Middle and High School for the Next Generation Science Standards

L Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

M Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

The contents of the first volume of this two-volume publication are listed below.

VOLUME 1: THE STANDARDS—ARRANGED BY DISCIPLINARY CORE IDEAS AND BY TOPICS

Preface

National Research Council Review of the Next Generation Science Standards

Acknowledgments

Introduction

How to Read the Next Generation Science Standards

Glossary

Next Generation Science Standards Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas

Connections to Standards Arranged by Disciplinary Core Ideas

Next Generation Science Standards Arranged by Topics

Connections to Standards Arranged by Topics

Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
×

PREFACE

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), authored by a consortium of 26 states facilitated by Achieve, Inc., are the culmination of a 3-year, multi-step process jointly undertaken by the National Research Council (NRC), the National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Achieve, Inc., with support from the Carnegie Corporation of New York.

The NRC, the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), began the process by releasing A Framework for K–12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas in July 2011. The Framework, authored by a committee of 18 individuals who are nationally and internationally known in their respective fields, describes a new vision for science education rooted in scientific evidence and outlines the knowledge and skills that all students need to learn from kindergarten through the end of high school. It is the foundational document for the NGSS.

Following release of the Framework, the consortium of 26 lead partner states, working with a team of 41 writers with expertise in science and science education and facilitated by Achieve, Inc., began the development of rigorous and internationally benchmarked science standards that are faithful to the Framework. As part of the development process, the standards underwent multiple reviews, including two public drafts, allowing anyone interested in science education an opportunity to inform the content and organization of the standards. Thus the NGSS were developed through collaboration between states and other stakeholders in science, science education, higher education, business, and industry.

As partners in this endeavor, the NAS, NAE, NRC, and the National Academies Press (NAP) are deeply committed to the NGSS initiative. While this document is not the product of an NRC expert committee, the final version of the standards was reviewed by the NRC and was found to be consistent with the Framework. These standards, built on the Framework, are essential for enhancing learning for all students and should enjoy the widest possible dissemination, given the vital national importance of high-quality education. That is why we decided to publish the NGSS through the NAP, a unit otherwise solely dedicated to publishing the work of this institution.

The NGSS represent a crucial step forward in realizing the Framework’s vision for science education in classrooms throughout our nation. The standards alone, however, will not create high-quality learning opportunities for all students. Numerous changes are now required at all levels of the K–12 education system so that the standards can lead to improved science teaching and learning, including modifications to curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional preparation and development for teachers. The scientific and science education communities must continue to work together to create these transformations in order to make the promise of the NGSS a reality for all students.

Washington, DC, June 2013

images images images
RALPH J. CICERONE CHARLES M. VEST HARVEY V. FINEBERG
President President President
National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine
Chair Vice Chair
National Research Council National Research Council
Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
×

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL REVIEW OF THE NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS

In accordance with the procedures approved by the Executive Office of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE) at the National Research Council (NRC), the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were reviewed in early 2013 by individuals chosen for their technical expertise and familiarity with the Research Council’s 2011 report A Framework for K–12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (Framework). The purpose of the review was to evaluate whether the NGSS, as developed during a 2-year process by 26 lead states under the guidance of Achieve, Inc., remained consistent with the Framework, which was intended to provide the scientific consensus upon which to base new K12 science standards. The developers of the NGSS used the Framework as the basis for their work in terms of developing both the structure and content of the standards. The NRC asked reviewers to direct their comments to three points:

  • Are the NGSS consistent with the vision for K12 science education presented in the Framework?
  • To what extent do the NGSS follow the specific recommendations for standards developers put forward by the Framework committee (see Chapter 12 of the Framework)?
  • For consistency with the Framework, are other changes needed?

The review process determined that the NGSS, released to the public in April 2013 and published in this volume, are consistent with the content and structure of the Framework.

The following individuals participated in the review of the NGSS: Philip Bell, Professor of the Learning Sciences, The Geda and Phil Condit Professor of Science and Math Education, University of Washington; Rodolfo Dirzo, Bing Professor in Ecology, Department of Biology, Stanford University; Kenji Hakuta, Professor of Education, School of Education, Stanford University; Kim A. Kastens, Lamont Research Professor and Adjunct Full Professor, LamontDoherty Earth Observatory, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University; Jonathan Osborne, Shriram Family Professor of Science Education, Graduate School of Education, Stanford University; Brian J. Reiser, Professor, Learning Sciences, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University; Carl E. Wieman, Professor, Department of Physics, University of British Columbia; and Lauress (Laurie) L. Wise, Principal Scientist, Education Policy Impact Center, HumRRO, Monterey, CA.

The review of the NGSS was overseen by Patricia Morison, Associate Executive Director for Reports and Communications for DBASSE, and Suzanne Wilson, member of the NRC Board on Science Education and Professor, Michigan State University. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the NGSS was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures.

Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
×

GLOSSARY

A Algebra (CCSS Connection)
AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science
AYP annual yearly progress

BF

Building Functions (CCSS Connection)

CC

Counting and Cardinality (CCSS Connection)

CC crosscutting concept
CCR college and career ready
CCSS Common Core State Standards
CCSSM Common Core State Standards for Mathematics
CED Creating Equations (CCSS Connection)
CR Chemical Reactions (Topic Name)

DCI

disciplinary core idea

E

Energy (Topic Name)

ED Engineering Design (Topic Name)
EE Expressions and Equations (CCSS Connection)
ELA English Language Arts
ELL English language learner
ES Earth’s Systems (Topic Name)
ESEA Elementary and Secondary Education Act
ESS earth and space sciences
ETS engineering, technology, and applications of science

F

Functions (CCSS Connection)

FB foundation box
FI Forces and Interactions (Topic Name)

G

Geometry (CCSS Connection)

GBE grade-band endpoint
GDRO Growth, Development, and Reproduction of Organisms (Topic Name)

HI

Human Impacts (Topic Name)

HS high school

IC

Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions (CCSS Connection)

ID Interpret Data (CCSS Connection)
IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
IEP individualized education program
IF Interpreting Functions (CCSS Connection)
IRE Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems (Topic Name)
IVT Inheritance and Variation of Traits (Topic Name)

K

kindergarten

LEP

limited English proficiency

LS life sciences

MD

Measurement and Data (CCSS Connection)

MEOE Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems (Topic Name)
MP Mathematical Practice (Topic Name)
MS middle school

N

Number and Quantity (CCSS Connection)

NAE National Academy of Engineering
NAEP National Assessment of Educational Progress
NAGC National Association for Gifted Children
NBT Number and Operations in Base Ten (CCSS Connection)
NCES National Center for Educational Statistics
NCLB No Child Left Behind Act
NF Number and Operations—Fractions (CCSS Connection)
Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
×
NGSS Next Generation Science Standards
NOS Nature of Science
NRC National Research Council
NS The Number System (CCSS Connection)
NSA Natural Selection and Adaptations (Topic Name)
NSE Natural Selection and Evolution (Topic Name)
NSF National Science Foundation
NSTA National Science Teachers Association

OA

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (CCSS Connection)

PE

performance expectation

PISA Program for International Student Assessment
PS physical sciences

Q

Quantities (CCSS Connection)

R&D

research and development

RI Reading Informational Text (CCSS Connection)
RL Reading Literature (CCSS Connection)
RP Ratios and Proportional Relationships (CCSS Connection)
RST Reading in Science and Technical Subjects (CCSS Connection)

SEP

science and engineering practice

SF Structure and Function (Topic Name)
SFIP Structure, Function, and Information Processing (Topic Name)
SL Speaking and Listening (CCSS Connection)
SP Statistics and Probability (CCSS Connection)
SPM Structures and Properties of Matter (Topic Name)
SS Space Systems (Topic Name)
SSE Seeing Structure in Expressions (CCSS Connection)
STEM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics
STS science, technology, and society

TELA

Technology and Engineering Literacy Assessment

TIMSS Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

W

Waves (Topic Name)

W Writing (CCSS Connection)
WC Weather and Climate (Topic Name)
WER Waves and Electromagnetic Radiation (Topic Name)
WHST Writing in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (CCSS Connection)
Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
×

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Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
×

NEXT GENERATION
SCIENCE
STANDARDS

For States, By States

Volume 2: Appendixes

Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
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Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
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Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
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Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
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Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
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Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
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Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
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Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
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Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
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Suggested Citation:"VOLUME 2: APPENDIXES." National Research Council. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290.
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Next: APPENDIX A: Conceptual Shifts in the Next Generation Science Standards »
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Next Generation Science Standards identifies the science all K-12 students should know. These new standards are based on the National Research Council's A Framework for K-12 Science Education. The National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Achieve have partnered to create standards through a collaborative state-led process. The standards are rich in content and practice and arranged in a coherent manner across disciplines and grades to provide all students an internationally benchmarked science education.

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