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Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence (2013)

Chapter: Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 2013. Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18311.
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Appendix A

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
ADHF acute decompensated heart failure
AI adequate intake
ARB angiotensin receptor blocker




BMI body mass index
BP blood pressure




CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CHF congestive heart failure
CI confidence interval
CKD chronic kidney disease
CT computed tomography
CV cardiovascular
CVD cardiovascular disease




d day
DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
DGA Dietary Guidelines for Americans
DGAC Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee
DM diabetes mellitus
DRI Dietary Reference Intake




EAR Estimated Average Requirement
eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 2013. Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18311.
×
eNOS endothelial nitric oxide synthase
ESRD end-stage renal disease




FFQ food frequency questionnaire




g gram




h hour
HDL high-density lipoprotein
Hg mercury
HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
HR hazard ratio
IHD ischemic heart disease




IOM Institute of Medicine
IS ischemic stroke




K potassium
kg kilogram
KHANES Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey




L liter
LDL low-density lipoprotein
LOAEL lowest observed adverse effect level
LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction




mg milligram
MI myocardial infarction
ml milliliter
mm millimeter
mmol millimole




n number
Na sodium
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NOAEL no-observed adverse effect level




ONTARGET ONgoing Telmisartan Alone in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial




PRA plasma renin activity
PURE Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 2013. Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18311.
×




Q quartile/quintile




RAAS renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
RCT randomized controlled trial
RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance
RR relative risk




SALTURK Relationship between Hypertension and Salt Intake in Turkish Populations
SD standard deviation




TOHP Trials of Hypertension Prevention
TRANSCEND Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in ACE INtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease




UK urinary potassium
UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level
UNa urinary sodium
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture




WHO World Health Organization
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 2013. Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18311.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 2013. Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18311.
×
Page 127
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 2013. Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18311.
×
Page 128
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 2013. Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18311.
×
Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 2013. Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18311.
×
Page 130
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Despite efforts over the past several decades to reduce sodium intake in the United States, adults still consume an average of 3,400 mg of sodium every day. A number of scientific bodies and professional health organizations, including the American Heart Association, the American Medical Association, and the American Public Health Association, support reducing dietary sodium intake. These organizations support a common goal to reduce daily sodium intake to less than 2,300 milligrams and further reduce intake to 1,500 mg among persons who are 51 years of age and older and those of any age who are African-American or have hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease.

A substantial body of evidence supports these efforts to reduce sodium intake. This evidence links excessive dietary sodium to high blood pressure, a surrogate marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and cardiac-related mortality. However, concerns have been raised that a low sodium intake may adversely affect certain risk factors, including blood lipids and insulin resistance, and thus potentially increase risk of heart disease and stroke. In fact, several recent reports have challenged sodium reduction in the population as a strategy to reduce this risk.

Sodium Intake in Populations recognizes the limitations of the available evidence, and explains that there is no consistent evidence to support an association between sodium intake and either a beneficial or adverse effect on most direct health outcomes other than some CVD outcomes (including stroke and CVD mortality) and all-cause mortality. Some evidence suggested that decreasing sodium intake could possibly reduce the risk of gastric cancer. However, the evidence was too limited to conclude the converse—that higher sodium intake could possibly increase the risk of gastric cancer. Interpreting these findings was particularly challenging because most studies were conducted outside the United States in populations consuming much higher levels of sodium than those consumed in this country. Sodium Intake in Populations is a summary of the findings and conclusions on evidence for associations between sodium intake and risk of CVD-related events and mortality.

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