While this study was in progress, the Army made substantial changes in the preferred terminology for communicating doctrine and describing operations. With helpful advice from reviewers during the formal independent review of the draft report, the committee has aimed to employ the most current terminology and to use it in ways consistent with current Army doctrine. As an aid to readers, this appendix extracts key passages in order to define and explain terms that the committee views as particularly relevant to understanding the missions and tasks that the Army anticipates dismounted Soldiers, operating in small units, are likely to perform in future operations.
The following Army publications are the sources of the verbatim quotations given below:
• Army Doctrine Publication 1 (ADP 1), The Army, September 17, 2012. Available online http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adp1.pdf (U.S. Army, 2012a).
• Army Doctrine Publication 3-0 (ADP 3-0), Unified Land Operations, October 10, 2011. Available online http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adp3_0.pdf (U.S. Army, 2011).
• Army Doctrine Reference Publication 3-0 (ADRP 3-0), Unified Land Operations, May 16, 2012. Available online
http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf. (U.S. Army, 2012b).
ADP 3-0 is a concise, high-level introduction, in 19 pages, to the Army’s operational concept of “unified land operations,” which supersedes the previous operational concept of “full spectrum operations.” ADRP 3-0, which runs to more than 60 pages of introduction, chapters, and glossary, “expands the discussion of the foundations and tenets of unified land operations, as well as the operational framework found in ADP 3-0.” (U.S. Army, 2012b, p. v).
THE ARMY PROVIDES LANDPOWER TO WIN IN THE LAND DOMAIN
From U.S. Army, 2012a, Page 1-1
U.S. forces operate in the air, land, maritime, space, and cyberspace domains…. War begins and ends based upon how it affects the land domain. Air, maritime, space, and cybernetic power
THE LAND DOMAIN
1-1. The distinguishing characteristic of the land domain is the presence of humans in large numbers…. Humans live on the land and affect almost every aspect of land operations. Soldiers operate among populations, not adjacent to them or above them. They accomplish missions face-to-face with people, in the midst of environmental, societal, religious, and political tumult. Winning battles and engagements is important but alone is usually insufficient to produce lasting change in the conditions that spawned conflict. Our effectiveness depends on our ability to manage populations and civilian authorities as much as it does on technical competence employing equipment. Managing populations before, during, and after all phases of the campaign normally determines its success or failure. Soldiers often cooperate, shape, influence, assist, and coerce according to the situation, varying their actions to make permanent the otherwise temporary gains achieved through combat.
THE RANGE OF MILITARY OPERATIONS
From U.S. Army, 2012b, Page 1-6
1-38. Military operations vary in purpose, scale, risk, and intensity (see JP 3-0). They include relatively benign, routine, and recurring military operations in peacetime; specific combat and noncombat responses to contingencies and crises as they occur; and less frequent, large-scale combat operations typical of wartime conditions. Army forces are designed, organized, equipped, and trained to accomplish many military operations. Table 1-1 lists examples of military operations. (See JP 1 for a discussion of the range of military operations.)
Table 1-1. Examples of operations and their applicable doctrine
Arms control and disarmament (JP 3-0)
Large-scale combat (FM 3-90)
Civil support (JP 3-28 and FM 3-28)
Noncombatant evacuation (JP 3-68)
Civil-military operations (JP 3-57)
Peace operations (JP 3-07.3)
Combating terrorism (JP 3-07.2)
Raid (FM 3-90)
Combating weapons of mass destruction (JP 3-40)
Recovery operations (JP 3-50 and FM 3-50.1)
Counterinsurgency (JP 3-24 and FM 3-24)
Security force assistance (AR 12-1 and FM 3-07.1)
Enforcement of sanctions (JP 3-0)
Show of force (JP 3-0)
Foreign humanitarian assistance (JP 3-29)
Stability tasks (FM 3-07)
Foreign internal defense (JP 3-22 and FM 3-05.2)
Strike (JP 3-0)
Homeland defense (JP 3-27 and FM 3-28)
Unconventional warfare (JP 3-05 and FM 3-05)
[“JP” refers to a document in the Joint Publication series; “FM” and “AR” refer to Army documents.]
OVERSEAS ARMY OPERATIONS COMBINE OFFENSIVE,
DEFENSIVE, AND STABILITY TASKS IN DECISIVE ACTIONS
From U.S. Army, 2012a, Pp. 1-2 to 1-3
1-4. Land combat against an armed adversary is an intense, lethal human activity. Its conditions include complexity, chaos, fear, violence, fatigue, and uncertainty. The battlefield often teems with noncombatants and is crowded with infrastructure. In any conflict, Soldiers potentially face regular, irregular, or paramilitary enemy forces that possess advanced weapons and rapidly communicate using cellular devices. Our enemies will employ terror, criminal activity, and every means of messaging to further complicate our tasks. To an ever-increasing degree, activities in cyberspace and the information environment are inseparable from ground operations. Successful land combat requires protected friendly networks (wired and wireless) while exploiting or degrading the enemy’s networks. The information environment, our use of it, and inform and influence activities continues to increase. Because the land environment is so complex, the potential for unintended consequences remains quite high. In the end, it is not the quality of weapons, but the quality of Soldiers employing them that determines mission success.
1-5. Any mission can rapidly become a combination of combat, governance, and civil security. Most of our missions require combinations of lethal and nonlethal actions. This is inherent in the nature of land operations, usually conducted in the midst of noncombatants. When called upon, Soldiers accomplish nonlethal missions such as disaster relief and humanitarian assistance quickly and effectively. Regardless, our combat capability often underwrites our ability to provide assistance. Nobody in or outside the military profession should mistake the Army for anything other than a force organized, equipped, and trained for winning the Nation’s wars.
1-6. Unified Land Operations is the title of the Army’s basic operational doctrine, ADP 3-0. It emphasizes the necessity of synchronizing our capabilities with the other Services (joint), other government agencies (interagency), other international government partners (intergovernmental), and military forces from partner nations (multinational). The basic premise of unified land operations is that Army forces combine offensive tasks, defensive tasks, stability tasks, and defense support of civil authorities (DSCA) in concert with joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational partners. Army operations conducted overseas combine offensive, defensive, and stability tasks. Within the United States, we support civil authorities through DSCA. If hostile powers threaten the homeland, we combine defensive and offensive tasks with DSCA. The effort accorded to each task is proportional to the mission and varies with the situation. We label these combinations decisive action because of their necessity in any campaign.
From U.S. Army, 2012b, Pages 2-2, 2-4
2-9. Army forces demonstrate the Army’s core competencies through decisive action—the continuous, simultaneous combinations of offensive, defensive, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks. In unified land operations, commanders seek to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative while synchronizing their actions to achieve the best effects possible. Operations conducted outside the United States and its territories simultaneously combine three elements—offense, defense, and stability. Within the United States and its territories, decisive action combines the elements of defense support of civil authorities and, as required, offense and defense to support homeland defense….
2-18. Decisive action requires simultaneous combinations of offense, defense, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks. Table 2-1 lists the tasks associated with each element and the purposes of each task. Each task has numerous associated subordinate tasks. When combined with who (unit), when (time), where (location), and why (purpose), the tasks may become mission statements.
Table 2-1. Tasks of decision action
2-19. An offensive task is a task conducted to defeat and destroy enemy forces and seize terrain, resources, and population centers. Offensive tasks impose the commander’s will on the enemy. In combined arms maneuver, the offense is a task of decisive action. Against a capable, adaptive enemy, the offense is the most direct and a sure means of seizing, retaining, and exploiting the initiative to gain physical and psychological advantages and achieve definitive results. In the offense, the decisive operation is a sudden, shattering action against an enemy weakness that capitalizes on speed, surprise, and shock. If that operation does not destroy the enemy, operations continue until enemy forces disintegrate or retreat to where they no longer pose a threat. Executing offensive tasks compels the enemy to react, creating or revealing additional weaknesses that the attacking force can exploit. (See Army tactics doctrine for a detailed discussion on offensive tasks.)
2-20. A defensive task is a task conducted to defeat an enemy attack, gain time, economize forces, and develop conditions favorable for offensive or stability tasks. Normally the defense alone cannot achieve a decision. However, it can set conditions for a counteroffensive or counterattack that enables Army forces to regain the initiative. Defensive tasks can also establish a shield behind which wide area security can progress. Defensive tasks are a counter to the enemy offense. They defeat attacks, destroying as much of the attacking enemy as possible. They also preserve and maintain control over land, resources, and populations. The purpose of defensive tasks is to retain terrain, guard populations, and protect critical capabilities against enemy attacks. Commanders can conduct defensive tasks to gain time and economize forces so offensive tasks can be executed elsewhere. (See Army tactics doctrine for a detailed discussion on defensive tasks.)
2-21. Stability is an overarching term encompassing various military missions, tasks, and activities conducted outside the United States in coordination with other instruments of national power to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief. (See JP 3-0.) Army forces conduct stability tasks during both combined arms maneuver and wide area security. These tasks support a host-nation or an interim government or part of a transitional military authority when no government exists. Stability tasks involve both coercive and constructive actions. They help to establish or maintain a safe and secure environment and facilitate reconciliation among local or regional adversaries. Stability tasks can also help establish political, legal, social, and economic institutions while supporting the transition to legitimate host-nation governance. Stability tasks cannot succeed if they only react to enemy initiatives. Stability tasks must maintain the initiative by pursuing objectives that resolve the causes of instability. (See Army doctrine on stability tasks.)
CHARACTERIZING THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
WITH OPERATIONAL AND MISSION VARIABLES
From U.S. Army, 2012b, Page 2
THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
7. The operational environment is a composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander (JP 1-021). Army leaders plan, prepare, execute, and assess operations by analyzing the operational environment in terms of the operational variables and mission variables. The operational variables consist of political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, time (known as PMESII-PT). The mission variables consist of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, civil considerations (known as METT-TC). How these variables interact in a specific situation, domain (land, maritime, air, space, or cyberspace), area of operations, or area of interest describes a commander’s operational environment but does not limit it. No two operational environments are identical, even within the same theater of operations, and every operational environment changes over time. Because of this, Army leaders consider how evolving relevant operational or mission variables affect force employment concepts and tactical actions that contribute to the strategic purpose.
THE ARMY’S CORE COMPETENICES:
COMBINED ARMS MANEUVER AND WIDE AREA SECURITY
From U.S. Army, 2012b, Pages 2-8 - 2-10
ARMY CORE COMPETENCIES
2-31. Army forces demonstrate their core competencies of combined arms maneuver and wide area security by combining offensive, defensive, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks simultaneously. As part of a combined arms force within unified land operations, Army forces accept prudent risk to create opportunities to achieve decisive results. They employ synchronized action of lethal and nonlethal effects, proportional to the mission and informed by an understanding of an operational environment. Mission command that conveys commander’s intent guides the adaptive use of Army forces.
2-32. Although distinct by definition, combined arms maneuver and wide area security are inseparable and simultaneous. Combined arms maneuver and wide area security provide the Army a focus for decisive action as well as a construct for understanding how Army forces use combined arms to achieve success in this contest of wills. As core competencies, combined arms maneuver and wide area security uniquely define what the Army provides to
1“JP 1-02” refers to Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, Directorate for Joint Force Development (J-7), Joint Staff (DoD, 1994). In ADRP 3-0, operational environment is defined and discussed in paragraphs 1-2 through 1-16 (U.S. Army, 2012b). That discussion includes the PMESII-PT operational variables (paragraph 1-9) and the METT-TC mission variables (paragraph 1-10).
the joint force commander. Additionally, the Army is organized and equipped to support the joint force commander through combined arms to cover vast distances for extended periods. The Army works to integrate all available instruments to unified action partners to achieve the desired outcome.
2-33. Combined arms maneuver and wide area security are not tasks. They provide an operational context to assist a commander and staff in determining an operational approach and to combine tasks of decisive action into a coherent operation that assigns missions to subordinates. Forces execute these missions to defeat or destroy enemy forces, and seize or control areas vital to accomplishing their missions, while protecting civilians, infrastructure, and themselves. While all operations consist of simultaneous combined arms maneuver and wide area security in various proportions, most tactical tasks will be predominantly characterized by one or the other. The preponderant core competency determines the choice of defeat or stability mechanisms to describe how friendly forces accomplish the assigned mission. Generally, defeat mechanisms are appropriate for combined arms maneuver, while stability mechanisms are best suited for wide area security.
Combined Arms Maneuver
2-34. Combined arms maneuver is the application of the elements of combat power in unified action to defeat enemy ground forces; to seize, occupy, and defend land areas; and to achieve physical, temporal, and psychological advantages over the enemy to seize and exploit the initiative (ADP 3-0). Physical advantages may include control of key terrain, population centers, or critical resources and enablers. Temporal advantages enable Army forces to set the tempo and momentum of operations and decide when to fight so the enemy loses the ability to respond effectively. Psychological advantages impose fear, uncertainty, and doubt on the enemy, which serves to dissuade or disrupt the enemy’s further planning and action.
2-35. Combined arms maneuver exposes enemies to friendly combat power from unexpected directions and denies them the ability to respond effectively. Combined arms maneuver throws the enemy off balance, follows up rapidly to prevent recovery, and destroys the enemy’s will to fight. In addition, forces conducting combined arms maneuver threaten enemies indirectly, causing them to reveal their intentions and expose hidden vulnerabilities. Combined arms maneuver primarily employs defeat mechanisms against enemies and is dominated by offensive and defensive tasks.
2-36. A defeat mechanism is a method through which friendly forces accomplish their mission against enemy opposition. Army forces at all echelons use combinations of four defeat mechanisms: destroy, dislocate, disintegrate, and isolate. Applying focused combinations produces complementary and reinforcing effects not attainable with a single mechanism. Used individually, a defeat mechanism achieves results proportional to the effort expended. Used in combination, the effects are likely to be both synergistic and lasting. When commanders destroy, they apply lethal combat power on an enemy capability so that it can no longer perform any function. The enemy cannot restore it to a usable condition without being entirely rebuilt. Commanders dislocate by employing forces to obtain significant positional advantage, rendering the enemy’s dispositions less valuable, perhaps even irrelevant. Disintegrate means to disrupt the enemy’s command and control system, degrading its ability to conduct operations. This action leads to a rapid collapse of the enemy’s capabilities or will to fight. When commanders isolate, they deny an enemy or adversary access to capabilities that enable the exercise of coercion, influence, potential advantage, and freedom of action ….
Wide Area Security
2-39. Wide area security is the application of the elements of combat power in unified action to protect populations, forces, infrastructure, and activities; to deny the enemy positions of advantage; and to consolidate gains in order to retain the initiative (ADP 3-0). Army forces conduct security tasks to provide the joint force commander with reaction time and maneuver space. Additionally, these forces defeat or fix the enemy before the enemy can attack, thus allowing the commander to retain the initiative.
2-40. As part of unified land operations, Army forces may assist the development of host-nation security forces, a viable market economy, the rule of law, and an effective government by establishing and maintaining security in an area of operations. The goal is a stable civil situation sustainable by host-nation assets without Army forces. Security, the health of the local economy, and the capability of self-government are related. Without security, the local economy falters, populations feel unsecure, and enemy forces gain an advantage. A functioning economy provides employment and reduces the dependence of the population on the military for necessities. Security and economic stability precede an effective and stable government.
2-41. Wide area security includes the minimum essential stability tasks as part of decisive action. Army forces perform five primary stability tasks:
• Establish civil security, including security force assistance.
• Establish civil control.
• Restore essential services.
• Support governance.
• Support economic and infrastructure development.
2-42. The combination of stability tasks conducted during operations depends on the situation. In some operations, the host nation can meet most or all of the population’s requirements. In those cases, Army forces work with and through host-nation authorities. Commanders use civil affairs operations to mitigate how the military presence affects the populace and vice versa. Conversely, Army forces operating in a failed state may need to support the well-being of the local populace. That situation requires Army forces to work with civilian organizations to restore basic capabilities. Again, civil affairs operations prove essential in establishing trust between Army forces and civilian organizations required for effective, working relationships.
2-43. A stability mechanism is the primary method through which friendly forces affect civilians in order to attain conditions that support establishing a lasting, stable peace. As with defeat mechanisms, combinations of stability mechanisms produce complementary and reinforcing effects that accomplish the mission more effectively and efficiently than single mechanisms do alone.
2-44. The four stability mechanisms are compel, control, influence, and support. Compel means to use, or threaten to use, lethal force to establish control and dominance, effect behavioral change, or enforce compliance with mandates, agreements, or civil authority. Control involves imposing civil order. Influence means to alter the opinions, attitudes, and ultimately behavior of foreign friendly, neutral, adversary, and enemy populations through inform and influence activities, presence, and conduct. Support is to establish, reinforce, or set the conditions necessary for the instruments of national power to function effectively.
THE ELEMENTS OF COMBAT POWER AND
THE SIX WARFIGHTING FUNCTIONS
From U.S. Army, 2012b, Pages 3-1 - 3-6
3-1. Combined arms maneuver and wide area security, executed through simultaneous offensive, defensive, stability, or defense support of civil authorities tasks, require continuously generating and applying combat power, often for extended periods. Combat power is the total means of destructive, constructive, and information capabilities that a military unit or formation can apply at a given time. Army forces generate combat power by converting potential into effective action.
3-2. To execute combined arms operations, commanders conceptualize capabilities in terms of combat power. Combat power has eight elements: leadership, information, mission command, movement and maneuver, intelligence, fires, sustainment, and protection. The Army collectively describes the last six elements as the warfighting functions. Commanders apply combat power through the warfighting functions using leadership and information. (See Figure 3-1.)
FIGURE C-1 The elements of combat power. SOURCE: U.S. Army, 2012b.
3-6. Commanders use the warfighting functions to help them exercise command and to help them and their staffs exercise control. A warfighting function is a group of tasks and systems (people, organizations, information, and processes) united by a common purpose that commanders use to accomplish missions and training objectives. All warfighting functions possess scalable capabilities to mass lethal and nonlethal effects. The Army’s warfighting functions link directly to the joint functions.
3-7. The mission command warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that develop and integrate those activities enabling a commander to balance the art of command and the science of control in order to integrate the other warfighting functions. Commanders, assisted by their staffs, integrate numerous processes and activities within the headquarters and across the force as they exercise mission command….
3-15. The movement and maneuver warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that move and employ forces to achieve a position of relative advantage over the enemy and other threats. Direct fire and close combat are inherent in maneuver. The movement and maneuver warfighting function includes tasks associated with force projection related to gaining a position of advantage over the enemy. Movement is necessary to disperse and displace the force as a whole or in part when maneuvering. Maneuver is the employment of forces in the operational area. It works through movement and with fires to achieve a position of advantage relative to the enemy to accomplish the mission. Commanders use maneuver for massing the effects of combat power to achieve surprise, shock, and momentum. Effective maneuver requires close coordination with fires. Both tactical and operational maneuver require sustainment support. The movement and maneuver warfighting function includes the following tasks:
• Employ direct fires.
• Occupy an area.
• Conduct mobility and countermobility operations.
• Conduct reconnaissance and surveillance.
• Employ battlefield obscuration….
3-17. The intelligence warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that facilitate understanding the enemy, terrain, and civil considerations. This warfighting function includes understanding threats, adversaries, and weather. It synchronizes information collection with the primary tactical tasks of reconnaissance, surveillance, security, and intelligence operations. Intelligence is driven by commanders and is more than just collection. Developing intelligence is a continuous process that involves analyzing information from all sources and conducting operations to develop the situation. The warfighting function includes specific intelligence and communication structures at each echelon. The intelligence warfighting function includes the following tasks:
• Support force generation.
• Support situational understanding.
• Provide intelligence support to targeting and information capabilities.
• Collect information.
3-18. The intelligence warfighting function provides specific intelligence capabilities and communication structures at each echelon from the national level through the tactical level. These capabilities and structures include intelligence organizations, systems, and procedures for generating intelligence reports. They also include products, visualization aides, situational understanding and awareness products, and other critical information products. Effective
2Paragraphs 3-21 through 3-25 of ADRP 3-0 describe the sustainment functions under logistics, personnel services, and health service support, including references to more detailed Army documents on each of these sustainment tasks (U.S. Army, 2012b).
communication connectivity and automation are essential components of this architecture. (FM 2-0 discusses the intelligence warfighting function.)….
3-19. The fires warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that provide collective and coordinated use of Army indirect fires, air and missile defense, and joint fires through the targeting process. Army fires systems deliver fires in support of offensive and defensive tasks to create specific lethal and nonlethal effects on a target. The fires warfighting function includes the following tasks:
• Deliver fires.
• Integrate all forms of Army, joint, and multinational fires.
• Conduct targeting….
3-20. The sustainment warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that provide support and services to ensure freedom of action, extend operational reach, and prolong endurance. The endurance of Army forces is primarily a function of their sustainment. Sustainment determines the depth and duration of Army operations. It is essential to retaining and exploiting the initiative. Sustainment provides the support necessary to maintain operations until mission accomplishment. The sustainment warfighting function includes the following tasks:
• Conduct logistics.
• Provide personnel services.
• Provide health service support….2
3-26. The protection warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that preserve the force so the commander can apply maximum combat power to accomplish the mission. Preserving the force includes protecting personnel (combatants and noncombatants) and physical assets of the United States and multinational military and civilian partners, to include the host nation. The protection warfighting function enables the commander to maintain the force’s integrity and combat power. Protection determines the degree to which potential threats can disrupt operations and then counters or mitigates those threats. Protection is a continuing activity; it integrates all protection capabilities to safeguard bases, secure routes, and protect forces. To ensure maintenance of the critical asset list and the defended asset list and associated resourcing of fixed sites and forces against air and indirect fire threats, air and missile defense participates in meetings geared to protection activities. The protection warfighting function includes the following tasks:
• Conduct operational area security.
• Employ safety techniques (including fratricide avoidance).
• Implement operations security.
• Implement physical security procedures.
• Provide intelligence support to protection.
• Implement information protection.
• Apply antiterrorism measures.
• Conduct law and order.
• Conduct survivability operations.
DoD (Department of Defense). 1994. Joint Pub 1-02. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense.
U.S. Army. 2011. ADP 3-0. Unified Land Operations. Available online http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adp3_0.pdf. Accessed February 6, 2013.
U.S. Army. 2012a. ADP 1. The Army (Incl C1). Available online http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adp1.pdf. Accessed February 6, 2013.
U.S. Army. 2012b. ADRP 3-0. Unified Land Operations. Available online http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf. Accessed February 6, 2013.