The large research facilities described in this appendix are limited to facilities that provide magnetic fields that are substantially higher than available in common well-equipped laboratories. Technically, the boundary between small laboratory magnets and large research facilities is drawn as follows. For dc fields (constant field at least during several minutes), available fields must be higher than 21 T, that is, beyond values reached for commercially available magnets, while pulsed fields must be operated with capacitor banks having stored energies of more than 2 MJ. Lower stored energies allowing shorter pulses or lower fields are also affordable for well-equipped research groups. For dc fields >21 T and up to 45 T, large dc power supplies and cooling systems (>20 MW) are necessary. Such dc field facilities are expensive in both investment and operational costs (electricity, infrastructure, and personnel). Pulsed fields with longer pulses, larger-bore magnets, and higher maximum fields (up to 100 T is possible) require large energy storage (much higher than >2 MJ), and such installations require similar investments, running budgets, and costly safety precautions (limited access and reinforced cells and building) to be operated reliably. This definition excludes all NMR facilities (with the exception of the 1 GHz, 23.5 T one at the Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs in Lyon, France, installed July 2009).
Due to the size, the necessary investments, and the operational costs, there are only a few large-scale facilities for high magnetic fields in the world. Most of them function as a user facility hosting external guest researchers. They receive central and longer-term (as opposed to local and project-related) funding to fulfill their role. Practically all facilities have a selection procedure through an external project
review panel for users to obtain access. Selection criteria are the scientific merit (innovation and excellence) of the project and the proven need to use such unique resources for the experiments planned.
The Chinese High Magnetic Field Laboratory (CHMFL) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was founded on April 30, 2008. It is located in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province. CHMFL was founded to provide first-class, steady high-magnetic-field facilities to researchers and to better develop high-magnetic-field science. The Steady High Magnetic Field Facility (SHMFF) is the steady field component of the National Key Science and Technology Basic Establishment Project for high-magnetic-field facilities and is funded by the National Development and Reform Commission. The principal objectives of SHMFF are to build a 40 T hybrid magnet, a series of high-power resistive magnets for multiple uses, including a resistive high-homogeneity magnet for NMR, and superconducting magnets. A 28 MW high-stability power supply and a deionized water cooling system have been built for the resistive magnets. Scientific experimental measurement systems of many kinds will be provided to researchers. A local research program is now being set up that will cover the most promising research areas. All hardware and buildings have been acquired or built, and the laboratory was expected to be operational by the end of 2012.
The Wuhan High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC) was established in 2005 for the development of pulsed magnets and their application to scientific research. The pulsed high-magnetic-field facility is the first major science and technology infrastructure project that will be built by the Huazhong University of Science and Technology under the direct leadership of the Ministry of Education as part of the National Key Science and Technology Basic Establishment Project for high magnetic field facilities. The total investment for the pulsed magnetic field facility is ¥180 million. It is planned to open the new facility with its own building for external users in 2012. A 12 MJ capacitor bank and a 100 MJ/100 MVA pulse generator power supply will be developed and built in order to generate pulsed magnetic fields from 50 to 80 T with pulse lasting from 15 ms to 1,000 ms. In seven experimental stations that can be used in parallel, special equipment will be provided such as low-temperature cryostats(from 30 mK to 300 K), high-pressure
cells, and various lasers with associated optical systems. The facility will provide high-level research opportunities in the areas of physics, chemistry, life science, and materials science. Experienced in-house staff will provide the necessary assistance to researchers from China and all over the world. In addition, the development of new technology for electromagnetic equipment will be further pursued.
The International MegaGauss Science Laboratory (IMGSL) of the Institute for Solid State Physics at the University of Tokyo was started in 1972. Researchers at MGL study properties of matter in very high magnetic fields—that is, at several hundred tesla—in a very short time. All external users are required to collaborate with staff researchers and to obtain the approval of the facility’s directors. The electromagnetic flux compression method has been improved to establish the world’s highest indoor field of about 750 T, but at the expense of destroying the sample and its environment. Fields up to 300 T can be generated with single-turn coils where the coil is destroyed but the sample and cryostat are usually conserved. In addition to the destructive methods (where either only the coil or, in other cases, the coil and the sample are destroyed), a new project aiming at the nondestructive generation of both long pulsed and 100 T fields is progressing along the lines as other pulsed field laboratories. Many kinds of coils have been developed, not only for the highest field but also for various experiments.
IMGSL has five separate measuring stations with advanced infrastructure, such as optical multichannel analyzers, far-infrared optics, and helium-3 refrigerators. Activities include study of the origin of the magnetism in magnetic materials and the mechanisms underlying magnetically induced properties. Interesting phenomena observed at high fields and high pressures are studied using cyclotron resonance, far-infrared and millimeter-wave spectroscopy, magneto-optical spectroscopy, Faraday rotation, magnetization, and transport measurements. Materials under investigation include semiconductors, semimetals, superconductors, organic conductors, magnetic materials, and low-dimensional spin systems.
The High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials at the Institute for Materials Research at Tohoku University was established in April 1981 to provide facilities for research into superconducting materials for the construction of the superconducting magnets needed for fusion reactors. The laboratory has a
hybrid magnet of 31 T with an 8 MW, 32 mm resistive insert, and developed the first cryogen-free hybrid magnet generating 27.5 T. The laboratory has developed several superconducting cryogen-free magnets (up to 20 T). Construction for a similar 25 T magnet is in progress. Cooperative research programs are under way nationwide. Basic research and high-temperature superconductor development are the most important research areas at this laboratory.
The Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory (TML) is located at the National Institute for Materials Science. TML has been a user facility since 1998, and it provides domestic and international users access to 17 different magnet systems, including resistive and hybrid magnets operated with a 15 MW power converter and fields up to 37.9 T; 30 mm (hybrid), pulsed magnets 30 to 50 T; and NMR systems up to 930 MHz. There is a vigorous research program in magnet development for 1 GHz NMR. TML is also a base for the international standardization of superconducting materials; a Cu-Ag wire codeveloped at TML has held the world record for nondestructive pulsed magnetic field strength. The in-house research program at TML includes a variety of subjects, such as NMR, magnetic separation, protein crystal growth, and studies on chemical and metallurgical reactions in high fields. Outside users come primarily from universities, and they prefer the high-field superconducting magnets, closely followed by the high-field resistive magnets.
In Europe the four main laboratories for high magnetic fields (Grenoble and Nijmegen for dc fields and Toulouse and Dresden for pulsed fields) have in the past decade developed a very strong cooperation. In the European Union programs EuroMagNET I (2003-2008) and EuroMagNET II (2008-2012), a common selection procedure with a single selection committee for all four labs was established. Furthermore, research topics of common interest (nanoprobing, high-field NMR, magnet technology, IR spectroscopy in pulsed fields, soft matter research) have been worked upon jointly. Magnet technology relies for the moment on strategies developed by the laboratories individually in the past, but coordination is pursued actively to ensure an efficient use of available resources. A common user committee has been formed, several topical workshops are being organized yearly, and biyearly a school has been held for young scientists working in high magnetic fields. In 2008 the laboratories were selected as a European priority on the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) and it was proposed the four establishments should become a single laboratory (European Magnetic Field Laboratory, or EMFL). As a consequence of this, a structure for the new EMFL has
been developed as a multisite research facility under a common direction. In the process, major new investments have been made in Toulouse, Grenoble, Dresden, and Nijmegen to strengthen the EMFL. EMFL is the European counterpart to the very successful NHMFL in the United States.
The Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses (France)
The Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses (LNCMI), with a dc facility in Grenoble and a pulsed field facility in Toulouse, is a French national laboratory operated by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) as a user facility. Both sites started their activities in the 1960s and in 2009 the two sites were united in a single structure. The three missions of the LNCMI are (1) to serve as a user facility for the French and European scientific communities; (2) to develop techniques for high magnetic field production; and (3) to develop innovative research activities in high magnetic fields, which involve a permanent staff of 100 scientists and engineers. Around 200 external users come to the LNCMI yearly. The LNCMI is part of the French large research facility roadmap and collaborates closely with other large facilities to combine high magnetic fields with X-ray, neutron, and intense laser sources.
Grenoble Site (LNCMI-G)
The LNCMI-G operates several resistive magnets that produce dc magnetic fields up to 35 T with a 34 mm bore, and a new 42-T hybrid magnet that is under construction, using a 24 MW power supply. Primary research activities include work with two-dimensional electron systems, nanostructures, bulk semiconductors, magneto-science, and nuclear and paramagnetic resonance on magnetic systems.
Toulouse Site (LNCMI-T)
The LNCMI-T is a European pioneer for pulsed magnetic fields, offering non-destructive field strengths up to 82 T, and longer pulsed fields at a lower strengths, with pulse durations up to 0.2 s. Semi-destructive fields up to 180 T are also provided. The primary research interests are high-Tc superconductors, organic conductors, quantum magnetism, and low-dimensional (semi)conductors. The LNCMI-T has 10 pulsed magnet sites ranging in field strength from 38 to 82 T; its high-voltage generator can store 14 MJ at 24 kV. The laboratory is currently building an extension to house new magnets.
The HLD (Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden) is part of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and in 2006 the building and the construction of the new laboratory were finished, making the HLD now the largest pulsed field laboratory in Europe, with five measuring stations for pulsed magnets. The laboratory features an unprecedented 50 MJ capacitor bank power supply that energizes its magnets with a record field of 94.2 T, achieved in early 2012. Presently the laboratory is involved in a further extension, including additional magnet sites and a separate capacitor bank. The main research topics are superconductivity, highly correlated electron systems, semiconductors, and magnetism. HLD has rapidly grown out to a popular user facility with an increasing user demand every year. The HLD facility is coupled to an adjacent free-electron laser facility (ELBE) generating radiation in the near- and mid-infrared that will offer unique high-resolution capabilities for spectroscopy that greatly increase the science potential of both facilities.
The High Field Magnet Laboratory (HMFL) at Radboud University Nijmegen reopened in June 2003 after a substantial upgrade to provide continuous fields. From 2011 the laboratory is operated jointly by the Radboud University Nijmegen and the Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM) and has had an increased running budget. In 2012 it was selected as a Dutch priority on the Roadmap for Large Research Infrastructures and has received much additional funding. A key feature of the 2003 upgrade was the construction of a 20 MW power supply and the construction of a dedicated new building that houses the magnets and the auxiliary experimental equipment. The laboratory has four resistive magnets, with two providing fields of 33 T. The HFML is constructing a 45 T hybrid magnet (2016) and will commission two 38 T resistive magnets in 2013. It serves as a European user facility and receives yearly some 80 researchers from external institutions, a number steadily increasing in the last years. The local research program centers on low-dimensional systems and semiconductors, strongly correlated electron systems, and soft matter. Adjacent to the HFML the free electron lasers (FLARE, FELIX, and FELICE) housed in a separate building provide very intense light (more than 100 W in quasi-continuous wave operation or kilojoule pulses in microsecond bursts) in the infrared to far-infrared region (from 10 μm to 2 mm) to the HFML magnets. This frequency range covers the major excitations (electron spin resonances, cyclotron resonances, rotational and vibrational excitations, superconducting gaps, and so on) in solids and molecules up to 45 T.
In the United States the NHMFL is the single institution that coordinates all U.S. activities in high magnetic fields at the different sites. The NHMFL is the main player in the world in the area of high magnetic fields. NHMFL has played a very positive role in stimulating research in high magnetic fields on other continents and has close ties to practically all the laboratories mentioned in this survey. A very concrete exchange of information, even of entire magnet systems (or parts of one), has taken place with the dc laboratories of Tsukuba, Nijmegen, and Grenoble, and magnet builders from these sites are in continuous close contact related to new magnet systems and design reviews, and also to very practical matters such as identifying vendors of parts in the different countries.
Los Alamos, New Mexico
The Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is one of the three campuses of the NHMFL, the other two being at Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida (continuous fields, magnetic resonance, and general headquarters), and the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida (ultralow temperatures at high magnetic fields). The NHMFL is sponsored primarily by the National Science Foundation, Division of Materials Research, with additional support from the State of Florida and the U.S. Department of Energy. The Pulsed Field Facility is the only facility of its kind in the country because of its 1.4 GW motor generator. The facility operates both short- and long-pulse magnets and a broad library of programmable waveform shapes in between; a record 80 T was achieved in 1999. A unique 100 T nondestructive pulsed hybrid magnet was realized and successfully tested at a record field of 100.4 T in 2012. Users also have access to the high fields generated using destructive pulsed magnets. Supporting instrumentation at the LANL facility is also extensive and state of the art.
Tallahassee and Gainesville, Florida
The NHMFL was established in 1990 with support from the National Science Foundation and the State of Florida and is a collaboration between the University of Florida, Florida State University, and LANL. The laboratories in Florida provide users access to continuous field magnets, and that facility is the world’s largest magnet laboratory. NHMFL developed and operates the strongest hybrid magnet in the world (45 T, 32 mm) and has a strong development program for resistive magnets (presently up to 35 T). It also recently installed a powerful radial access magnet. To provide the community with NMR-grade resistive magnets, highly homogeneous magnets have been built, with a highly homogeneous, series-connected
hybrid under construction. In addition to an active research program in static high magnetic fields, there is an extensive program in NMR, ion cyclotron resonance (ICR), electron magnetic resonance (EMR), and other advanced high-field magnetic resonance research. The laboratory has a very strong and successful user program and receives visitors from all over the world. In recent years the electrical and cooling installation has been upgraded, and the laboratory can now provide 2 × 28 MW to the magnets.
Tallahassee has a very strong magnet technology program that develops special magnets for external facilities (split coil, three-dimensional rotating field, a 25 T hybrid for the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin to work with a neutron source) and new magnets for its own facility (high-homogeneity magnets and series-connected hybrid magnets). Contrary to the other dc laboratories, which concentrate on their core activities of providing the highest possible fields only and leave lower fields to be provided by commercially available magnets, Tallahassee has defined its mission more broadly, as a magnet center promoting high-field research in all areas. It, therefore, has (1) a Center for Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance, (2) a center on ion cyclotron resonance, and (3) geochemistry facilities located on the main campus in Tallahassee. The high B/T (magnetic field/temperature) and the magnetic resonance/imaging spectroscopy (using commercially available 20 T magnets) facilities are located in Gainesville.
The information was distilled from a combination of personal communication with facility staff, information from Web pages, and asking the facilities for information.
TABLE G.1 High Magnetic Field Facilities in the World
|Location||Facility||Magnets Bore Size, Pulse Length,a (Type) [future magnet||Energy/Power Source||Additional Details|
|Hefei||Chinese High Magnetic Field Laboratory (CHMFL)||27 T, 32 mm
25 T, 50 mm
20 T, 200 mm
[36 T, 32mm]
[43 T, 32 mm
|28 MW||Magnet hours/shots starting in 2013.|
|Wuhan||Wuhan High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC)||50-75 T||1 MJ [+12 MJ],
25 kV; 100 MVA
generator 100 MJ pulse
|Magnet hours/shots starting in 2012.|
|Kashiwa||International MegaGauss Science Laboratory (IMGSL)||50 T, 22 mm, 50 ms
50 T, 20 mm, 20 ms
50 T, 20 mm, 18 ms
|Sendai||High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (HFLSM)||20 T, 52 mm (resistive) 31 T, 32 mm (hybrid) [25 T, 52 mm (cryocooled superconductor)]||8 MW|
|Tsukuba||Tskuba Magnet Laboratory (TML)||33 T, 32 mm (resistive) 38 T, 32 mm (hybrid)||15 MW|
|Grenoble||Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses (LNCMI-G)||35 T, 34 mm (resistive) 3 x 30 T, 34 mm 30 T, 55 mm [42 T, 34 mm (hybrid)]||24 MW|
|Toulouse||Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses (LNCMI-T)||82 T, 15 mm, 10 ms
61 T, 11 mm, 150 ms
58 T, 19 mm, 282 ms
45 T, 120 mm, 500 ms
|Location||Facility||Magnets Bore Size, Pulse Length,a (Type) [future magnet||Energy/Power Source||Additional Details|
|Dresden||Hochfeld-Magnetlabor (HLD)||50 T, 24 mm, 75 ms
60 T, 20 mm, 25 ms
70 T, 24 mm, 150 ms
94 T, 16 mm, 10 ms
60 T, 40 mm, 1000
ms[100 T, 10 mm, 10 ms]
|50 MJ [14 MJ]|
|Nijmegen||High Field Magnet Laboratory (HFML)||2 x 33 T, 32 mm 2 x 32 T, 50 mm [45 T-32 mm (hybrid), 2016] [38 T, 32 mm, 2012]||20 MW [22 MW]||Number of magnet hours/shots: 1,600 h yearly; 2,400 h >2014. Number of projects: 60 yearly; 100 >2014. Number of external visitors: 90 yearly; 140 >2014.|
|Los Alamos, New Mexico||National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL)||60 T, 15 mm, 35 ms 50 T, 15 mm, 350 ms 100 T, 10 mm,||10 ms 1.4 GW generator, 5 MJ (?)|
|Tallahassee and Gainesville, Florida||National High Magnetic Field Laboratory(NHMFL)||33 T, 32 mm (resistive) 45 T, 32 mm (hybrid)||2 × 28 MW||Magnet hours/shots: 6,000 h yearly. Number of projects: 200 yearly. Number of external visitors : 300 yearly.|
a If applicable.
SOURCE: Information compiled by committee from publicly available information and private conversations with staff of facilities.