Developing Capacities for Teaching
Responsible Science in the MENA Region
Refashioning Scientific Dialogue
Committee on Developing a Framework for an International Faculty Development Project on
Education About Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential
Board on Life Sciences
Division on Earth and Life Studies
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
In cooperation with
The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS)
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This study was supported by Grant No. S-LMAQM-10-GR-087 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of State. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-28639-8
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-28639-5
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
COMMITTEE ON DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTERNATIONAL FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ON EDUCATION ABOUT RESEARCH IN THE LIFE SCIENCES WITH DUAL USE POTENTIAL
RITA R. COLWELL (Chair), Distinguished University Professor, University of Maryland & Johns Hopkins University; Honorary Chairperson and Senior Advisor, Canon U.S. Life Sciences, Inc.
ENRIQUETA C. BOND, President Emeritus, Burroughs Wellcome Fund
JOHN D. CLEMENTS, Professor and Chair, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine; Director, Center for Infectious Diseases, Tulane University
NANCY D. CONNELL, Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ); Director, UMDNJ Center for Biodefense
CLARISSA DIRKS, Associate Professor of Biology, The Evergreen State College
MOHAMED El-FAHAM, Director, Center for Special Studies and Programs (CSSP), Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
ALASTAIR W.M. HAY, Professor of Environmental Toxicology and Epidemiology, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
ELIZABETH HEITMAN, Associate Professor of Medical Ethics, Center for Biomedical Ethics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center
ADEL A.F. MAHMOUD, Professor, Woodrow Wilson School, Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University
MONA MOSTAFA MOHAMED, Professor of Cell Biology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt
JAMES H. STITH, Vice President Emeritus, Physics Resources Center, American Institute of Physics
LIDA ANESTIDOU, Study Director and Senior Program Officer, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research
JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar and Senior Project Director, Board on Life Sciences
JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist, Board on Life Sciences
SAYYEDA AYESHA AHMED, Senior Program Assistant
CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Program Associate, Board on Life Sciences
FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director, Board on Life Sciences; Acting Director, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research
BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES
JO HANDELSMAN (Chair), Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
VICKI L. CHANDLER, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, California
SEAN EDDY, HHMI Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia
SARAH C.R. ELGIN, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri
DAVID R. FRANZ, Former Cdr USAMRIID, Consultant, Frederick, Maryland
LOUIS J. GROSS, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
RICHARD A. JOHNSON, Arnold & Porter, LLC, Washington, D.C.
JUDITH KIMBLE, University of Wisconsin, Madison
CATO T. LAURENCIN, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut
ALAN I. LESHNER, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.
BERNARD LO, University of California, San Francisco,
KAREN E. NELSON, J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland
ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta
CAMILLE PARMESAN, University of Texas, Austin
ALISON G. POWER, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
MARGARET RILEY, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
BRUCE W. STILLMAN, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York
JANIS C. WEEKS, University of Oregon, Eugene
CYNTHIA WOLBERGER, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
MARY WOOLLEY, Research!America, Alexandria, Virginia
FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director
JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar/Senior Project Director
JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist/Program Director for Biology Education
KATHERINE W. BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer
INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Senior Program Officer
MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer
KEEGAN SAWYER, Program Officer
BETHELHEM M. BANJAW, Financial Associate
CARL G. ANDERSON, Program Associate
SAYYEDA AYESHA AHMED, Senior Program Assistant
ORIN E. LUKE, Senior Program Assistant
This project merits attention for its success in linking two areas of important work of the U.S. National Academies to advance contributions of the life sciences to health, economic development, and the environment globally. First, the Academies’ path-breaking work has focused on how people learn, how effective approaches to teaching can be applied to engage and prepare a new generation of scientists, and how to put that knowledge into practice to transform teaching of undergraduate biology in the United States. Second, influential reports of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine published since the late 1980s have helped establish the norms and standards in the United States and internationally for responsible conduct of science. Nevertheless, engagement of the National Academies in responding to concerns that the rapid advances in the life sciences, with their potential for significant benefits, might be misused to cause deliberate harm has provided an important component of this report.
During the last few decades the scientific community has made remarkable progress in developing and promulgating the culture of responsibility that has kept the number of laboratory accidents and cases of deliberate misuse to vanishingly small numbers. But as research capacity extends globally, we need to take advantage of all that is known about how best to instill those standards so that the research enterprise continues to advance knowledge to serve the public and sustain its trust. The project described in this report is, in part, a response to these concerns but it also draws on other work because the Academies’ activities are demonstrating that the foundation for effectively engaging the scientific community to address potential risk of misuse is education within a broader framework of the responsible conduct of science. I believe this approach offers the best promise of achieving both security and scientific progress available to all.
Sincere thanks are owed to all members of the committee because their commitment and engagement with the project have been extraordinary. Each worked incredibly hard and several continue to engage with participants in the project to assist in implementing what has been learned in the course of this activity. The National Academies staff deserve special recognition, especially Lida Anestidou and Jay Labov, an amazing team. They brought their formidable skills in responsible conduct and scientific teaching, respectively, to the design and implementation of this project. Jo Husbands provided invaluable assistance with planning and oversight of the final report process, and Ayesha Ahmed and Carl-Gustav Anderson were truly remarkable in their research work and administrative support.
Meetings were held in Jordan and Trieste, Italy, and to our hosts in both of those countries a debt of gratitude is acknowledged for their hospitality and professional assistance. The engagement and enthusiasm of participants in the meetings provided encouragement to continue vigorously promoting both scientific teaching and responsible conduct. I wish to acknowledge their essential contributions. I extend my personal thanks, as well as those of
the committee, to the Bibliotheca Alexandrina and to The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), our partners in this project. Their extensive knowledge of the region informed our work and their commitment to scientific excellence made them ideal partners. The task of responsible research in science continues and our hope is that this report will help light the way for global understanding and participation.
—Rita R. Colwell, Chair
This report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.
We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Eiman Aleem, University of Arizona and University of Alexandria, Egypt
Rosemary Chalk, Washington, DC
Michael Imperiale, University of Michigan
Peter Mahaffy, The King’s University College, Canada
James Revill, University of Sussex, United Kingdom
Henry J. Silverman, University of Maryland
Michelle Withers, West Virginia University
Although these reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Diane Ebert-May, Michigan State University. Appointed by the National Academies, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.