of Earth Scientists
AN EXAMINATION OF FEDERAL
EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMS
Committee on Trends and Opportunities in Federal Earth Science Education and
Board on Earth Sciences and Resources
Division on Earth and Life Studies
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
The project described in this publication was supported by Grant/Cooperative Agreement Number G11AP20216 from the U.S. Geological Survey. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the USGS.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-28747-0
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-28747-2
Cover: Photo strip: Students learning about geology in the field. (Left) Mammoth Cave National Park, National Association of Geoscience Teachers (nagt.org/details/images/26083.html); (Center and Right) Cedar Breaks National Monument, National Park Service. Background image: Copyright by Michael Dudzik.
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Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
COMMITTEE ON TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN FEDERAL EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT
ARTHUR GOLDSTEIN, Chair, Bridgewater State University, Bridgewater, Massachusetts
PRANOTI ASHER, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.
SUSAN E. COZZENS, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta
CATHRYN A. MANDUCA, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota
ERIC J. PYLE, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia
ERIC M. RIGGS, Texas A&M University, College Station
KARL TUREKIAN, emeritus, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (deceased March 2013)
LISA D. WHITE, University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley
National Research Council Staff
ANNE M. LINN, Study Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources
DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer, Ocean Studies Board
ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources
BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES
CORALE L. BRIERLEY, Chair, Brierley Consultancy LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colorado
WILLIAM E. DIETRICH, University of California, Berkeley
WILLIAM. L. GRAF, University of South Carolina, Columbia
RUSSELL J. HEMLEY, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.
MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden
EDWARD KAVAZANJIAN, Jr., Arizona State University, Tempe
DAVID R. MAIDMENT, The University of Texas, Austin
ROBERT B. McMASTER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
M. MEGHAN MILLER, UNAVCO, Inc., Boulder, Colorado
ISABEL P. MONTAÑEZ, University of California, Davis
CLAUDIA INÉS MORA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico
BRIJ M. MOUDGIL, University of Florida, Gainesville
CLAYTON R. NICHOLS, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (retired), Ocean Park, Washington
HENRY N. POLLACK, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
DAVID T. SANDWELL, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla
PETER M. SHEARER, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla
REGINAL SPILLER, Azimuth Investments LLC, Texas
TERRY C. WALLACE, Jr., Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico
National Research Council Staff
ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director
ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer
SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer
MARK D. LANGE, Program Officer
NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate
COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate
ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant
CHANDA IJAMES, Senior Program Assistant
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:
Matthew Dawson, The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado
Elizabeth Day-Miller, BridgeWater Education Consulting, LLC, Bridgewater, Virginia
Lisa Grant Ludwig, University of California, Irvine
Mitchell Leverette, Bureau of Land Management, Washington, D.C.
Roger Levine, American Institutes of Research, retired, Redwood City, California
R. Heather MacDonald, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia
Camille McKayle, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by George M. Hornberger, Vanderbilt University, and Katherine H. Freeman, Pennsylvania State University. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.