National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18376.
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Health Impact
Assessment of

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SHALE GAS EXTRACTION

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Christine Coussens and Rose Marie Martinez, Rapporteurs

Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine

Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
           OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18376.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The workshop that is the subject of this workshop summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, The Kresge Foundation, American Chemistry Council, Colgate-Palmolive Company, ExxonMobil Foundation, and Royal Dutch Shell. The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the activity.

This summary is based on the proceedings of a workshop that was sponsored by the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. It is prepared in the form of a workshop summary by and in the name of the rapporteurs as an individually authored document.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-28791-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-28791-X

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu.

Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2014. Health impact assessment of shale gas extraction: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18376.
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Knowing is not enough; we must apply.
Willing is not enough; we must do.
”      

                                                —Goethe

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INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
              OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18376.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18376.
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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON THE HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NEW ENERGY SOURCES: SHALE GAS EXTRACTION1

ROB DONNELLY, Royal Dutch Shell, The Hague, Netherlands

LYNN R. GOLDMAN, George Washington University, Washington, DC

GEORGE M. GRAY, George Washington University, Washington, DC

ANDREW MAGUIRE, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC

LINDA A. McCAULEY, Emory University, Atlanta, GA

AUBREY MILLER, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD

CHRISTOPHER J. PORTIER, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA

SCOTT W. TINKER, University of Texas, Austin

__________________

1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18376.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18376.
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ROUNDTABLE ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, RESEARCH, AND MEDICINE1

FRANK LOY (Chair), Washington, DC

LYNN R. GOLDMAN (Vice Chair), George Washington University, Washington, DC

HENRY A. ANDERSON, Wisconsin Division of Public Health, Madison

JOHN M. BALBUS, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD

JAMES K. BARTRAM, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

LINDA S. BIRNBAUM, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC

LUZ CLAUDIO, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY

DENNIS J. DEVLIN, ExxonMobil Corporation, Irving, TX

ROB DONNELLY, Royal Dutch Shell, The Hague, Netherlands

RICHARD A. FENSKE, University of Washington, Seattle

LUIZ A. GALVÃO, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC

BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, University of Pittsburgh, PA

RICHARD J. JACKSON, University of California, Los Angeles

SUZETTE M. KIMBALL, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA

JAY LEMERY, University of Colorado, Denver

ANDREW MAGUIRE, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC

LINDA A. McCAULEY, Emory University, Atlanta, GA

AL McGARTLAND, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

DAVID M. MICHAELS, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC

CANICE NOLAN, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium

MARTIN A. PHILBERT, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

CHRISTOPHER J. PORTIER, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA

PAUL SANDIFER, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Charleston, SC

__________________

1 Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18376.
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JOHN D. SPENGLER, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA

LOUIS W. SULLIVAN, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA

ANNE M. SWEENEY, Texas A&M University, College Station

G. DAVID TILMAN, University of Minnesota, St. Paul

PATRICIA VERDUIN, Colgate-Palmolive Company, Piscataway, NJ

NSEDU OBOT WITHERSPOON, Children’s Environmental Health Network, Washington, DC

HAROLD ZENICK, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC

IOM Staff

CHRISTINE COUSSENS, Study Director (until August 2013)

ERIN RUSCH, Associate Program Officer

ANDRÉS GAVIRIA, Research Associate

SUZANNE LANDI, Research Associate

ANDREW LEMERISE, Research Associate

HOPE HARE, Administrative Assistant

ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18376.
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Reviewers

This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the workshop summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary:

Jerome Paulson, Mid-Atlantic Center for Children’s Health and the Environment

Susan Santos, Rutgers School of Public Health

Kyra Naumoff Shields, University of Pittsburgh

Leonardo Trasande, New York University

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Melvin Worth. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this workshop summary rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18376.
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Natural gas extraction from shale formations, which includes hydraulic fracturing, is increasingly in the news as the use of extraction technologies has expanded, rural communities have been transformed seemingly overnight, public awareness has increased, and regulations have been developed. The governmental public health system, which retains primary responsibility for health, was not an early participant in discussions about shale gas extraction; thus public health is lacking critical information about environmental health impacts of these technologies and is limited in its ability to address concerns raised by regulators at the federal and state levels, communities, and workers employed in the shale gas extraction industry.

Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction is the summary of a workshop convened in 2012 by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine to discuss the human health impact of shale gas extraction through the lens of a health impact assessment. Eminent scientists, physicians, public health experts, and representatives from government agencies at federal and state levels, from nongovernment organizations, from the business sector, and from interest groups representing the interests of the citizens met to exchange ideas and to inform on hydraulic fracturing as a means of extraction of natural gas. This report examines the state of the science regarding shale gas extraction, the direct and indirect environmental health impacts of shale gas extraction, and the use of health impact assessment as a tool that can help decision makers identify the public health consequences of shale gas extraction.

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