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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
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An Ecosystem Services Approach to
Assessing the Impacts of the

DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

in the Gulf of Mexico

Committee on the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Mississippi
Canyon-252 Oil Spill on Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico

Ocean Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                         OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard to appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under contract number 10-DELS-294-01. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-28845-3

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-28845-2

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 2013952269

Cover photograph by Andy Levin, “BP Oil Spill” © 2010.

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×

COMMITTEE ON THE EFFECTS OF THE DEEPWATER HORIZON MISSISSIPPI CANYON-252 OIL SPILL ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

LARRY A. MAYER (Chair), University of New Hampshire, Durham

MICHEL C. BOUFADEL, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark

JORGE BRENNER, The Nature Conservancy, Corpus Christi, Texas

ROBERT S. CARNEY, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, California

JODY W. DEMING, University of Seattle, Washington

DAVID J. DIE, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida

JOSH EAGLE, University of South Carolina, Columbia

JOSEPH R. GERACI, University of Maryland, Baltimore

BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

KENNETH LEE, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Perth, Western Australia

JAMES T. MORRIS, University of South Carolina, Columbia

STEPHEN POLASKY, University of Minnesota, St. Paul

NANCY N. RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin

CHRISTOPHER REDDY,* Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

RALPH G. STAHL, JR., DuPont Company, Wilmington, Delaware

DAVID W.YOSKOWITZ, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi

Staff

KIM WADDELL, Study Director

SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer

LAUREN HARDING, Senior Program Assistant (until October 2012)

HEATHER CHIARELLO, Senior Program Assistant

JESSICA DUTTON, Mirzayan Fellow (until May 2012)

CONSTANCE KARRAS, Postgraduate Fellow (from September 2012)

DEBRA DAVIS, Editor

_________________

* Resigned from the committee.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×

OCEAN STUDIES BOARD

ROBERT A. DUCE (Chair), Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

E.VIRGINIA ARMBRUST, University of Washington, Seattle

EDWARD A. BOYLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

RITA R. COLWELL, University of Maryland, College Park

SARAH W. COOKSEY, State of Delaware, Dover

CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, California

ROBERT HALLBERG, NOAA/GFDL and Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

DAVID HALPERN, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California

BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

GEORGE I. MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California

STEVEN A. MURAWSKI, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg

CLAUDIA BENITEZ-NELSON, University of South Carolina, Columbia

JOHN A. ORCUTT, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California

H.TUBA ÖZKAN-HALLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis

STEVEN E. RAMBERG, Penn State Applied Research Lab, Washington, DC

ANDREW A. ROSENBERG, Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Massachusetts

DANIEL L.RUDNICK, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California

MARTIN D. SMITH, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

PETER L. TYACK, University of Saint Andrews, Fife, Scotland

DON WALSH, International Maritime Incorporated, Myrtle Point, Oregon

DAWN J.WRIGHT, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California

JAMES A. YODER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

Ex-Officio

MARY (MISSY) H. FEELEY, ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, Texas

OSB Staff

SUSAN ROBERTS, Director

DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer

CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer

KIM WADDELL, Senior Program Officer

PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator

SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer

HEATHER CHIARELLO, Senior Program Assistant

LAUREN HARDING, Senior Program Assistant (until October 2012)

CONSTANCE KARRAS, Postgraduate Fellow (from September 2012)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×

Acknowledgments

This report was greatly enhanced by the participants of the meetings held as part of this study. The committee would like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at the committee meetings: Jackie Antalan (Operation Homecare), Natalie Bergeron (Project LEARN–LaTerre), George Crozier (Dauphin Island Sea Laboratory), Alyssa Dausman (U.S. Geological Survey), Lisa Dipinto (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Charlie Henry (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Elena Kobrinski (University of the Virgin Islands), Shirley Laska (University of New Orleans), Chris Madden (South Florida Water Management District), Maryal Mewherter (United Houma Nation), Steve Murawski (University of South Florida), Khai Nguyen (Mary Queen of Viet Nam Community Development Corporation), Denise Reed (University of New Orleans), Marc Russell (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), and Sandra Werner (ExxonMobil)

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:

DONALD BOESCH, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge

ROBERT DIAZ, Virginia Institute of Marine Science (retired), Ware Neck

MERV FINGAS, Spill Science, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

JÖRG IMBERGER, University of Western Australia, Crawley

DAVID KARL, University of Hawaii, Honolulu

JUDY MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

PAUL MONTAGNA, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi

STEVE MURAWSKI, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg

GARRY PETERSON, Stockholm University, Sweden

CHRISTOPHER M. REDDY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

KATHLEEN SEGERSON, University of Connecticut, Storrs

HEATHER TALLIS, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California

MICHAEL ZICCARDI, University of California, Davis

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
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Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John J. Boland, The Johns Hopkins University, appointed by the Divison on Earth and Life Studies, and David A. Dzombak, Carnegie Mellon University, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18387.
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Page R10
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As the Gulf of Mexico recovers from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, natural resource managers face the challenge of understanding the impacts of the spill and setting priorities for restoration work. The full value of losses resulting from the spill cannot be captured, however, without consideration of changes in ecosystem services--the benefits delivered to society through natural processes.

An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico discusses the benefits and challenges associated with using an ecosystem services approach to damage assessment, describing potential impacts of response technologies, exploring the role of resilience, and offering suggestions for areas of future research. This report illustrates how this approach might be applied to coastal wetlands, fisheries, marine mammals, and the deep sea -- each of which provide key ecosystem services in the Gulf -- and identifies substantial differences among these case studies. The report also discusses the suite of technologies used in the spill response, including burning, skimming, and chemical dispersants, and their possible long-term impacts on ecosystem services.

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