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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1986. Recommendations for a U.S. Ice Coring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18404.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1986. Recommendations for a U.S. Ice Coring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18404.
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Page 37
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1986. Recommendations for a U.S. Ice Coring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18404.
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Page 38
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1986. Recommendations for a U.S. Ice Coring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18404.
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Page 39
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1986. Recommendations for a U.S. Ice Coring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18404.
×
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1986. Recommendations for a U.S. Ice Coring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18404.
×
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1986. Recommendations for a U.S. Ice Coring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18404.
×
Page 42
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1986. Recommendations for a U.S. Ice Coring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18404.
×
Page 43
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1986. Recommendations for a U.S. Ice Coring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18404.
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Page 44

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References Bender, M, L. D. Labeyrie, and D. Raymaud. 1985. Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2 in Ice Linked with Reglaciation and Global Primary Productivity. Nature 318:349-352. Berner, W. H., H. Oeschger, and B. Stouffer. 1980. Information on the CCK cycle from ice core studies. Radiocarbon 22(2):227-235. Boutron, C. F., and C. C. Patterson. 1983. The occurrence of lead in Antarctic recent snow, firn deposited over the last two centuries and prehistoric ice. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 47:1355-1368. Craig, H., and C. C. Chou. 1982. Methane: the record in polar ice cores. Geophys. Res. Lett. 9:1221-1224. Dansgaard, W., and S. J. Johnsen. 1969. A flow model and a time scale for the ice core from Camp Century, Greenland. J. Glaciol. 8(53):215-223. Dansgaard, W., S. J. Johnsen, H. B. Clausen, and C. C. Langway, Jr. 1971. Climatic record revealed by the Camp Century ice core. Pp.37-56 in Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages. New Haven: Yale University Press. Dansgaard, W. S. J. Johnsen, H. B. Clausen, and N. Gundestrup. 1973. Stable isotope glaciology. Medd. Groen. 192(2):l-53. Dansgaard, W., H. B. Clausen, N. Gundestrup, C. U. Hammer, S. J. Johnsen, P. M. Kristinsdottir, and N. Reeh. 1982. A new Greenland ice core. Science 218:1273-1277. 36

37 Dansgaard, W., S. J. Johnsen, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, N. Gundestrup, C. U. Hammer, and H. Oeschger. 1984. North Atlantic climatic oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. Pp. 288-298 in Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity. Geophys. Monogr., Am. Geophys. Union 29:288-298. Davidson, C. I., L. Chu, T. C. Grimm, M. A. Nasta, and M.P. Qamoos. 1981. Wet and dry deposition of trace elements onto the Greenland ice sheet. Atmos. Environ. 15(5):1429-1437. De Angelis, M., M. Legrand, J. R. Petit, N. I. Barkov, Ye. S. Korotekevitch, and Y. M Kotlyakov. 1984. Soluble and insoluble impurities along the 950 m deep Vostok ice core (Antarctica) - climatic implications. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 1:15-239. Delmas, R. J., J. M. Ascencio, and M. Legrand. 1980. Polar ice evidence that CO2 20,000 BP was 50% of present. Nature 284:155-1577 Elmore, D., L. E. Tubbs, D. Newman, X-Z. Ma. R. Finkel, K. Nishiizumi, J. Beer, H. Oeschger, and M. Andree. 1982. The 36C1 bomb pulse measured in a 100 m ice core from Dye 3, Greenland. Nature 300:735-737. Elmore, D., P. W. Kubik, L. E. Tubbs, H. E. Gove, R. Teng, T. Hemmick, B. Chrunyk, and N. Conard. 1984. The Rochester tandem accelerator mass spectrometry program. Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Physics Research B5:109-116. Epstein, S., R. P. Sharp, and A. J. Gow. 1970. Antarctic ice sheet: stable isotope analysis of Byrd Station cores and interhemispheric climate implications. Science 168:1570-1572. Gow, A. J., and T. C. Williamson. 1971. Volcanic ash in the Antarctic Ice Sheet and its possible climatic implications. Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 13:210-218.

38 Hammer, C. U. 1977. Dating of Greenland ice cores by microparticle concentration analyses. Symposium on Isotopes and Impurities in Snow and Ice. (Proceedings of the Grenoble Symposium, 1975), IAHS-IASH Publication 118:297-230. Hammer, C. U. 1980. Acidity of polar ice cores in relation to absolute dating, vulcanism, radio-echoes. J. Glaciol. 25(93):359-372. Hammer, C. U., H.B. Clausen, W. Dansgaard, A. Neftel, P. Kristinsdottier, and E. Johnson. 1985. Continuous impurity analysis along the Dye 3 deep core. Pp. 90-94 in Greenland Ice Core: Geophysics, Geochemistry and the Environment, C.C. Langway, H. Oeschger, and W. Dansgaard, eds. Geophys. Monogr., Am. Geophys. Union 33. Hammer, C. U. 1984. Traces of Icelandic eruptions in the Greenland Ice Sheet. Jokull 34:51-65. Hammer, C. U., H. B. Clausen, W. Dansgaard, N. Gundestrup, S. J. Johnsen, and N. Reeh. 1978. Dating of Greenland ice cores by flow models, isotopes, volcanic debris and continental dust. Glaciol. 20(82):3-26. Hansen, B. L., 1976. Deep core drilling in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet: a prospectus. Pp. 29-36 in Ice-Core Drilling, J. Splettstoesser, ed. Univ. of Nebraska Press. Herron, M. M. 1980. The Impact of Volcanism on the Chemical Composition of Greenland Ice Sheet Precipitation. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo. 1589 pp. Herron, M. M. 1982a. Glaciochemical dating techniques. Pp. 303-318 in Nuclear and Chemical Dating Techniques: Interpreting the Environmental Record, L. A. Currie, ed. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 176. Herron, M. M. 1982b. Impurity sources of Fl", Cl", NOj", and SO^ in Greenland and Antarctic precipitation. Geophys. Res. 87(C4):3052-3060.

39 Herron. S. L., and Langway, Jr., C. C. 1982 A comparison of ice fabrics and textures at Camp Century, Greenland and Byrd Station, Antarctica. Ann. Glaciol. 3:118-124. Herron, M M, and C. C. Langway, Jr. 1985. Chloride, Nitrate, and Sulfate in the Dye 3 and Camp Century, Greenland ice cores. Pp. 77-84 in Greenland Ice Core: Geophysics, Geochemistry, and the Environment. C.C. Langway, H. Oeschger, and W. Dansgaard, eds. Geophys. Monogr., Am. Geophys. Union 33. Herron, M M., S. L. Herron, and C.C. Langway, Jr. 1981. Nature, 293(5831):389-391. Herron, S. L., C. C. Langway, Jr., and K. A. Brugger. 1985. Ultrasonic velocities and crystalline anisotropy in the ice core from Dye-3, Greenland in The Greenland Ice Sheet Program. Am. Geophys. Union Geophys. Monogr. In press. Holdsworth, G., K. C. Kuivinen, and J. H. Rand, eds. 1984. Ice Drilling Technology. U.S. Army CRREL Special Report. 84-34 pp. Jouzel, J., L. Merlivat, and C. Lorius. 1982. Deuterium excess in an east-Antarctic ice core suggest higher relative humidity at the oceanic surface during the last glacial maximum. Nature 299(5885):688-691. Khalil, M. A. K., and R. A. Rasmussen. 1983a. Sources, sinks and seasonal cycles of atmospheric methane. Geophys. Res. 88:5131-5144. Khalil, M. A. K., and R. A. Rasmussen. 1983b. Increase and seasonal cycles of nitrous oxide in the earth's atmosphere. Tellus 358:161-169. Khalil, M. A. K., and R. A. Rasmussen. 1984. Carbon monoxide in the earth's atmosphere: increasing trend. Science 224:54-56. Koerner, R. M., and D. A. Fisher 1979. Discontinuous flow, ice texture and dirt content in the basal layers of the Devon Island Ice Cores. Glaciol. 23(95):209-222.

40 Kyle, P. R., and K. C. Jezek. 1978. Composition of three tephra layers from the Byrd Station ice core, Antarctica. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. ll(l):29-39. Langway, C. C, H. Oeschger, and W. Dansgaard. 1985. The Greenland ice sheet program in perspective. Pp. 1-8 in Greenland Ice Core: Geophysics, Geochemistry, and the Environment. C.C. Langway, H. Oeschger, and W. Dansgaard, eds., Geophys. Monogr., Am. Geophys. Union, 33. Langway, C. C. Jr., H. Oeschger, and W. Dansgaard. 1985. Greenland led Core: Geophysics, Geochemistry, and the Environment. Geophys. Monogr., Amer. Geophys. Union, 33. Lorius, C., L. Merlivat, J. Jouzel, and M. Pourchet. 1979. A 30,000 year isotope climatic record from Antarctic ice. Nature 280:644-648. Lorius C, J. Jouzel, C. Ritz, L. Merlivat, and N. Barkov. 1985. A 150,000-year climatic record from Antarctic ice. Nature 316(6209):591-596. Mosley-Thompson, E., and L. G. Thompson. 1982. Nine centuries of microparticle deposition at the South Pole. Quat. Res. 17:1-13. National Research Council. 1982. Causes and Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Reduction: An Update. Washington, D.C.:National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1983a. Snow and Ice Research: An Assessment. Prepared by the Committee on Glaciology, Polar Research Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 126 pp. National Research Council. 1983b. Research Emphases for the U.S. Antarctic Program. Polar Research Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 52 pp. National Research Council. 1984. The Polar Regions and Climatic Change. Prepared by the Committee on the Role of the Polar Regions in Climatic Change. Polar Research Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 59 pp.

41 National Research Council. 1985a. National Issues and Research Priorities in the Arctic. Polar Research Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 124 pp. National Research Council. 1985b. Glaciers, Ice Sheets and Sea Level: Effects of a CO2 Induced Climatic Change. Polar Research Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 330 pp. National Research Council. 1986a. U.S. Research in Antarctica in 2000 A.D. and Beyond. Polar Research Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 35 pp. National Research Council 1986b. Global Change in the Geosphere-Biosphere: Initial Priorities for an IGBP. Prepared by U.S. Committee for an International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 91 pp. Neftel, A., H. Oeschger, J. Schwander, B. Stauffer, and R. Zumbrunn. 1982. Ice core sample measurements give atmospheric CO2 content during the past 40,000 yr. Nature 295:220-223. Neftel, A., E. Moor, H. Oecheger, and B. Stauffer. 1985. The increase of atmospheric CO2 in the last two centuries - evidence from polar ice cores. Nature 315(6014):45-45. Oeschger, H. 1982. The contribution of radioactive and chemical dating to the understanding of the environ- mental system. Pp. 5-42 in Nuclear and Chemical Dating Techniques: Interpreting the Environmental Record. L.A. Currie, ed. American Chemical Society Symposium Series, 176. Oeschger, H. 1985. The contribution of ice core studies to the understanding of environmental processes. Pp. 9-17 in Greenland Ice Core: Geophysics, Geochemistry, and the Environment. C.C. Langway, H. Oeschger, and W. Dansgaard, eds. Geophys. Monogr., Am. Geophys. Union, 33.

42 Oeschger, H., J. Beer, U. Siegenthaler, B. Stauffer, W. Dansgaard, and C.C. Langway, Jr. 1984. Late glacial climate history from ice cores. Pp. 299-306 in Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity. Geophys. Monogr., Amer. Geophys. Union, 29. Paterson, W. S. B., and E. D. Waddington. 1984. Past Precipitation rates derived from Ice core measurements and data analysis. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 22(2):13-130. Petit, J. R., M. Briat, and A. Royer. 1981. Ice age aerosol content from east Antarctic ice core samples and past wind strength. Nature 293(5831):391-394. Rand, J. 1977. Ross Ice Shelf Project drilling, October-December 1976. Antarct. J. U.S. XII(4):150-152. Rasmussen, R. A., and ML A. K. Khalil. 1981. Atmospheric methane (CHA Trends and seasonal cycles. Geophys. Res. 86:9826-9832. Rasmussen, R. A., and M A. K. Khalil. 1984. Atmospheric methane in the recent and ancient atmospheres: Concentrations, trends and interhemispheric gradient. Geophys. Res. 89 (D7):l 1599-11605. Raynaud, D., and C. Lorius. 1973. Climatic implications of total gas content in ice at Camp Century. Nature 243:283-284. Raynaud, D., and J. M Barnola. 1985. An Antarctic ice core reveals atmospheric CO2 variations over the past few centuries. Nature, 315(6017):309-311). Shoji, H., and C. C. Langway, Jr. 1985. Mechanical properties of fresh ice core. Pp. 39-48 in Greenland Ice Core: Geophysics, Geochemistry, and the Environment. C.C. Langway, H. Oeschger, and W. Dansgaard eds. Am. Geophysic. Union, Geophys. Monogr. 33.

43 Stauffer, B., A. Neftel, H. Oeschger, and J. Schwander. 1985. CO2 concentrations in air extracted from Greenland ice samples. Pp. 85-89 in Greenland Ice Core: Geophysics, Geochemistry, and the Environment. C.C. Langway, H. Oeschger, and W. Dansgaard, eds. Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union, 33. Stuiver, M, and P. D. Quay. 1980. Changes in atmospheric Carbon-14 contributed to a variable sun. Science 207:11-19. Swithinbank, C. 1974. An international glaciological programme for the Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Rec. 17(106):86-98. Thompson, L. G. 1977a. Variations in microparticle concentration, size distribution and elemental composition found in Camp Century, Greenland, and Byrd Station, Antarctica, deep ice cores. Symposium on Isotopes and Impurities in Snow and Ice. IAHS-AISH publication 118, pp. 351-364. Thompson, L. G. 1977b. Microparticles, Ice Sheets and Climate. The Ohio State Univ., Inst. of Polar Studies Report 64 200 pp. Thompson, L. G., and E. Mosley-Thompson. 1981 Microparticle concentration variations linked with climatic change - evidence from polar ice cores. Science 212(4496):812-815. Thompson, L. G., E. Mosley-Thompson, J. F. Bolzan, and B. R. Koci. 1985. A 1500-year record of tropical precipitation recorded in ice cores from the Quelccaya ice cap, Peru. Science 229(4717):971-973. Thompson, L. G., E. Mosley-Thompson, and J. R. Petit. 1979. Glaciological interpretation of microparticle concentrations from the French 905-m Dome Cs Antarctica core. Pp. 227-234 in Sea Level, Ice and Climatic Change, IAHS-AISH publication 131. Thompson, L. G., E. Mosley-Thompson, P. M. Grootes, M. Pourchet, and S. Hastenrath. 1984. Tropical glaciers: Potential for ice core paleoclimatic reconstructions. Geophys. Res. 89(D3):4638-4646.

Thompson, L. G., E. Mosley-Thompson, and B. M. Arnao. 1984b. El Ni o-Southern Oscillation events recorded in the stratigraphy of the tropical Quelccaya ice cap, Peru. Science 226(4670):50-53. Wolff, E. W., and D. A. Peel. 1985. The record of global pollution in polar snow and ice. Nature 313:535-540.

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Recommendations for a U.S. Ice Coring Program Get This Book
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Ice and climate are inextricable linked. The major climate variations of the past "ice ages" are characterized by vast advances of ice over the land and sea. Glaciers and ice sheets affect our current climate. In the future, human modification climate, either purposeful or inadvertent, may cause major changes in the global ice volume and sea level. In addition to its active role in the climate system, ice also contains unique information about past climates. A clear reconstruction of climate history is an essential step toward understanding climate processes and testing theories that can predict future climate changes.

Polar ice sheets and some ice caps contain ice layered in an undisturbed, year-by-year sequence. The isotopic composition of the ice, the enclosed air, and trace constituents including particles and dissolved impurities provide information about the composition, temperature, and circulation of the atmosphere. In turn these may provide information about other conditions that affects the atmosphere. The recent ice layers contain a record of anthropogenic pollutants such as carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases, and heavy metals. Ice cores retrieved from depths down to 2000 m in the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have revealed variations in these climatic indicators over the last 150,000 years.

Recommendations for a U.S. Ice Coring Program endorses these scientific priorities and strongly recommends that the United States:

  • Initiate a program of ice coring and analysis over a period of at least 10 years;
  • Obtain high resolution climatic time series, with wide geographical coverage over the last several thousand years by analyses of cores from various depths at many locations in both polar regions and nonpolar regions; and
  • Obtain long-period climatic time series of several hundred thousand years from both Polar Regions.

This report examines the current status of ice core research in the United States and recommends specific steps to implement an ice coring and analysis program.

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