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ADVISORY BOARD ON QUARTERMASTER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Allen Abrams, Chairman; Consultant in the field of pulp and paper manufacture William O. Baker, Vice PresidentâResearch, Bell Telephone Labora- tories Malcolm Campbell, Dean, Textile School, North Carolina State College Herman E. Hilleboe, Commissioner of Health, New York State â¢Vilbur A. Lazier, Senior Vice President in Charge of Engineering, Sprague Electric Company Smil M. Mrak, Chancellor, University of California iarold K. Work, Associate Dean and Director of Research Division, College of Engineering, New York University George Parks, Executive Director; University of Rhode Island frank R. Fisher, Executive Secretary; National Academy of Sciences CONFERENCE PLANNING COMMITTEE Chairman: Paul A. Siple Scientific Advisor, Army Research Office Office of Chief, Research and Development Washington, D. C. Carl R. Eklund, Chief Polar Branch, Army Research Office Office of Chief, Research and Development Washington, D. C. Robert C. Faylor Director of Washington Office The Arctic Institute of North America Washington, D. C. Steven M. Horvath, Head Department of Physical Education University of California Santa Barbara Campus Santa Barbara, California Thomas O. Jones Antarctic Program Director Office of Special International Programs National Science Foundation Washington, D. C. Kaare Rodahl Director of Medical Research Lankenau Hospital Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
REFERENCE COPY j> FOR LIBRARY USE.ONLY MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC Proceedings of a Conference QUARTERMASTER RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING CENTER NATICK, MASSACHUSETTS 1, 2 DECEMBER 1960 Sponsored by HEADQUARTERS QUARTERMASTER RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMMAND U. S. ARMY QUARTERMASTER CORPS THE ARCTIC INSTITUTE OF NORTH AMERICA AND ADVISORY BOARD ON QUARTERMASTER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Division of Engineering and Industrial Research by FRANK R. FISHER NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCESâ NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Washington, D. C. 1961 APRF'ffi
QP '100 e / This publication is available from the HEADQUARTERS QUARTERMASTER RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMMAND Natick, Massachusetts Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 62 - 60008 Opinions expressed in the conference on Man Living in the Arctic are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Academy-Research Council, The Arctic Institute of North America, or the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command.
FOREWORD At the approach of World War II the U. S. Army Quartermaster Corps began a review of clothing for cold weather operations. Not only were the meager stocks for possible Arctic use of World War I vintage, but some items, such as buffalo and pony skin overcoats, dated back so far that their origin was uncertain. To meet emergency requirements of troops moving into Greenland, Iceland, Alaska, and the Aleutians, it was necessary to purchase many off-the-shelf civilian items. Advice was sought from mountaineers and polar explorers; however, subjective taste so varied their recommendations that the resulting composite ensembles were ineffective, confusing, and mili- tarily impractical. Physiologists who were consulted for an objective evaluation of clothing admitted that clothing interfered with body function during tests and had been routinely eliminated from their studies of the human body. Therefore, lacking any true, objective evaluation of the effectiveness of clothing, the Quartermaster Corps set up its own Climatic Research Laboratory at Lawrence, Massa- chusetts, for the scientific study of clothing. Other physiological lab- oratories in the United States and Canada initiated similar efforts. The National Academy of SciencesâNational Research Council assisted these efforts through consultation and coordination. The problem of preparing man to live in the Arctic became a major concern of the Quartermaster. By the end of World War II the Quar- termaster Corps had attained unquestioned leadership in both scien- tific theory and items produced. Later development of the Natick Laboratories and Cold Chambers continued to provide the Quarter- master Corps with superior facilities to pursue research in this area. Knowing that no field of research can safely lie dormant, the Quar- termaster Corps maintained its effort to advance the capabilities for Arctic living. Recent expansion in polar interest has increased the requirements for improved living conditions, food, clothing, and shelter. Solutions, once considered adequate because of their substan- tial advance over current standards, had to be re-examined in due course for deficiencies. Garments and equipment which required that men be extensively trained in their safe, efficient use or needed elab- orate care and maintenance in order to provide optimum protection often were too troublesome or dangerous. New knowledge of human physiological and psychological requirements and adjustments sug- gested new means of preparing for Arctic living. New materials and devices made new approaches possible. Therefore, the concept of a conference to discuss Man Living in the Arctic was considered desir- able by the Army, the National Academy of SciencesâNational Research Council Advisory Board on Quartermaster Research and Development, and The Arctic Institute of North America. iii
The large attendance by outstanding authorities on many facets of polar living was most encouraging. The Army, the Academy-Research Council, and The Arctic Institute of North America express appre- ciation for the interest shown, the high standards of papers presented, and the splendid cooperation of the Boston Museum of Science and others who contributed to the success of the conference. Appreciation is also extended to Mr. Lowell Thomas, who so ably presided at the dinner honoring American Arctic pioneers. The slides shown at the dinner were made available through the courtesy of the National Geographic Society and the National Archives. At the dinner meeting Bradford Washburn expressed very effec- tively our tendency to neglect the past: "There is a tragic and dan- gerous philosophy growing in America today which tends to focus all our attention on the present and the future and to relegate the past and its heroes into a role of minor importance on a dynamic scene where today and tomorrow are all that amount to anything at all." We felt accordingly that at this occasion we could "bear witness to our enthusiasm for the past and its heroes and to rededicate ourselves to remind our country that without the past and its succession of lead- ers in affairs and science and exploration, we should have neither a present nor a future that amounted to anything at all." This conference was an effort to honor the contributions of our Arctic pioneers, take stock of our present capabilities, and look for- ward to the military and civilian needs of the future. In contrast to the former concept of the Arctic as a hostile wasteland, avoided by all but bold adventurers, we believe that we are striving for continued advance of man's successful conquest of an area of the world that will sometime be a populated and essential part of man's habitat. PAUL A. SIPLE Chairman Conference Planning Committee IV
CONTENTS SESSION NO. 1âTHE ARCTIC Page Address of Welcome 1 Brig. General Merrill L. Tribe The Significance of Logistics in the Arctic 2 Maj. General A. T. McNamara Significance of Research and Development in the Arctic 7 Lt. General A. G. Trudeau Limitations to Living in the Polar Regions 14 1 aul A. Siple The Cold Climate Man 17 H. T. Hammel AlaskaâGibraltar of the North 35 Colonel Willard Pearson SESSION NO. 2âQUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC Physiological Principles for Protection of Man in the Cold 49 Harwood S. Belding Clothing and Personal Protection 56 S. J. Kennedy Arctic Rations 68 Austin Henschel Quartermaster Environmental Research in the Arctic 71 William C. Robison SESSION NO. 3âSCIENTIFIC APPROACHES TO SOLVING THE PROBLEMS OF MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC Health Maintenance 79 Colonel Joseph Blair Physiological Problems in Polar Regions 91 O. G. Edholm Auxiliary Heating 100 John P. Meehan Psychiatric Problems of Man in the Arctic 103 David McK. Rioch Summation: Man's Future Conquest of the Arctic 115 Steven M. Horvath
SESSION NO. 4âTHE EXPANDING UTILIZATION OF THE ARCTIC Utilization of the Arctic's Natural Resources 119 Paul Queneau Human Society in the Arctic Today 125 Trevor Lloyd The Role of Politics in the Expanding Utilization of the Arctic.. 134 George W. Rogers APPENDIX IâDedication of the Wilkins Arctic Test Chamber. .141 Maj. General Andrew T. McNamara APPENDIX IIâConference Dinner - 143 VI