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Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 50
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 51
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 52
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 53
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 54
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 55
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 56
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 57
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 58
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 59
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 60
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 61
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 62
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 63
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 64
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 65
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 66
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 67
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 68
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 69
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
×
Page 70
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
×
Page 71
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
×
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
×
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
×
Page 74
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
×
Page 75
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
×
Page 76
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
×
Page 77
Suggested Citation:"QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC." National Research Council. 1961. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18436.
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Page 78

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SESSION No. 2 THEME: QUARTERMASTER CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC J. C. REED, presiding CHAIRMAN REED: The title of the first paper is "Physiological Principles for Protection of Man in the Cold." It is my pleasure to introduce the speaker, Dr. Harwood S. Belding, Professor of Environmental Physiology at the University of Pittsburgh. PHYSIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES FOR PROTECTION OF MAN IN THE COLD HARWOOD S. BELDING University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania In May 1942 Terris Moore and seven fellow-mountaineers, the New England Advisory Committee on Cold Weather Clothing and Equip- ment to the Quartermaster Corps, had a problem. They had received eight different Arctic sleeping bags from the Office of the Quarter- master General for test on Mount Washington, and the cold weather had run out on them. W. H. Forbes, the Acting Director of the Har- vard Fatigue Laboratory, offered a solution to their problem: "Bring the Committee and its bags into our new cold room and test the bags at 40 below zero." The invitation was accepted. We, the physiologists at the Laboratory, looked upon these eight mountaineers as potential human "guinea pigs." If they were to be shut up in our refrigerator, we wanted to make some physiological measurements of their cooling. We therefore applied some skin thermocouples and asked our victims to insert rectal thermometers. The report to the Office of the Quartermaster General from that study not only showed the judgment of the eight men on the relative worth of each bag but also gave data on skin and rectal temperatures —data which indicated rates of body cooling. I believe that the Office of the Quartermaster General was really surprised to find out that useful, objective information could be obtained in this way. In any event, we were immediately deluged with requests to provide similar data on 75 different kinds of sleeping bags and on all kinds of cold weather clothing. As a result of this experiment the Quartermaster Climatic Research Laboratory was established a year later. It made use of the largest cold room (—89°F) then available. (The room had been constructed in the Pacific Woolen Mills, Lawrence, Massachusetts, to freeze the lanolin out of raw wool and thus avoid the expensive scrubbing 49

operation). Subsequently the Environmental Protection Division was formed at Natick, equipped with the most versatile cold room in his- tory, the chamber just dedicated to Sir Hubert Wilkins. I first met Sir Hubert Wilkins a month or so after those initial sleeping bag tests. He arrived at the Fatigue Laboratory with two bags of alpaca pile clothing designed to conform as closely as possible to good Eskimo clothing made of caribou fur. His wish: to use our new cold room to test the alpaca pile clothing. We worked out a protocol. Sid Robinson was in charge and Steve Horvath was there. The test program was to consist of two hours of marching "on the trail" to see whether the "Eskimo suits" would ventilate better than conven- tional cold weather clothing and thus reduce both sweating of the wearer and moisture pick-up of the clothing. Following "the march" the subjects were to lie down on a rug while observers measured the fall in their rectal and skin temperatures. The control outfit, the Army's then best cold weather ensemble, consisted of closely fitted long woolen underwear, overalls, and jacket, the latter two lined with wool blanketing. Since there was no category of soldier test subject, we were the subjects. Sid Robinson, an Olympic two-miler, and Sir Hubert set the treadmill for "mushing," walking at 3.5 miles per hour up a 9 per cent grade and classified as Heavy Work by any standard. Sir Hubert and I stripped down for placement of the thermo- couples. One look at Sir Hubert told me he was no longer young and that he was "soft." This worried me enough that I volunteered to walk behind Sir Hubert on the treadmill in case he should get in trouble. Eventually, we were clothed, Sir Hubert in the "Eskimo suit" and I in the control outfit; we started mushing. In 20 minutes I had had enough. At the end of an hour a box lunch was brought in to us—a wonderful excuse for stopping to catch my wind. I asked Sir Hubert, "Well, shall we stop and eat?" "No," he replied, "let's eat on the trail," and he did. I was too busy mushing to have any stomach for food. Since then I have resisted the temptation to predict fitness on the basis of appearance! The two hours finally passed, and we reclined in accordance with plan. If I had only had the Eskimo suit! After five minutes Sir Hubert was asleep; I began to shiver and shake. Word from the control room was that Sir Hubert's rectal and skin temperatures were falling, while my rectal temperature was rising slightly. Obviously, I couldn't be cold! Had we used soldiers for this test, we might have gone months with- out considering the third essential factor (heat production) in ther- mal evaluation of Quartermaster Corps clothing. As it was, I was per- sonally motivated to insist that it be measured. I knew that I was worse off than Sir Hubert. The only way this situation could be ex- plained was by combining the heat production, as determined from oxygen utilization, with the body heat loss as measured by change in rectal and skin temperatures. Subsequently oxygen utilization was 50

measured. About that time Alan Burton visited us from Canada and helped us work out a system for computing insulation values for the items we were evaluating. 1 14.- K AT Insulation Heat Loss Clothing "* ( J-akin J-air) Insulation ~ Metabolic heat minus lung loss , and skin loss by vaporization of H2O Loss of stored body heat Air Insulation Use of an appropriate constant yielded insulation values in "clo," the unit of insulation previously recommended by Gagge, Burton, and Bazett. One clo is approximately the insulation provided by a business suit. Through the following months this system of evaluation of clothing was evolved further. It was later described in detail in a book prepared under guidance of a Committee of the National Research Council (1). Among other things, it was found that an electrically heated copper manikin could serve as a substitute for test subjects in certain static tests of insulation, thus conserving manpower. Clothing for Arctic activities. In cold weather a man usually finds himself wearing more insulation than he needs during work and less than he needs during rest. The biophysics of the situation suggests why this is so. For any given environment the optimum insulation for maintaining thermal balance is about five or six times as much at rest as at work. In addition are the vagaries: 1) of temperature, which makes the insulation requirement for a given activity at least twice as great at -40°F as it is at 20°F; and 2) of wind, which can easily halve the protective efficiency of the clothing that is worn. The sug- gestion that clothing for cold weather should incorporate a "thermo- statically controlled venetian blind" principle to control heat flow is sensible, but engineers have as yet produced no practical design. This principle brings us back to the Eskimo-type clothing, which proved so markedly superior in the test involving Sir Hubert (2). Worn without underwear, tailored to fit loosely, and with readily adjustable closures, Sir Hubert's assembly permitted relatively free ventilation of the skin during periods of activity. As a result subjects sweated less and a smaller amount of moisture was collected in the clothing. During rest and with the apertures closed, the two layers of pile fabric and covering of closely woven windbreak material immo- bilized a considerable thickness of insulating air. These principles have been emulated with considerable success in present Quartermaster Corps issue clothing. Unfortunately, the de- signers have been handicapped by the requirement for underwear (for 51

sanitary reasons) and the need to carry a load on the back, both of which result in obstruction of ventilation during work. Since 1942, the Quartermaster Corps has initiated and/or sponsored hundreds of investigations on physiological response of man in the cold (3). I must limit my discussion to a few of the studies which have enhanced our knowledge of the principles of cold weather protec- tion. These studies have been greatly aided by the "enlisted men" who have served as test subjects. Many of them have endured protracted discomfort to help establish these principles. Sleeping bags. In sleeping bags, our first challenge, we learned many lessons (4). Warmth depends on thickness of air entrapped and ren- dered "still." Under optimum conditions about 4 clo of insulation are obtainable per inch. Actually, the best sleeping bag we ever tested offered only about 12 clo of protection, enough to maintain thermal equilibrium at a temperature no lower than — 20 °F. The Quarter- master Corps double-layer Arctic bag is very good, but equilibrium is not maintained below about 0°F. The extra heat that flows under colder conditions derives from cooling of the body tissues. At — 40°F, a man wakes up cold a few hours after entering the "sack." The lesson here is to warm up beforehand, so that there will be body heat to lose. It also follows that a casualty cannot be left in a sleeping bag for any long period under these conditions without compounding his injuries with frostbite. If the requirement is a warm sleeping bag, the air-trapping material must fluff out to three inches or more of thickness. If, in addition, the bag must be portable, it must be compressible for packing. This means that it will also compress under the sleeper, necessitating auxiliary padding underneath. Can the bag itself have a built-in, incompressible "bottom"? Mummy case bags don't. They are most efficient because they conform closely to the shape of the body. A sleeper puts out heat equivalent to a 75 watt bulb. If the size of the bag is increased so that he can roll over without shifting the position of the bottom padding, the 75 watts will be heating a larger "room." In fact, anything that is done to increase the surface area of a bag (independent of thickness) is reflected in large loss in insulative efficiency. This was shown in experimental "Front Line" sleeping bags which had a division below the trunk to accommodate the two legs so that a soldier could get up and run, or at least walk. This bag was heavier, but more important it was cold, even at 20°F. With these restrictions in mind, I can sug- gest only one possibility for providing an efficient Arctic bag with a "bottom." This solution is to have separate head protection and a rotatable "collar" at the neck of the bag so that the sleeper can turn over without disturbing the bag. Blood flow to extremities. Quartermaster Corps physiologists have made substantial contributions to knowledge of the control of blood flow to the extremities, particularly to the hands and feet. The prin- ciple which has emerged is that flow of warming blood to the hands 52

and feet is determined by over-all "need" of the body to dissipate or conserve heat in order to keep core temperature stable (5). This principle of blood distribution to the extremities was learned by venous occlusion plethysmography, i.e., sealing a limb in a "tin can" to see how fast it would fill with higher pressure arterial blood after instantaneous interruption of lower pressure venous outflow by a tourniquet. In one study, subjects were rapidly transferred from a warm to a cold environment (6). Blood flow to the hand fell from a high to a very low level in moments. In nontechnical terms, it fell to less than a teaspoonful per whole hand per minute. Other fingers cooled at the same rapid rate as a finger with a tight rubber band around it. Such observations led a Quartermaster Corps mathematician to compute the thickness of insulation necessary in the finger of a glove to maintain hand warmth of an inactive man at below zero tempera- tures. It was so enormous that no one since has made any serious effort to provide all the needed thermal protection in this way. Exces- sive cooling of the extremities must be avoided by periodic recourse to physical activity or shelter, or by provision of auxiliary heat. Quartermaster Corps scientists later studied the importance of a periodic "automatic" opening of blood vessels in cooled extremities for keeping these extremities from freezing. This reflex phenomenon, earlier described by Sir Thomas Lewis for a finger immersed in crushed ice, provides a periodic flush of warming blood (7). It was suggested that this response, which is much better developed in some men than in others, might be used in selection of personnel for duties in extreme cold. This control of blood flow to the extremities poses a dilemma to the body. From the viewpoint of body survival it may be better to main- tain warmth of central organs by cutting off flow to the limbs, even if it means their sacrifice. However, the body's solution of the dilemma in this way is not an unmixed blessing. It goes without saying that a man with frozen hands and feet is severely handicapped; certainly he is a liability to a military effort. Rewarming. Another related practical question that Quartermaster Corps physiologists have attempted to answer concerns the efficiency of various methods of warming the body following exposure (8). In one study men cooled for an hour at — 40 °F, then marched or entered a sleeping bag in that same environment, or went into a warm room and sat. While skin temperature rose most rapidly while they sat in the warm room, that did not mean early comfort or restoration of body heat; the subjects shivered intermittently and their rectal tem- peratures actually fell for nearly an hour. This procedure turned out to be far less effective for rewarming than exercise in the cold; the latter restored core temperature and comfort in a few minutes. Nowadays the Quartermaster Corps doesn't always have to use test subjects to find such answers. It has an electrical analog into which 53

can be plugged the information about temperature, wind, and activ- ity; hopefully, the computer will respond electrically as a man does thermally, but in a fraction of the time (9). It did so react when this same problem was posed to it, several years after the hard work had been done. Auxiliary heating. Provision of a limited amount of supplemental protection through local application of heat inside the clothing is a matter of on-going concern to the Quartermaster Corps. Some asso- ciated physiological problems (quite apart from logistic ones of how to supply the electrical or other energy) have received attention. One approach involved finding the maximum tolerable safe level to which skin temperature could be raised by a heating pad; the hope was that enough heat could be put into the skin of a local area to compensate for excessive losses from the unheated remainder of the body (10). Unfortunately, the maximum safe temperature turned out to be only about 104°F, and it became clear that an area as large as the entire trunk would have to be heated to achieve heat balance for inactive men at below zero temperatures. Another and current approach is the provision of limited heat to prevent excessive cooling of the extrem- ities. This is not as easy as it sounds. I remember seeing frostbite on the palmar surface of two fingers under circumstances in which the wires heating the backs of the hands and fingers had been hot enough to raise red welts. Clearly, the stated principle that blood flow to the hands depends on over-all need to conserve heat balance was operating here; good hand circulation had not been achieved. Sweat retention in clothing. Arctic explorers have referred again and again to the danger of sweating profusely because of later excessive evaporative cooling while inactive. The Quartermaster Corps has sup- ported a quantitative investigation of this phenomenon (11). The trouble arises because the outer clothing is cold and sweat, even if evaporated at the skin, condenses out on the cold cloth. For example, in zero weather it was found that 80% or more of sweat produced during two hours at levels of activity from sitting quietly (sweat pro- duction 1 ounce or less) to hard work (sweat 1 to 2 quarts) remained in the clothing. The sweat mechanism's aim is to achieve skin cooling. If what the skin secretes does not achieve the aim, more sweat is pro- duced. In this study the effectiveness of the sweat for skin cooling averaged only about 50% ; we may infer an approximate doubling of the burden on the sweating mechanism (and body water economy) and a corresponding increase in uptake of moisture in the clothing. The only relatively bright spot in this picture was the further demon- stration that at all moderate rates of sweating the moisture accumula- tion was restricted to the outer layers of clothing. During subsequent periods of rest evaporation of this moisture occurred so far from the skin and so slowly that the normal rate of body cooling was not greatly accelerated. The over-all effect of these demonstrations was to point up the requirement for better ventilation of cold weather field uni- 54

forms and to show how success in achieving this goal could be evalu- ated. The study also supported a radical new principle for the control of moisture, namely, the provision of an inner vapor barrier in the clothing to prevent the sweat from reaching the outer layers. This principle has been under investigation and is in use in the "Korean" waterproof boot. Thus, in many ways the Quartermaster Corps has helped to develop a firm physiological and biophysical basis for design of cold weather clothing and equipment. Profit from these studies must eventually accrue not only to the soldier who is equipped by the Quartermaster Corps, but to all who face the elements in the development of Arctic areas. References 1. Newburgh, L. H. (ed.), Physiology of Heat Regulation and the Science of Clothing, 1949, W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Penna. 2. Harvard Fatigue Laboratory Report No. 35, September 1942. 3. Reports issued by the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory (1941-46), the Quarter- master Climatic Research Laboratory (1943-47), the Environmental Protec- tion Section of the Office of The Quartermaster General (1947-52), and the Environmental Protection Research Division of the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command (1952-present). 4. Harvard Fatigue Laboratory Reports 25, 26, 27, 43, 46, 53, 69, issued from May 1942 to May 1943 describe many of the findings. 5. Ferris, B. G. Jr., Forster, R. E. II, Pillion, E. L., and Christensen, W. R. Control of Peripheral Blood Flow: Responses in the Human Hand When Extremities are Warmed, Am. J. Physiol., 150, 304 (1947). 6. Mead, J. and Bader, M. E., The Rapidity of Digital Skin Temperature and Blood Flow Alterations in Men Exposed to Sudden Changes in Environ- mental Temperature, Office of The Quartermaster General, Environmental Protection Section Series Report No. 158 (1949). 7. Blaisdell, R. K., Effect of Body Thermal State on Cold-Induced Cyclic Vaso- dilation in the Finger, Office of The Quartermaster General, Environmental Protection Section Series Report No. 177 (1951). 8. Ames, A. Ill, Goldthwait, D. A., Griffith, R. S., and Macht, M. B., An Evalu- ation of Methods of Rewarming Men, Including a Brief Investigation of the Effects of Glucose, Alcohol, and Successive Exposures on the Reactions of Men to Cold, Office of The Quartermaster General, Environmental Protec- tion Section Series Report No. 134 (1948). 9. Woodcock, A. H., Thwaites, H. L., and Breckenridge, J. R., An Electrical Analogue for Studying Heat Transfer in Dynamic Situations, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command, Environmental Protection Research Division Technical Report EP-86 (1958). 10. Belding, H. S., Bodily Acceptance of Locally Applied Heat, Final Report under Contract No. DA-44-109-QM-1289, from University of Pittsburgh (1955). 11. Belding, H. S., Russell, H. D., Darling, R. C., and Folk, G. E., Thermal Responses and Efficiency of Sweating When Men are Dressed in Arctic Clothing and Exposed to Extreme Cold, and Analysis of Factors Concerned in Maintaining Energy Balance for Dressed Men in Extreme Cold; Effects of Activity on the Protective Value and Comfort of an Arctic Uniform, Am. J. Physiol., 149, 204 (1947) ; ibid. p. 223. 55

CHAIRMAN REED: It is a special pleasure to introduce our next speaker who is the Research Director of the Textile, Clothing, and Footwear Division of the Quar- termaster Research and Engineering Command. He is Dr. S. J. Kennedy. Dr. Kennedy has had a great deal to do with the planning and arranging of this conference. At this time he will speak on the subject "Clothing and Personal Protection." Dr. Kennedy. CLOTHING AND PERSONAL PROTECTION STEPHEN J. KENNEDY Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command Natick, Massachusetts Ironically, on the very day the Japanese struck Pearl Harbor, an action which immediately compelled our Army to think about the defense of Alaska, the German war machine was being frozen in its tracks by — 32 °F cold and deep snow right in front of Moscow and Leningrad. How completely unprepared the Germans were for fighting under such Arctic conditions has been clearly brought out in the war memoirs of General Heinz Guderian, Commander of one of Hitler's Panzer Armies in the invasion of Russia. Lack of proper clothing, he stated, caused them twice as many casualties as the enemy's fire and lost them their chance for success. In retrospect, we can be thankful for Hitler's miscalculations. How- ever, we should also realize that in 1941 the American Army was even less prepared than the Germans for winter fighting. Our regular Army winter uniform was inadequate for combat troops anywhere in the world. As pointed out by Lieutenant General E. B. Gregory, the World War II Quartermaster General, our Army uniform had been gradually converted from a comparatively loose-fitting field uniform into a tightly fitted uniform suitable only for garrison wear. Soldiers usually had local tailors shape their loose-fitting uniforms so tightly that the buttons were always under strain. This undesirable conversion has been embraced by all Armies in peacetime. Unfortunately our Army was no exception. Thus we had no cold weather combat uniform when war broke out. All we had was the so-called Alaskan List—a tabulation of some thirty supplementary items of clothing and equipment. These extra items (e.g., lined coat and cap) were in limited supply and had undergone little change in 20 years. Except for a change in the collar, our 1941 Army uniform was not significantly different from the one used in the fighting of World War I. We did have canvas leggings in place of spiral wound puttees and trousers in place of breeches. With the elimination of the blue dress uniform for reasons of economy, the olive drab wool serge uniform served both for field and garrison wear in the winter months. For summer wear we had cotton khakis, with which our officers wore tightly fitted, trim-looking cavalry boots, which would have 56

proved thoroughly unsatisfactory and conducive to cold injury if worn in cold climates. From the outbreak of the war it was apparent that unlike previous wars in which fighting had either lessened considerably or come to a complete halt during winter, the extremes of climate were not going to stop fighting in this war; rather, both sides were going to take advantage of the environment and use it as a weapon. Hence, adequate and effective cold climate clothing was a matter of urgency for protec- tion from cold injury or loss in fighting efficiency in any potential front in the northern hemisphere as well as in Alaska or in other true Arctic or sub-Arctic areas. What approach to take toward developing such clothing presented a difficult problem. There was strong opinion among those consulted that the best solution was to adapt native type clothing and use furs as did the Eskimos. The Scandinavian forces in the Russo-Finnish War of 1939-40 had used fur-lined clothing, employing furs, however, in quite a different way from that of the Eskimos. There was also the question of whether to use a long overcoat for protection of the legs and for general body warmth, as was done by the Germans, the Russians, and Scandinavians, or whether to use a short thigh-length jacket. If the latter were used, how were the legs to be kept warm and dry in wet weather when the coat shed its water onto the legs ? It was in tackling these problems and many related ones, that the Quartermaster Corps made its foremost contribution during World War II toward extending the capability of man living in the Arctic and at the same time gave impetus to a program which has since continued to pioneer in contributions to cold climate clothing for both civilians and the military services. Rather than look to the past empirical solutions of cold weather clothing problems by either Arctic natives or textile and clothing industries of other countries, the Quartermaster Corps turned to scientific data from the fields of physiology, physics, and textile tech- nology; and using materials available from mass production, sought to improve cold weather clothing. Shortly after the outbreak of the war, Dr. Paul A. Siple, who had just returned from the Antarctic Service Expedition with Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, was asked to prepare a general statement of the principles governing the selection of clothing for cold climates. That report summarized what was known at that time from the fields of physiology and climatology about the functioning of clothing assemblies in cold climates, as well as Dr. Siple's practical experience gained in these expeditions to the Antarctic. To apply these principles, a research and development program was launched by the Office of The Quartermaster General under the leader- ship of Colonel (later Brigadier General) Georges F. Doriot. This program included, in addition to the actual development of the items, 67

a basic research project directed toward the further elucidation of these principles, not only to learn how to prevent cold injury, but also to make positive contributions toward augmenting the physical efficiency of the troops. As part of this project, provision was made for physiological testing in the Climatic Research Laboratory at Lawrence, Massachusetts, and for accelerated serviceability testing at the Quartermaster Board at Fort Lee, Virginia. At Fort Lee items were worn on controlled test courses that reproduced the actual stresses and strains of combat conditions. The results of the testing were then analyzed statistically to determine which of several alter- nate solutions would be the best. The resources of the scientific world were enlisted particularly through the Committee on Aviation Medicine of the National Acad- emy of Sciences—National Research Council and the corresponding Canadian Committee. A part of the work of these committees was directed specifically toward the scientific study of the soldier's cloth- ing. Their work and that of a large number of scientists in both countries yielded a great deal of information that could be utilized by equipment designers and textile technologists in development of what the Army needed. When this program was launched in the spring of 1942, there was an urgent need to arrive at some conclusions in order that immediate large-scale procurement of clothing could be made for troops being sent north for the defense of Alaska. Accordingly, in May 1942, in order to resolve questions as to suitability of newly developed experi- mental Arctic items, a test team of seventeen highly qualified moun- tain and Arctic specialists was flown to Mt. McKinley, Alaska, the only place under U. S. control where Arctic conditions (down to — 20°F) prevail during the late spring season. Here for two months, these men lived with and tested over 100 items of Arctic clothing, tents, and other equipment. Included in this group, which was sup- plied in one of the first large-scale Army air drop operations, were Major Robert Bates in command; Brad Washburn, whose name will always be associated with Mt. McKinley; Terris Moore; Al Jackman; Wing Commander Peter Webb of the RCAF; and others who dis- tinguished themselves during the war for their contributions to the improvement of Quartermaster cold climate equipment. Tests like this yielded two important by-products. One was that we needed a much clearer definition of the clothing requirements, prefer- ably in quantitative terms. Instead of making a garment which some- one thought would meet the need, we had to know if it actually would do so. The other was the discovery that, regardless of prior experience with any clothing, soldiers could not be depended upon to use the new clothing properly; they had to be completely re-educated in the use of the new items. Two major principles employed in the cold weather clothing de- veloped at this time are worthy of mention for their subsequent impact 58

upon both military and civilian cold weather clothing design. The first was the principle that cold climate clothing derives its efficiency in protecting against the cold, not from the weight or mass of the material used, but from its entrapment of still air. For the system to be effective, a windproof and water repellent outer "shield" fabric is needed to serve as a baffle against the wind and to keep the insulat- ing layers dry from external moisture. The insulating layers can then be as light as technology permits so long as the air spaces do not exceed approximately Vs" m cross section. Thus, in place of the wool overcoat, made from a fabric weighing 32 oz/sq yd and which would absorb more than its own weight of water, a wind resistant and water repellent cotton jacket and trousers were adopted for the outer garment. Wool, as a fiber, was then used for the task it could perform extremely well—providing insulation in the underlayers of clothing. The second fundamental principle followed was that of going to a "layer" system of clothing. This system provided one way of dealing with the 130° temperature range (from 65° F to -65°F) over which cold climate clothing had to be effective and the range in activity levels of the soldier from hard manual labor or running to being com- pletely inactive for as long as six hours at a time. Thus, a layer could be removed or added, or vents at the wrists, neck, and waist could be opened or closed, depending on whether the man needed to cool off or to conserve his body heat. The system was also more efficient than a single layer system would have been, because it permitted extra air- entrapment along the fabric surfaces which gave "free" insulation. The full functional efficiency of this system was, unfortunately, compromised by the necessity for including in the ensemble an item of semidress uniform in the style of the so-called Eisenhower jacket and wool trousers. This jacket was designed to serve a functional pur- pose when worn over certain insulating layers in the clothing system and also a dress purpose as the Army Service uniform. Actually it served neither purpose satisfactorily. To protect against outright cold injury the Army footgear needed radical changes. The history of trench foot in World War I and the long record of frostbite in all previous wars made it clear that means must be found to prevent such injuries again on a large scale. Redevelopment of the Army leather shoe to a cuff-type boot that could easily be removed for change of socks and for foot massage, with elimination of leggings, was one approach. Shoepacs with remov- able felt insoles and multiple sockgear were developed for use by troops in wet cold climates. Using the Eskimo mukluk as a model, a military mukluk with removable felt insoles and heavy wool socks in place of the native furs was developed. While these types of footgear alone were not fully adequate to prevent cold injury, the cold injuries that occurred were mainly caused by other factors. Actually, the World War II footgear of our Army, 59

as developed by Quartermaster research and development was the best functional design to date. Fortunately, a fundamental solution to the problem of cold injury to the feet was discovered in the course of this Quartermaster research and development program. In 1944, Major Paul Siple and the late Dr. H. C. Bazett hit upon the revolutionary concept of sealed insulation type footgear. There was no time during the war to work out this concept in actual produc- tion. Despite efforts in the early postwar years, it was not successfully achieved until 1951, when the Hood Rubber Company first developed a practical sealed insulation boot. It was then immediately made avail- able to our forces in Korea and contributed to the almost complete elimination of this source of cold injury in the winter of 1952-53 and subsequent years. This concept has been perhaps the most important breakthrough in recent years in the whole field of military cold climate clothing and has made possible the effective control of cold injury to the feet under most combat conditions. It is impossible here to dwell on the many other developments in cold climate clothing, equipment, and combat materials which con- tributed significantly to the preparation of the U.S. Army soldier for effective operations in cold climate environments during World War II. Two items, however, should be mentioned. One was the sleeping bag for use of troops in cold climates, which replaced blankets that at best were inadequate. The other was the development of a lightweight 4- to 6-man tent, following principles advanced by Sir Hubert Wilkins. This 4- to 6-man pyramidal tent was compact and yet fully adequate for field needs, capable of being man-carried, and represented the austerity practiced by experienced Arctic explorers. It served as a model for the kind of functional approach which the Army needed to extend its capabilities in such a region. This review of Quartermaster World War II contributions may seem to some of you to be repeating the obvious, as would be the case in telling of the work of early Arctic explorers, so easy is it, after the fact, to accept unappreciatively the achievements of pioneer workers in a field. However, we should recognize that even the development by the Quartermaster Corps of a simple and practical method for shrink- proofing of wool textiles in order to make the Army cushion-sole sock truly washable—a long-wanted improvement in civilian woolens— was a major departure from industry practice. Never before tried by the textile and clothing industries, the Quar- termaster Corps research and development's approach of controlled testing and application of scientific data to design and development of clothing was indeed revolutionary. It marked the beginning of an era in which the application of scientific methods would make practicable 60

the use of many new textile fibers through the engineering of fabrics and the development of a science of clothing. It rendered our Army capable of successful defense of Alaska, had that become necessary, and would have enabled our troops to fight successfully through winters much colder than those of western Europe. This feat was accomplished by developing, procuring, pro- ducing, and distributing a completely new clothing assembly and getting it into the hands of troops in less than two years' time. In contrast to our present long development cycle, this was no small achievement. Despite the improvements which had been made as a result of the wartime effort in the Army's cold climate clothing, it would have been most unfortunate had this development program been concluded with the end of the war. The sheer magnitude of the task of changing over the Army clothing system from what it had been to the newly de- veloped assembly had resulted in compromises and substitutions which left the job only partly completed. That the job was incomplete was recognized generally by the users who in 1947 launched the com- prehensive re-examination of all cold weather equipment in the triple test program of "Frost", "Frigid", and "Williwaw". Here the Army's cold weather clothing, as developed during World War II, was sub- jected to a complete re-evaluation in controlled field operations. Based upon those tests, a modified cold climate clothing assembly was developed in 1948-49 in which complete separation was made of the functional clothing of the Army from its service uniform. In place of the Eisenhower jacket, a comfortable, sport-style shirt made from a heavy wool flannel was adopted as a general utility garment in which the soldier would be presentable for any normal theater conditions in time of war, and which also would serve as a functional insulating garment in the clothing system. I am glad to say that this item has become one of the best liked clothing items ever developed by the Quartermaster Corps. Extra "free" insulation was made available by the adoption of loose-fitting, pa jama-type underwear made from the Army's standard 50/50 wool/cotton fabric and by generally loosening up the fit of all of the garments in the system. A new type of face and neck protection was adopted based on an extendable hood with a malleable wire stiffener that could be bent in any suitable way to protect against the prevailing wind. This new clothing assembly, although not different in principle from that adopted in 1943, represented a very considerable advance in im- proved fit and the use of better materials. Also, it exploited to a greater extent the previous experience of the military population of wearing civilian-type clothing in order to reduce training time and to make it easier to use the new items properly. This facility was accomplished by designing the clothing so that all layers would open down the front for ventilation when needed for cooling off or 61

preventing overheating. This new clothing underwent its first large- scale trial in the Korean War. While much of the World War II clothing was still in the system, large quantities of this new clothing did get to Korea and it was pronounced an excellent cold weather clothing system—by far the best which our Army had ever been provided. That the basic principles and construction of this assembly were sound is attested to by the fact that the Canadian Army had adopted a quite similar cold weather uniform system which is actually func- tionally interchangeable with that of the U. S. Army. More recently, the British Army has also adopted a similar type of cold weather clothing. This same clothing was also selected for the support of the U. S. civilian scientific personnel in the Antarctic during the Inter- national Geophysical Year. While this clothing system, adopted as the M-1950 model, repre- sented a major advance in our capabilities for eifective military operation in the Arctic, there were still many things about it that needed basic improvement. Since the Korean War, our cold climate clothing has been subjected to thorough scrutiny in order to correct its obvious deficiencies and also to take account of changing requirements and the very substan- tial technological advances which have been occurring in the textile industry. Among its serious deficiencies have been its weight, which is un- questionably beyond what the man should have to carry; lack of adequate water repellency, requiring frequent re-treatment of the clothing; the inability to wear the helmet, because of an inadequate solution of the problem of the spatial configuration about the head; imbalance between the insulation provided to the hands and feet and the rest of the ensemble; and the inadequacy of the footgear for use with skis. In addition, new concepts have developed for the deployment of troops and their weapons which add substantially to the problem of protection in the cold. The need for rapid dispersion of troops to avoid their becoming a profitable enemy target calls for mobility characteristics which are difficult to achieve in the Arctic and places a premium on mobility of the individual soldier. Further, other requirements in recently established Military Char- acteristics call for better integration of warm climate clothing with cold climate clothing so that a man will be prepared for operation at any time in any place; for incorporation of chemical warfare pro- tection into the cold climate clothing; for protection against thermal effects of nuclear weapons; and for the capability of wearing body armor with the cold climate clothing. Successful solutions to several of the above problems have greatly improved the efficiency of the entire clothing system. One recent improvement has been a substantial weight reduction 62

in the basic extreme cold or cold-dry area clothing from 26 Ib to 20 Ib (2.3%). Careful examination of the entire system showed that weight could be reduced by using newly engineered lighter weight fabrics of comparable wear- and water-resistance and insulating properties. Because of the present technological revolution in the textile and clothing industries, these new materials are not considered the ultimate; but they have been tested and approved for adoption. A second significant contribution to the capabilities of military forces in Arctic areas was the development in our laboratories of QUARPEL, a water-repellent functional finish for textiles and of exceptional performance and durability. When applied to the shield fabric of the cold weather clothing assembly, QUARPEL withstood continuous rainfall for over seven days and permitted no seepage. It retains its water repellency after laundering so that clothes need not be re-treated in the field. Even after 15 launderings QUARPEL- treated fabric is as good as the best present commercially treated fabrics when new. Cold climate clothing made from QUARPEL- treated fabrics, and sewn with QUARPEL-treated thread, is now going into production testing in the industry. To reduce the imbalance in the insulation between the hands and feet and the rest of the assembly, two actions have been taken. The principle of the sealed insulation boot has been extended to extreme cold Arctic areas by the adoption of a white insulated boot having a higher amount of insulation than the present black boot. This new boot will replace the mukluk with its sockgear and removable in- soles, the last of the native-type items in our cold weather clothing system. This new white insulated boot was worn by Dr. Siple at the South Pole two winters ago at temperatures of —102 °F without serious discomfort or cold injury. However, these boots have only limited compatibility with the present Army cross country ski bind- ing and none with the mountain ski binding. The new requirement for a high degree of individual over-snow mobility in the Arctic will necessitate the development of a modified version of the vapor barrier boot with a variety of experimental ski bindings and superior to the prototypes that were provided to the Mountain and Cold Weather Training Command for evaluation this winter. New types of handgear are presently under development incor- porating principles of shaping according to the natural, relaxed hand and with differential insulation so that more insulation is placed over the back of the hand where blood vessels lie close to the skin surface. These gloves, used with mitten-type inserts, now under test act primarily as hand warmers. To perform any special mission other than gross handling, the hand must be removed. These gloves partially solve the conflicting requirements of warmth, dexterity, and tactility. Sometimes men's duties force them to remain inactive for long periods when high manipulative skills are required, i.e., operation of exposed fire control radars and associated computers. Here the hands 68

become chilled and stiff and incapable of fine manipulations after a while. Occasionally soldiers are exposed on open vehicles and self- propelled weapons, such as the M-56, full-tracked, 90 mm Howitzer, and may be subjected to high wind chills while the vehicle or weapon is in motion. For these special conditions we are developing auxiliary heating devices. It is expected that these will significantly increase the efficiency of man/machine systems in the cold and enable men to perform missions with the present cold weather clothing which could not otherwise be done. Chamber studies already completed, using electrically wired socks and handgear powered by an 8-lb rechargeable battery vest, have shown that the heat furnished will eliminate ex- cessive chill of the extremities under cold weather conditions for an indefinite period. The successful development of a practical field auxiliary heating system depends principally upon the development of a miniaturized thermostatic control system of high reliability. Pres- ently available systems have the limitation of being either too large to provide reliable control of temperature at the critical points or of being delicate, laboratory-type potentiometers. The problem of the protection of the face and head area in the Arctic remains to be solved. All of the conventional approaches which work well for civilians, including the use of well-engineered fur ruffs around the hood to insure proper fit and functioning, fall down when the full military requirements are added to them. The natural furs are flame and thermal hazards and can be readily contaminated with chemical warfare agents. The close-fitting hood is not compatible with the helmet as it makes it unstable. Face protection in Arctic areas reduces seeing and wearing ability, both of which are of the utmost importance from a military standpoint; and the force of the wind, which causes the eyes to water or the cheeks to freeze, neces- sitates the kind of face protection which will accomplish something none has done so far. While there is much more that could be said to reflect the improve- ments being made in cold climate clothing to increase the capability of man living in the Arctic, it would probably be well at this point to summarize briefly the lines along which we feel future research and development would be fruitful. We would suggest three such lines: one in the area which we refer to as the biophysics of clothing; a second in the science of functional clothing design; and, third, ma- terials research, exploiting the present tremendous capabilities of the textile industries for providing specific properties in textile fibers. The biophysics of clothing is significant today because it is an inter- disciplinary approach (physiology, psychology, physics, clothing de- sign, and textile science) which relates the human work efficiency and comfort to the military task in a particular environment. In earlier efforts to apply the principles of science to clothing develop- 64

ment, we looked to the physiologist for information about the man and to the climatologist for knowledge of the environment. However, little or nothing was known about the physics of how clothing materials interacted with each other or with the complex man-clothing-environ- ment system. Moreover, experimental measurements were made almost entirely under "steady state" conditions for simplicity and reduction of the number of variables. Using the comprehensive bio- physical approach, the end product should be a clothing system in which all of the elements—man, environment, and clothing—are com- patibly related. In 1947 Dr. Harwood Belding measured the decrease in effective insulation with movement in the Arctic clothing of that time. Work in recent years has been concentrated on developing a quantitative understanding of the physical mechanisms involved so that clothing can be designed that optimizes the balance between static and dynamic insulating efficiencies. A specific problem here is that of minimizing the rate of heat loss when the activity level is low and of increasing the rate of heat loss as the activity level rises. Studies conducted by the Harris Research Laboratory on the effects of spacing dimensions in body clothing in relation to body activity have pointed a way toward controlling the rate of air movement within the clothing system when the man becomes active, through con- trolling, in turn, the spacing factors in the clothing system. These studies of the effects of relative movement of the body and the clothing have revealed that motion, per se, does not necessarily result in ventilation. It may result merely in mixing of the air between the body and the clothing. However, where sizable temperature differences exist between spaced layers of clothing, as would be the case in an Arctic winter environment, this mixing effect could be expected to transport relatively warm moisture-ladened air to the cold side where the moisture will condense, drying the air. Further mixing of this air with air close to the body would result in further evaporation, and this cycle would be repeated with every movement. Application of these new concepts to Arctic clothing might largely eliminate the overheating problem in the Arctic. Such an approach, if successful, would, indeed, be significant in dealing with what is perhaps the most critical problem in the use of mass produced textiles for Arctic clothing. Related to this biophysical approach is what we refer to as the science of functional clothing design. Its concepts will largely stem from biophysical studies, but its application will require the con- version of the clothing designer's art into science. In one sense, we can think of this transition as in the same state today that the engi- neering of textile materials was twenty years ago or environmental physiology thirty years ago. Thus, a year ago, a kinesiological analysis of clothing at Springfield 65

College revealed a simple method for determining the increase in five critical dimensions in clothing as a function of postural changes from the position of "attention." Thus, the clothing designer could have specific information on how much "extra" material was required to accommodate the shape and volume changes of selected body- regions as a function of changes in position. Furthermore, it was a technique which could be applied for obtaining any further dimensions of this type. It will be apparent that the study is particularly valuable because it obviates the difficulties which are inherent in dynamic anthropometry and shows how such data can be translated into the specific elements of clothing design by measuring directly what happens in the clothing itself. Such a study shows how the non-verbal art of the designer can be converted into a form that can be com- municated to the physiologists and vice versa. In the matter of textile materials research, it would be difficult to overstate the challenge and the opportunities which lie ahead. The textile and clothing industries are presently in a period of the most profound change that they have ever known. The rate of development of new fibers and textile finishes is more rapid today than ever before. The number of possible combinations of these fibers with each other, with the application of functional finishes on top of that, is literally staggering. Determination of how they may serve military uses still lies before us, and the capabilities of the synthetic fiber makers to produce still new fibers having quite different properties from any presently available, and for natural fiber modifications, which may have significant military application, represents a dramatic potential for military clothing. We need look only at the launching of isotactic polypropylene just four years ago and realize that within that small period five fiber producers in this country are now actually in quantity production of this new fiber to appreciate how fast this kaleidoscopic picture of textile fibers is changing. Since these new fibers have significantly different characteristics, their utility for any particular use cannot be pre-supposed based upon simple analogy, one to another. In fact, even their strength characteristics differ widely depending upon the rate of loading or speed of impact. How these new fibers may assist in providing cold climate pro- tection may be judged in part by their moisture absorption char- acteristics. Among the principles developed by Dr. Siple in the report previously referred to, was the need for dealing with the problem of body moisture arising both from insensible perspiration and from high levels of activity. Even after providing for adjustability of the clothing and effective venting, there is still a volume of body moisture, up to 35 g/sq m/hr, which must be dealt with. A recent finding of our laboratory has shown that by moving from the use of fibers in a woven fabric structure to fibers in a lightweight batt, quilted between two layers of very thin cloth, we have been able to achieve thickness 66

of entrapped air at lower weight per unit of insulation than in any previously developed system. Fortunately, the batts we are working with show good stability to laundering, which is, of course, a requisite in our clothing. This batt has shown a very interesting property. Because of its low level of moisture absorption, body moisture created by high levels of activity passes readily through it to the outer air instead of being absorbed and thereby adding to the body the heat of moisture absorption with subsequent reduction of the insulating value of the insulant. There is the need for multi-functionality in the military clothing system of the future to deal both with the natural environment and the enemy-imposed environment; the technological developments and new fibers afford possibilities for combinations of fibers having different properties to achieve such multi-functional characteristics. By studies of the biophysics of clothing, we expect to be able to interpret the impact of combinations of fibers and multi-functional finishes in the achievement of the over-all protective shield for the soldier and of his over-all clothing system. Since our principal military opponent is itself situated largely above the Arctic Circle, with literally millions of people today living in Arctic and sub-Arctic areas, it must be expected that they will have at least an equal or larger interest in enhancing the capabilities of man living in the Arctic. This interest applies to their civilian popu- lation as well as for their military forces. Furthermore, in view of their already demonstrated progress in textile science engineering, there is no doubt that they have the potential for producing new materials and materials systems which will further enhance their capabilities in providing efficient clothing for their Arctic population. That they recognize this important potential is evidenced by their recent appointment of Professor A. N. Nesmeyanov, the discoverer of their new fiber, "Enant," a type of nylon polymer more heat stable than any presently available in the Western world, as the president of the Russian Academy of Sciences. If we are to continue to make progress in research in this field and in enhancing the efficiency of our soldiers through improved cold climatic clothing, we also shall need to regard this area of research and development as one of major importance for the future of our national defense. CHAIRMAN REED: Ladies and gentlemen, the title of our next paper is "Arctic Rations". The speaker is also from the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command. He is the Research Director of the Environmental Protection Division of that Command. Dr. Austin Henschel. 67

ARCTIC RATIONS AUSTIN HENSCHEL Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command Natick, Massachusetts Existing in a cold climate is difficult whether one is there by choice as a native or by necessity as a soldier. A great deal of effort has gone into seeking ways and means to make it just a bit easier to get along in the cold. Food has not been overlooked in this search. Food takes on a special significance in cold climates because of the need for the internal generation of body heat to keep warm. Food is ultimately the only source of this energy. When one is in Arctic areas, food is frequently not readily obtained—there are no supermarkets every few miles. It is necessary to carry one's total supply along or depend upon hunting and fishing skill and the abundance of game and fish. In the winter season living off the land in the far north can be a precarious business. Because food is so vital to survival in cold climates, everyone soon becomes a nutrition expert. The success or failure of each venture becomes associated with the type and amount of food that is eaten. As a result food theories for cold climates has become infiltrated with folklore, fads, fancy, and a little common sense. Sifting out the common sense has not been easy. The Army and the Quartermaster Corps have been at it since early in World War II. In general the sifting has been directed along the following three major lines: 1) the total amount of calories needed each day, 2) the nutrient composition of this ration, and 3) the value of supplementing the ration with special substances. I shall briefly review the research (both in the laboratory and in the field) that has been conducted in these three areas and, on the basis of this research, shall state what I believe is our position today. These opinions are based on my interpretation of the evidence. The evidence may well lead many of you to reach other conclusions. First I should like to dispose of pemmican. A survey of Arctic literature showed that men did not thrive for long periods on pem- mican alone. When pemmican was used, it served as a meat item and was supplemented with such items as biscuits, parched corn, oatmeal, sugar, and tea. Both Peary and Scott used pemmican, but not alone. Many varieties of pemmican were made and field tested early in World War II. None was found acceptable. By 1944 on the basis of the many trials, it was recommended that the concept of using pem- mican as a sole or chief constituent of an Army ration be abandoned. Even after this recommendation was made, many test subjects went through the horrors of trying to live on pemmican for a few days. By the end of World War II, pemmican had been, if not abandoned, at least ignored as an item in the Army Arctic ration. Early in World War II the planning of rations for use in the 68

Arctic became of concern because of the alarming lack of satisfactory scientific data on nutritional requirements in the cold. There were a lot of individual experiences and lore, but these hardly sufficed as a basis upon which to develop a satisfactory Arctic ration. Tall tales about the astonishing food intakes of 7000 calories or more per day were believed or half believed by many. Nevertheless these tales were retold as facts. On the face of it, it seemed to make sense that more fuel would be needed in cold weather to keep the stove warm. The field ration trials in New Brunswick in the fall of 1942 showed that "caloric deficiency quickly produced deterioration in performance and morale of trained soldiers" and added urgency to the development of an adequate Arctic ration. Since 1944 seven major Arctic ration trials have been run. The three studies in 1944, 1945, and 1947 pointed out the need for a high calorie Arctic ration, about 5000 calories per day. This amount represents l1/^ rations per man per day. The four studies in 1948, 1950, 1954, and 1956 indicated that two-thirds of that amount or about 3500 calories per day is adequate. What is the explanation for this difference? For one thing, no two studies were exactly alike—weather differed, activities and work level differed, rations differed, methods for measuring food intake differed, changes in body weight were recorded in some studies and not in others. In all these studies the men were allowed at least one full ration. At the end of all these studies (whether of 10 days or 3 months duration), the men were in excellent physical condition. All rations seemed to be providing sufficient calories and nutrients. Let me briefly describe the conditions of these studies. In the 1944 winter study at Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, each trial ran 10 days. The men lived in the open and used two-man tents and sleeping bags at night. In addition to attack, defense, and withdrawal maneuvers, they carried and hauled all their gear 45 to 65 miles during the 10 days. There is no doubt that they worked hard. Some nights the weather was cold (-38°F). The 1945 study was a mechanized 3400 mile trip through the Arctic from February to May. From Fort Churchill on Hudson Bay the group went north to Denmark Bay above the Arctic Circle, then west to Norman, and then south to Edmonton. Forty-eight men made the trip in snowmobiles, 4 men to a vehicle. Supplies were air-dropped to them. During the first two-thirds of the journey, temperatures in the vehicles were about 0°F. At night tents were pitched and sleeping bags used. About 5000 calories per day were furnished to each man; 4500 calories were consumed. Except for carbon monoxide poisoning during the first part of the trip, everyone was in good condition. Physical work was not excessive, but the vehicles were on the move for long periods each day. The winter 1947-48 study at Fort Churchill was really only a mess survey. Food intakes were recorded on about 100 men for a ten-day 69

period in early winter, mid-winter, and late winter. Activities of the men differed and were not controlled, but were without doubt not excessively strenuous. Food intakes varied from about 5300 to 5700 calories per day and correlated very nicely with windchill values. In 1947-48 food intakes and energy requirements in the fall at Fort Knox, Kentucky, and in the winter at Fort Churchill were compared using the same group of subjects and a set routine of activity under bivouac conditions. The men were exposed to severe winter conditions at Fort Churchill. Food requirements were similar in both the tem- perate and Arctic trials. At the end of 14 days the men were in ex- cellent condition. Food intakes (C rations) were about 4000 calories per day. At Ladd Field in 1950 no winter-summer differences in food intakes were found for infantry, Air Force personnel, or native Eskimos. Infantry men consumed about 3200 calories per day; Air Force per- sonnel, 3000 calories per day; and Eskimos, 3100 calories per day. Previously it was found that trappers in Greenland ate about 2800 calories per day. Another moving bivouac series of studies at Fort Churchill during mid-winter conditions were conducted in 1956. The men were exposed to both very cold weather and hard work. Calorie needs were found to be 4100 calories per day. After correction for body weight loss, actual intakes were about 3800 calories per day. No relationship was found between air temperature and calorie intakes. Two recent studies, one in the field at Fort Churchill and one in the climatic chambers here, showed that men kept 24 hours a day in a room held at 50 °F needed more calories than men in a room held at 70° to 75 °F. The increase was from 250 to 350 calories per man per day in both studies. Men in the 50°F situation were cold much of the time and shivered a great deal or exercised to keep warm. This increased muscular activity accounted for the extra calorie needs. A common belief is the need for high fat intakes in the cold. There has been some evidence from animal studies indicating this need. However, in all the ration studies reviewed, there was no sign of "fat hunger." The fat content of the diets were constant. On the average about 40% of the calories we consume come from fat. This is true for both our civilian and military populations. In most other countries the percentage is lower; in a few places, higher. The present Arctic ration appears to be adequate both in com- position and in amount for most situations. One must bear in mind that the amount of food needed is proportional to physical expendi- ture—an intake-output relationship. Nevertheless, food can be used to enhance night-time comfort in a cold environment. Eating a snack or light meal just before crawling into the sleeping bag will increase the length of sleep one can get before being awakened by the cold. Under controlled conditions of — 30°F (climatic chamber), test subjects got between 1 to l1/^ hours more sleep when given a 500 calorie meal just before retiring. Whether 70

this meal was a saved portion of the day's ration or an extra supple- ment made little difference. The beneficial effect of this repast makes scientific sense because heat output is significantly increased for a few hours after a meal regardless of the environment. In the cold this extra heat serves a useful purpose. The search for special nutrients which would increase man's cold tolerance has been rather disappointing. In some laboratory animals, high vitamin C intakes would increase resistance to cold. Unfortu- nately, the results did not carry over to man. Supplementing the regular Army ration with vitamin C did not prove beneficial. No other special substances tried so far have increased man's resistance to cold. I shall conclude with the general statement that since 1940 several types of field rations have been developed, modified, and improved. It may be possible to make them more tasty, more acceptable, and more convenient to supply and use, but nutritionally they appear to adequately meet man's needs for all environments. CHAIRMAN REED: The final speaker today is Dr. W. Robison also of the Environ- mental Protection Research Division of the Quartermaster Research and Engi- neering Command. His subject is "Quartermaster Environmental Research in the Arctic". Dr. Robison. QUARTERMASTER ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH IN THE ARCTIC WILLIAM C. ROBISON Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command Natick, Massachusetts Introduction In addition to the problems of human physiology and personal protection that have been discussed in the previous papers, the Quartermaster Corps has done a considerable amount of research on the Arctic environment itself. This research has been carried on under the Quartermaster General's assigned cognizance for research and development within the Department of the Army in the field of Applied Environmental Research. This mission can best be under- stood in the light of the definition for Applied Environmental Re- search as given in the General Staff Memorandum (dated 10 June 1949) in which primary cognizance for the field was assigned to the Quartermaster General: "the collation of statistical, meteorological, climatic, and geographical data as accumulated by the responsible agencies, the interpretation of these data, and the presenta- tion of the evaluated information in suitable form for application by appropriate agencies to logistics problems of equipment, personnel and operational functions." 71

The assignment specifically excludes the field of snow, ice and permafrost, for which the Chief of Engineers has primary responsi- bility. Nor are we engaged in the collection of meteorological data except in the course of specific environmental tests and studies, although our mission frequently requires the interpretation and presentation of data supplied by the Signal Corps, Weather Bureau, and Air Weather Service as well as data obtained from published sources. Other branches of geophysics such as geomagnetism, tec- tonics, auroras, and oceanography are similarly outside the scope of our activities. The broad field that remains within the Quartermaster cognizance for Applied Environmental Research includes the study of various aspects of climate, terrain, and vegetation to the extent that these have a demonstrable relation to military problems of equipment, personnel, and operational functions. As most of these studies are essentially geographical, the results are often presented in the form of maps on which the distributional aspects of environmental phe- nomena are shown. It is apparent that our activities are not limited to problems of interest only to the Quartermaster Corps but rather that we offer service to all elements of the Army. It often happens that environmental data that we have assembled and analyzed for a specific purpose of the Quartermaster Corps or some other technical service are found to meet an unrelated need of some other service. For example, a compilation of the most recent temperature data for northern North America, where most of the stations have not been operating very long, was made at the request of Signal Corps for use in determining areas where cold might hamper the functioning of storage batteries; this information was found to meet so many other needs that two printings of the report were exhausted. It might be noted at this point that the Quartermaster program in Applied Environmental Research is designed to meet two types of requirement. First, studies are conducted in response to requests for specific types of information needed for the solution of particular problems presented by various elements of the Quartermaster Corps or other technical services. Sometimes we have the information already at hand for a quick answer; at other times research is re- quired to obtain the answer. Second, studies of a more long-range nature are conducted to anticipate future requirements and requests for information. History of Environmental Research in the Quartermaster Corps Prior to and during World War II, the environmental research conducted by the Quartermaster Corps was almost entirely concerned with the testing and issue of various items of supply. The exigencies of the war allowed little time for the type of research that is con- ducted today. In those days the published reports of the forerunners 72

of the Environmental Protection Research Division dealt entirely with tests, in the field or in cold chambers, of various items of clothing, rations, and field equipment. It was not until 1947 that the first Quartermaster report on the environment as such was published. In that same year a project designated "Study of Environmental Factors of Arctic Regions" was approved by the Quartermaster Corps Technical Committee and the War Department General Staff, officially recognizing Quartermaster's concern with the study of Arctic en- vironments. However, mapping of climatic regions of the world— including the Arctic—as a basis for issuance of Army uniforms was started even before the United States became actively engaged in World War II. Dr. Siple was appointed consultant to the Quarter- master Corps in the summer of 1941. One of the first studies under- taken at his instigation was the preparation of a series of maps showing temperature variations in Arctic regions. When the Clima- tology Unit was established in the Office of the Quartermaster General it prepared a series of Climate Zone maps showing conditions in each continent by months. These maps, which were published in 1943 by the Army Map Service, have found wide use not only within the Quarter- master Corps but more recently as an instructional aid in many universities. Between the end of World War II and the consolidation of Quarter- master research activities here at Natick in 1953, the wartime dis- persal of activities continued—research on man's responses to the environment being conducted primarily at the Climatic Research Laboratory in Lawrence, Massachusetts, and research on the environ- ment itself carried on by geographers and climatologists in Washing- ton and nearby Cameron Station, Virginia. Since 1953 these activities have all been included in the program of the Environmental Protec- tion Research Division at Natick. Both before and since the move to Natick a substantial part of the program was carried on under con- tract by various universities and other research institutions. In the Quartermaster program of environmental research no sharp distinction is made between regions such as the Arctic and sub-Arctic. For administrative convenience our regional research activities are divided into a Polar and Mountain Section and a Tropic and Desert Section, but we recognize that there are deserts in the Arctic and there are cold mountains in the Tropics. Since our primary concern is with extreme environments, the Arctic and sub-Arctic have always received a considerable amount of attention in our program, but the emphasis has been on the distribution of cold environments wherever they occur. It has often been our policy to study particular elements of the environment (e.g., frequency of occurrence of given tempera- tures or the distribution of certain types of terrain) regardless of whether they exist in a particular geographical region. Thus our "cold environments" projects have included studies of such nearby places as Mt. Washington, New Hampshire, and Devils Lake, North 78

Dakota, both of which have a seasonally "Artie" environment. Furthermore, many projects such as the Climate Zone maps have been developed on a continental or hemispheric basis. The environmental studies that have been completed by the Quar- termaster Corps fall into several categories. Between 1945 and 1951 a series of reports was prepared to show areas and months where specific items of clothing would be required. These were known as "clothing almanacs," and Arctic regions were included in those for Alaska, Greenland, the USSR, Northern Europe, and Canada. Studies of the total natural environment have been made for cer- tain areas that are used by the Department of the Army for testing of materiel. Arctic and sub-Arctic sites for which such studies have been conducted include Fort Greely, Fort Churchill, and Thule, Green- land. A related research program that has been essentially completed is the delineation of areas that are climatically analogous, with respect to one or more elements, with the more intensively used test sites. For cold regions, separate studies were made of northern North America and northern Eurasia to determine the degree to which Fort Churchill and Fort Greely can be said to respresent those regions. The environment of Greenland has received special attention in a series of regional studies of which the first—on Southeast Green- land—is now being printed. Other aspects of our Arctic research pro- gram that are still continuing will perhaps be more appropriately considered in connection with two over-all objectives: 1) the delimita- tion of areas according to their degree of cold stress, and 2) the delimitation of areas presenting special problems associated with terrain. Determination of Cold Stress Since extreme cold is the cause of many of the chief problems en- countered by the Quartermaster Corps as well as other technical services in the Arctic—whether they are concerned with protection of the soldier or the functioning of a weapon or item of equipment—a large part of our environmental research is concerned with ways of representing the distribution, occurrence, and intensity of cold con- ditions. The first zonation of the world which the Quartermaster Corps used as a basis for issue of clothing was based largely on the distribution of mean monthly temperatures. Although such means can have considerable value when properly interpreted, they obviously do not fully indicate the requirements for protection from cold in a given area. More recently, areas of clothing issue have been based on the occurrence of minimum rather than mean temperatures, as a more realistic measure of cold stress. Other more sophisticated measures are also being used by our climatologists to show the degree of cold stress in northern regions. In some situations a useful measure is the frequency of occurrence of given temperatures, expressed in per cent. Since the determination of 74

frequencies requires either a great deal of hand labor or processing by machine-records equipment, data have heretofore not been very plentiful. However, the Quartermaster Corps now has frequency tabulations of temperature and windspeed for 343 stations in the Northern Hemisphere, most of which were tabulated for us by the Air Weather Service at the National Weather Records Center. During the current year these tabulations have been published, under con- tract, by McGill University. Climatologists at McGill are now engaged in regionalizing the frequency values, and their results will soon be published in separate atlases for North America and Eurasia. These maps will be based not only on the data tabulations available from the 343 stations but also will use estimates obtained by a method de- veloped here at Natick. This method gives reasonably accurate esti- mates of the frequency of low temperatures derived from more readily available climatic data. It illustrates one of the objectives of our research: to develop and use techniques for inferring environmental information concerning places for which field observations are not available. Not only low temperatures in themselves are important, but the occurrence of such temperatures in combination with other elements, particularly wind, is especially significant for military planning. Windchill has received considerable attention in recent years and its significance has become widely recognized. The temperature frequency tabulations already mentioned include values of windspeed in various degrees of magnitude, which can be used to approximate mean windchill. Of course, for more accurate determinations simultaneous values of windspeed and temperature are needed. A method of pre- dicting the frequency distribution of windchill, using simultaneous values over a relatively short period of record, has recently been developed here. All of the climatic measurements so far discussed can be used for comparing widely separated regions having differing local conditions because the observations are made under standard conditions that minimize the effects of local terrain, soil, vegetation, and the presence or absence of snow cover. Yet these very factors constitute a large part of the environment in which the soldier and his equipment must function. Therefore a substantial part of our program of environ- mental research consists of study of the microclimate—referred to by various authors by such names as local climate, topoclimate, and climate near the ground. The term is considered by us to refer to the study of climatic differences not shown by standard observations, differences that may in some situations be considerable. For example, under a protective insulating cover of snow, ground temperatures may be only slightly below freezing while the air temperature recorded at standard height (man-high) may be as much as 80°F lower. Even at standard height, horizontal differences between the temperature of a valley station and a nearby slope station may be on the order of 75

30 °F. Microclimatic measurements have been made by Signal Corps teams, at the request of the Quartermaster Corps, in various types of extreme environments from tropical to sub-Arctic. A very de- tailed comparison of the microclimate of two points near Fort Greely, Alaska—one wooded and the other in a clearing—was made by a Quartermaster investigator with the cooperation of the Signal Corps. Some of the most intensive observations of this type that have been made in cold environments were those taken by one of our staff mem- bers during two years in the Antarctic. When the analysis of these data is completed it is expected to show relationships that will also be applicable to situations in the Arctic. It is hoped that when such studies are available for representative types of cold environments it will be possible to predict the type of climate that will be found near the ground in a given locality when the macroclimate and conditions of terrain are known. Terrain Problems in Northern Regions Surface conditions in the Arctic and sub-Arctic offer a contrast to climate in their relation to military activities in that they become a special problem chiefly in summer rather than in winter. Therefore the Quartermaster has a year-round interest in problems of northern environments. Under our cognizance for Applied Environmental Re- search we recently undertook, at the request of the Transportation Corps, an investigation of the problem of muskeg as an obstacle to military movement in the North. This is a subject of great importance to the Army, though as yet it has not been intensively studied in its geographical aspects. However, a knowledge of where and when difficult surface conditions exist is necessary for planning an ade- quate capability for year-round overland movement in the North. In recent years muskeg has been increasingly studied by engineers and botanists in Canada, but even the Canadian researches fall far short of the effort that is expended in this field in Russia. To illustrate, the Peat Institute at Moscow is said to have a full-time staff of 400 and about a thousand students. By comparison our efforts seem rather meager, but a start has been made by reviewing the state of knowl- edge of muskeg and other organic terrains and determining some desirable directions for future research. The study of military aspects of muskeg involves questions of photo-interpretation, plant ecology, effects of human activities, and relations of bogs to climate and permafrost, offering a wide scope for interdisciplinary research. Like vegetation, the animal life of a region bears a close relation- ship to its terrain. And like the problems of soft terrain, some types of Arctic fauna, especially insects, constitute a problem peculiar to the summertime. This summer situation is associated with the poor drainage that characterizes much of the Arctic, which thus shares certain problems usually regarded as characteristically tropical. Quartermaster investigations of the problem of insects in the Arctic 76

go back to a study that was conducted in 1949 on "weather and Alaskan insects." This was followed by preparation of a compre- hensive bibliography on the relation of mosquitoes to vegetation on the Eurasian Arctic and sub-Arctic. Since then a long-range program for the study of the geographical distribution of insects and related organisms has been undertaken by Cornell University under a Quartermaster contract. Although not primarily an Arctic study, portions covering Alaska and Canada have been completed with tabulations of the distribution, habitat, and period of activity of all of the species known to affect man. A similar treatment for Green- land and adjacent islands is planned. One additional aspect of Arctic terrain should be mentioned here. The distinctive terrain type presented by glaciers, while not limited to the Arctic, is found most commonly in northern regions. A compre- hensive study of the geographical distribution of glaciers in the Northern Hemisphere was sponsored by the Quartermaster Corps and conducted by the American Geographical Society. The result is a definitive work, including maps and bibliographies, summarizing the known information on this subject. Conclusion In conclusion it should be pointed out that I have not attempted to cover every phase of the research that the Quartermaster Corps has conducted in Arctic environments, but rather I have outlined the major programs or areas of investigation with which we have been concerned and the nature of our results so far. I would like to stress again the interservice nature of many of our efforts in this field, in- volving close cooperation between the Quartermaster Corps and the Signal Corps, Transportation Corps, Corps of Engineers, Air Force, and other agencies of the Defense Establishment. Quartermaster geographers and climatologists have participated in operations sponsored by the Air Force and other technical services of the Army, as well as in projects that were planned for the testing of Quarter- master items. It is apparent from the foregoing remarks that the field of Applied Environmental Research in the Arctic offers a wide scope for re- search activities, requiring a flexible approach to meet the changing needs of the Army. By continuing re-examination of our program in the light of these needs, we hope to make a maximum contribution to the efficiency and capability of military units living and operating in the Arctic. 77

Next: SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES TO SOLVING THE PROBLEMS OF MAN LIVING IN THE ARCTIC »
Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960 Get This Book
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Recent expansion in polar interest has increased the requirements for improved living conditions, food, clothing, and shelter. Solutions, once considered adequate because of their substantial advance over current standards, had to be re-examined in due course for deficiencies. Garments and equipment which required that men be extensively trained in their safe, efficient use or needed elaborate care and maintenance in order to provide optimum protection often were too troublesome or dangerous. New knowledge of human physiological and psychological requirements and adjustments suggested new means of preparing for Arctic living. New materials and devices made new approaches possible. Therefore, the concept of a conference to discuss Man Living in the Arctic was considered desirable by the Army, the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Advisory Board on Quartermaster Research and Development, and The Arctic Institute of North America. Man Living in the Arctic; Proceedings of a Conference, Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, 1, 2 December 1960 is a summary of that conference. This report honors the contributions of our Arctic pioneers, takes stock of our present capabilities, and looks forward to the military and civilian needs of the future. In contrast to the former concept of the Arctic as a hostile wasteland, avoided by all but bold adventurers, this report promotes the idea that we are striving for continued advance of man's successful conquest of an area of the world that will sometime be a populated and essential part of man's habitat.

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