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Suggested Citation:"Appendix 1: Research Problems and Needs." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1962. Renewable Resources: A Report to the Committee on Natural Resources of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18451.
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Page 107
Suggested Citation:"Appendix 1: Research Problems and Needs." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1962. Renewable Resources: A Report to the Committee on Natural Resources of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18451.
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Page 108
Suggested Citation:"Appendix 1: Research Problems and Needs." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1962. Renewable Resources: A Report to the Committee on Natural Resources of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18451.
×
Page 109
Suggested Citation:"Appendix 1: Research Problems and Needs." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1962. Renewable Resources: A Report to the Committee on Natural Resources of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18451.
×
Page 110
Suggested Citation:"Appendix 1: Research Problems and Needs." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1962. Renewable Resources: A Report to the Committee on Natural Resources of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18451.
×
Page 111
Suggested Citation:"Appendix 1: Research Problems and Needs." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1962. Renewable Resources: A Report to the Committee on Natural Resources of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18451.
×
Page 112
Suggested Citation:"Appendix 1: Research Problems and Needs." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1962. Renewable Resources: A Report to the Committee on Natural Resources of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18451.
×
Page 113
Suggested Citation:"Appendix 1: Research Problems and Needs." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1962. Renewable Resources: A Report to the Committee on Natural Resources of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18451.
×
Page 114
Suggested Citation:"Appendix 1: Research Problems and Needs." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 1962. Renewable Resources: A Report to the Committee on Natural Resources of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18451.
×
Page 115

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APPENDIX I ABBREVIATED INDEX OF PROBLEMS AND RESEARCH NEEDS IDENTIFIED IN THE CONFERENCE I. PRESENT SITUATION (Including unsolved questions and inadequacies) (1) Need to estimate world needs (White, p. 105) (2) Need to establish a ''posture" (Irving, p. 99) (3) Need to assess human resources (Pike, p. 106) (4) Need to allocate human effort as a resource (Schaefer, p. 102) (5) Youth burden in developing countries (Notestein, P- 96) (6) Failure to exploit what we know already (Hubbert, p. 106) (A) Nutritional Aspects (a) Energy, plant growth, ocean products (1) Optimum distribution of crop plants (Went, p. 46) (2) Need additional information on aspects of plant growth (Allaway, p. 20) (3) Problem of dissipation of incident energy (Russell, p. 56) (4) Unproductive character of oceans (Went, p. 46) (5) Irregularity of water supply (Thornthwaite, p. 56) (b) Efficiency of conversion - livestock, algae (1) Efficiency of livestock production (Byerly, p. 24) (2) Relative efficiencies of algae cultures (Allaway, p. 23, 23) -107-

(c) Nutritional problems (1) Kwashiorkor problem (Sebrell, p. 79) (2) Sources of supplementary protein (Sebrell, p. 79) (3) Manioc (Sebrell, p. 80) (4) Vitamin deficiencies (Sebrell, p. 89) (d) Genetic sources (1) Need for maintaining germ plasm (Byerly, p. 28) (2) Need for comparative genetics (Swanson, p. 45) (e) Pests and diseases (1) Plant diseases (Stevens, p. 71) (2) Pests and diseases of livestock (Byerly, p. 29) (3) Insect pests (Decker, p. 73) (4) Insect control (Decker, p. 102) (5) Biological control of insects (Weiss, et al, p. 89) (6) Dev. of susceptible races of man (Decker, p. 101) (B) Fibers, Materials, etc. (a) Wood needs and sources (1) Timber resources (Korstian, p. 32) (2) Demand for wood products (Harper, p. 84) (3) Utilization problem, wood wastes (Harper, p. 86) (4) Lignin problem (Harper, p. 86) (b) Agricultural commodities, hides (1) Use of agricultural products in industry (Irving, p. 45) (2) Demands for agricultural products (Irving, p. 35) (3) Surplus hides problem (Irving, p. 43) (c) Artificial fibers (1) Consumption of artificial fibers (Mark, p. 87) (2) Research aims, artificial fibers (Mark, p. 88) -108-

(C) Soils, Atmosphere, etc. (a) General (1) Continuing exploitation (Russell, p. 66) (Z) Reversible and irreversible (Russell, p. 66) (b) Trace elements (1) Trace element problem (Russell, et al, p. 91) (2) Problems relative to intensive grazing (^llaway, p. 22,23) (c) Nitrates (1) Soil nitrate levels (Byerly, Russell, p. 22,23) (D) Processing, Handling, Management (a) Food storage and waste (1) Food storage and waste (Newton, p. 82) (b) Forage utilization (1) Materials handling of forage (Byerly, pp. 30, 104) (c) Agricultural and industrial wastes - high temperature mutants (1) Peacetime utilization of agricultural wastes (Bryson, p. 65) (2) Heat-resistant mutants (Allaway, Bryson, p. 65) (d) Timber management - tropical forests - multiple use (1) Management of tropical forests (Pike, Harper, p. 46) (2) Private small holdings of timber (Korstian, p. 33) (3) Slash and burn husbandry of tropics (Deevey, p. 51) (4) Multiple use in forested lands (Korstian, p. 33) -109-

(E) Political Considerations (a) Government responsibility (1) Wastefulness of peasant economy (Notestein, p. 95) (2) Need for quick, low-capital measures (Notestein, P. 95} (3) Dangers of premature interdependencies (Notestein, P- 95) (b) Use policy (1) Attitudes favoring initial exploitation of rich resources (Bronk, p. 99) (2) Conservation of rich resources (Notestein, p. 95) (3) Distribution of surpluses (Sebrell, p. 80) (4) Land use and national policy (Spilhaus, Bronk, p. 70) (5) Industrial pressures on fish and wildlife programs (Redfield, p. 58) (6) Obstacles to application of known measures in India (Byerly, p. 31) (c) Research support (1) De-emphasis of life sciences vis-a-vis space race (Allaway, p. 97) (2) Domination of crop ecology by land agencies (Allaway, p. 21) (3) Plight of taxonomy (Allaway, p. 21; Decker, p. 103) (4) Prejudice in granting agencies (Swanson, et al, p. 66) (d) International aspects (1) Legislation quarantining livestock (Byerly, p. 29) (2) International nature of disease problems (Byerly, p. 29) (F) Education, Information, Public Understanding (a) Schools (agricultural, forestry, medical, veterinary medicine) -110-

(1) Plight of the agricultural schools (Russell, et al, p. 68) (2) Teaching emphasis in forestry schools (Harper, p. 86, 87) (3) Medical school curricula (Bronk, et al, p. 92) (4) Education lack in developing countries (Sebrell, p. 80) (5) Nutrition training and education in U.S. (Sebrell, P- 81) (6) Educational background of foreign visitors (Bronk, Russell, p. 70) (7) Research in schools of veterinary medicine (Byerly, p. 28) (b) Information, lists, stocks (1) Need for inventory of resources in microbiology (Bryson, p. 61) (2) Catalogs and repositories (Bryson, p. 61) (c) Public understanding (1) Public understanding of resource issues (Hubbert, et al, p. 69) (2) Public understanding (Sebrell, et al, p. 92) (3) Popularization of ecology concept (Redfield, p. 57,58) (4) Need to abandon expansionist view (Redfield, p. 57, 58) (5) .Adoption of exotic diet items (Sebrell, p. 64) (d) Integrative view, research patterns (1) How persuade to integrative view (Hubbert, p. 106) (2) How promote image of science (Revelle, p. 101) (3) How move people into synthetic aspects (Revelle, p. 101) (4) Intensive character of the doctoral research (Bronk, et al, p. 98,99) (5) Obstacles to synthesizing (Bronk, et al, p. 99) (6) Over-refinement of research techniques (Bryson, p. 31; Bronk, p. 31) -111-

II. FUTURE NEEDS AND CHANGING PROSPECTS (1) Stockpiling of "useless" materials (Pike, p. 100) (2) Stress phenomena with over-population (Deevey, p. 52) (A) Nutritional Aspects (a) Animal-plant shift (1) Shifts to plant materials in diet (Allaway, p. 21) (2) Safety factor in animal foods (Allaway, p. 21) (b) Protein supplements (1) Proteins from fish meal and flour (Schaefer, et al, P. 90) (2) Recovery of protein from other sources (Sebrell, p. 79) (3) Fish as a protein source for developing countries (Schaefer, p. 102) (c) Augmented supplies, conversion, seashore (1) Feed conversion by livestock (Byerly, p. 30) (2) Seashore resources (Redfield, p. 57) (d) Germ plasm (1) Need for comparative genetics (Swanson, p. 60) (2) Preservation of germ plasm (Swanson, p. 59) (e) Pest control (1) Microorganisms in pest control (Weiss, et al, p. 64) (B) Fibers, Materials, etc. (a) Fibers (1) Future of cotton resources (Irving, p. 42) (2) Artificial fibers from natural products (Mark, p. 88) -112-

(3) Prospects for research in agricultural products for industry (Irving, p. 43) (b) Oil (1) Petroleum companies' interest in vegetable oils (Hubbert, p. 45) (2) Substitute oil crops (Irving, p. 44) (C) Soils, Atmosphere, etc. (1) Need for long-term implications of geochemistry (Russell, p. 98) (2) Research on release of nutrients (Russell, p. 102) (D) Processing, Handling, Management (1) Marginal activities in tandem (Redfield, p. 58) (2) Interpolation of pilot-plant phase (Decker, p. 103) (3) Biology of "urbanized" livestock production (Byerly, p. 104) III. HOW TO MEET THE NEEDS (A) Exploitation of Existing Knowledge (1) Potential food increases (Allaway, p. 20-22) (2) Utilization of microorganism conversions (Bryson, P. 61) (3) Conversions of wastes (Bryson, p. 62) (B) Amplification of Existing Knowledge (a) Existing knowledge (1) Productivity of perennial stands (Deevey, p. 52) (2) Marine biota as sources of natural products (Redfield, p. 57, 58) (3) Extension of agricultural research to non-economic species (Allaway, p. 20) -113-

(4) Physiology of resistance to environmental extremes (Allaway, p. 20-22) (b) Genetics (1) Extended research on genetics of fish and forest species (Swanson, p. 100) (2) Genetics of aging (Swanson, p. 59, 60) (3) Improved genetics in animal husbandry (Byerly, p. 27) (c) Physiology (1) Amino acid shifts during maturation (Allaway, et al, p. 22, 23) (2) Tools for lipid research (Sebrell, p. 80) (d) Soils (1) Basic data collection in soils research (Russell, p. 98) (e) Microbiology (1) Colonization of digestive system by microorganisms (Weiss, et al, p. 30-32) (2) Vertebrate cells in tissue culture (Bryson, p. 61) (C) Acquisition of Fundamental Knowledge (a) Energy conversion transpiration (1) Vegetation use, enhanced fixation (Went, p. 47) (2) Reduction of transpiration (Thornthwaite, p. 55, 56) (3) Condensation nuclei and hazes (Went, p. 50) (b) Arid and tropical communities (1) Arid and humid lands (Revelle, p. 101) (2) Tropical forests and soils (Pike, p. 106; Went, p. 50) (c) Genetic variability (1) Induction of increased variability (Allaway, p. 22) -114-

(d) Lignin (1) The lignin problem (Pike, p. 106) (e) Ecosystems (1) Archival and research value of lacustrine systems (Deevey, p. 54) (D) Education, Information, Public Understanding (a) Agriculture and forestry (1) Professional agriculturists (Byerly, Russell, p. 104) (2) Specialization of forestry school research (Korstian, p. 105) (b) Genetic information (1) Flow of genetic research to practical areas (Swanson, p. 100) (c) Interdisciplinary approach (1) Interdisciplinary analysis preceding technical assistance (Allaway, p. 97) (d) Talent distribution (1) Diversion of talent to select fields (Went, Bronk, p. 50,51) -115-

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Renewable Resources: A Report to the Committee on Natural Resources of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Get This Book
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The area of concern of the study on renewable natural resources was the total range of living organisms providing man with food, fibers, drugs, etc., for his needs, but also including hazards to his health and welfare. Renewable Resources declares no detailed problem bearing on renewable natural resources seems at present in critical need of remedial program research, and the detection and accommodation of future specific research needs should be made the concern of a separate agency to keep the field under continuous surveillance.

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